The mycosubtilin synthetase of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633: a multifunctional hybrid between a peptide synthetase, an amino transferase, and a fatty acid synthase.
ABSTRACT: Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 has been identified as a producer of mycosubtilin, a potent antifungal peptide antibiotic. Mycosubtilin, which belongs to the iturin family of lipopeptide antibiotics, is characterized by a beta-amino fatty acid moiety linked to the circular heptapeptide Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Ser-Asn, with the second, third, and sixth position present in the D-configuration. The gene cluster from B. subtilis ATCC6633 specifying the biosynthesis of mycosubtilin was identified. The putative operon spans 38 kb and consists of four ORFs, designated fenF, mycA, mycB, and mycC, with strong homologies to the family of peptide synthetases. Biochemical characterization showed that MycB specifically adenylates tyrosine, as expected for mycosubtilin synthetase, and insertional mutagenesis of the operon resulted in a mycosubtilin-negative phenotype. The mycosubtilin synthetase reveals features unique for peptide synthetases as well as for fatty acid synthases: (i) The mycosubtilin synthase subunit A (MycA) combines functional domains derived from peptide synthetases, amino transferases, and fatty acid synthases. MycA represents the first example of a natural hybrid between these enzyme families. (ii) The organization of the synthetase subunits deviates from that commonly found in peptide synthetases. On the basis of the described characteristics of the mycosubtilin synthetase, we present a model for the biosynthesis of iturin lipopeptide antibiotics. Comparison of the sequences flanking the mycosubtilin operon of B. subtilis ATCC6633, with the complete genome sequence of B. subtilis strain 168 indicates that the fengycin and mycosubtilin lipopeptide synthetase operons are exchanged between the two B. subtilis strains.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis RB14 is a producer of the antifungal lipopeptide iturin A. Using a transposon, we identified and cloned the iturin A synthetase operon of RB14, and the sequence of this operon was also determined. The iturin A operon spans a region that is more than 38 kb long and is composed of four open reading frames, ituD, ituA, ituB, and ituC. The ituD gene encodes a putative malonyl coenzyme A transacylase, whose disruption results in a specific deficiency in iturin A production. The second gene, ituA, encodes a 449-kDa protein that has three functional modules homologous to fatty acid synthetase, amino acid transferase, and peptide synthetase. The third gene, ituB, and the fourth gene, ituC, encode 609- and 297-kDa peptide synthetases that harbor four and two amino acid modules, respectively. Mycosubtilin, which is produced by B. subtilis ATCC 6633, has almost the same structure as iturin A, but the amino acids at positions 6 and 7 in the mycosubtilin sequence are D-Ser-->L-Asn, while in iturin A these amino acids are inverted (i.e., D-Asn-->L-Ser). Comparison of the amino acid sequences encoded by the iturin A operon and the mycosubtilin operon revealed that ituD, ituA, and ituB have high levels of homology to the counterpart genes fenF (79%), mycA (79%), and mycB (79%), respectively. Although the overall level of homology of the amino acid sequences encoded by ituC and mycC, the counterpart of ituC, is relatively low (64%), which indicates that there is a difference in the amino acid sequences of the two lipopeptides, the levels of homology between the putative serine adenylation domains and between the asparagine adenylation domains in the two synthetases are high (79 and 80%, respectively), implying that there is an intragenic domain change in the synthetases. The fact that the flanking sequence of the iturin A synthetase coding region was highly homologous to the flanking sequence that of xynD of B. subtilis 168 and the fact that the promoter of the iturin A operon which we identified was also conserved in an upstream sequence of xynD imply that horizontal transfer of this operon occurred. When the promoter was replaced by the repU promoter of the plasmid pUB110 replication protein, production of iturin A increased threefold.
Project description:Natural isolates of Bacillus subtilis are often difficult to transform due to their low genetic competence levels. Here we describe two methods that stimulate natural transformation. The first method uses plasmid pGSP12, which expresses the competence transcription factor ComK and stimulates competence development about 100-fold. The second method stimulates Campbell-type recombination of DNA ligation mixtures in B. subtilis by the addition of polyethylene glycol. We employed these novel methods to study the regulation of the synthetases for the lipopeptide antibiotics mycosubtilin (myc) and surfactin (srfA) in B. subtilis strain ATCC 6633. By means of lacZ reporter fusions, it was shown that the expression of srfA is >100 times lower in strain ATCC 6633 than in the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168. Expression of the myc operon was highest in rich medium, whereas srfA expression reached maximal levels in minimal medium. Further genetic analyses showed that the srfA operon is mainly regulated by the response regulator ComA, while the myc operon is primarily regulated by the transition-state regulator AbrB. Although there is in vitro evidence for a synergistic activity of mycosubtilin and surfactin, the expression of both lipopeptide antibiotics is clearly not coordinated.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently one of the top lethal cancers with an increasing trend. Deregulation of MYC in HCC is frequently detected and always correlated with poor prognosis. As the zebrafish genome contains two differentially expressed zebrafish myc orthologs, myca and mycb, it remains unclear about the oncogenicity of the two zebrafish myc genes. In the present study, we developed two transgenic zebrafish lines to over-express myca and mycb respectively in the liver using a mifepristone-inducible system and found that both myc genes were oncogenic. Moreover, the transgenic expression of myca in hepatocytes caused robust liver tumors with several distinct phenotypes of variable severity. ~5% of myca transgenic fish developing multinodular HCC with cirrhosis after 8 months of induced myca expression. Apoptosis was also observed with myca expression; introduction of homozygous tp53(-/-) mutation into the myca transgenic fish reduced apoptosis and accelerated tumor progression. The malignant status of hepatocytes was dependent on continued expression of myca; withdrawal of the mifepristone inducer resulted in a rapid regression of liver tumors, and the tumor regression occurred even in the tp53(-/-) mutation background. Thus, our data demonstrated the robust oncogenicity of zebrafish myca and the requirement of sustained Myc overexpression for maintenance of the liver tumor phenotype in this transgenic model. Furthermore, tumor regression is independent of the function of Tp53.
Project description:High-level production (880 mg liter(-1)) and isolation of the anteiso-C(17) isoform of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin produced by a genetically engineered Bacillus subtilis strain are reported. Antifungal activity of this isoform, as determined via culture and fluorometric and cell leakage assays, suggests its potential therapeutic use as an antifungal agent, in particular against Candida spp.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plipastatin is a potent Bacillus antimicrobial lipopeptide with the prospect to replace conventional antifungal chemicals for controlling plant pathogens. However, the application of this lipopeptide has so far been investigated in a few cases, principally because of the yield in low concentration and unknown regulation of biosynthesis pathways. B. subtilis synthesizes plipastatin by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase encoded by the ppsABCDE operon. In this study, B. subtilis 3NA (a non-sporulation strain) was engineered to gain more insights about plipastatin mono-production. RESULTS:The 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp posttranslationally converts non-ribosomal peptide synthetases from inactive apoforms into their active holoforms. In case of 3NA strain, sfp gene is inactive. Accordingly, the first step was an integration of a repaired sfp version in 3NA to construct strain BMV9. Subsequently, plipastatin production was doubled after integration of a fully expressed degQ version from B. subtilis DSM10T strain (strain BMV10), ensuring stimulation of DegU-P regulatory pathway that positively controls the ppsABSDE operon. Moreover, markerless substitution of the comparably weak native plipastatin promoter (Ppps) against the strong constitutive promoter Pveg led to approximately fivefold enhancement of plipastatin production in BMV11 compared to BMV9. Intriguingly, combination of both repaired degQ expression and promoter exchange (Ppps::Pveg) did not increase the plipastatin yield. Afterwards, deletion of surfactin (srfAA-AD) operon by the retaining the regulatory comS which is located within srfAB and is involved in natural competence development, resulted in the loss of plipastatin production in BMV9 and significantly decreased the plipastatin production of BMV11. We also observed that supplementation of ornithine as a precursor for plipastatin formation caused higher production of plipastatin in mono-producer strains, albeit with a modified pattern of plipastatin composition. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that degQ stimulates the native plipastatin production. Moreover, a full plipastatin production requires surfactin synthetase or some of its components. Furthermore, as another conclusion of this study, results point towards ornithine provision being an indispensable constituent for a plipastatin mono-producer B. subtilis strain. Therefore, targeting the ornithine metabolic flux might be a promising strategy to further investigate and enhance plipastatin production by B. subtilis plipastatin mono-producer strains.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis subsp. krictiensis ATCC55079 produces the cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics iturin A-F as well as several surfactins. Here, we analyzed and characterized the biosynthetic genes associated with iturin and surfactin production in this strain. We aligned the sequences of each iturin and surfactin synthetase ORF obtained from a genomic library screen and next generation sequencing. The resulting 37,249-bp and 37,645-bp sequences associated with iturin and surfactin production, respectively, contained several ORFs that are predicted to encode proteins involved in iturin and surfactin biosynthesis. These ORFs showed higher sequence homologies with the respective iturin and surfactin synthetase genes of B. methylotrophicus CAU B946 than with those of B. subtilis RB14 and B. subtilis ATCC6633. Moreover, comparative analysis of the secondary metabolites produced by the wild-type and surfactin-less mutant (with a spectinomycin resistance cassette inserted into the srfAB gene within the putative surfactin gene region) strains demonstrated that the mutant strain showed significantly higher antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum than the wild-type strain. In addition, the wild-type strain-specific surfactin high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks were not observed in the surfactin-less mutant strain. In contrast, the iturin A peak detected by HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) in the surfactin-less mutant strain was 30% greater than that in the wild-type strain. These results suggested that the gene cluster we identified is involved in surfactin biosynthesis, and the biosynthetic pathways for iturin and surfactin in Bacillus strains producing both iturin and surfactin may utilize a common pathway.
Project description:A bacterial strain producing two antimicrobial peptides was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. It grew optimally up to 14% NaCl and produced antimicrobial peptide within 24 h of growth. The peptides were purified using a combination of chemical extraction and chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-TOF analysis of HPLC purified fractions revealed that the strain SK.DU.4 secreted a bacteriocin-like peptide with molecular mass of 5323.9 Da and a surface-active lipopeptide (m/z 1056 Da). The peptide mass fingerprinting of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin exhibited significant similarity with stretches of secreted lipoprotein of Methylomicrobium album BG8 and displayed 70% sequence coverage. MALDI MS/MS analysis elucidated the lipopeptide as a cyclic lipopeptide with a ?-hydroxy fatty acid linked to Ser of a peptide with seven ?-amino acids (Asp-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser) and assigned it to iturin-like group of antimicrobial biosurfactants. However, it differed in amino acid composition with other members of the iturin family. Both peptides were active against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that they had an additive effect.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis YB8 produces the lipopeptide antibiotic plipastatin. B. subtilis MI113, which is a derivative of strain 168, was converted into a new plipastatin producer, strain 406, by competence transformation with the chromosomal DNA of YB8. Transposon mini-Tn10 insertional mutagenesis was applied to strain 406, which revealed that lpa-8 (sfp) (encoding 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase) and the pps operon (located between 167 and 171 degrees ) are essential for plipastatin production. The pps operon was previously suggested to encode putative peptide synthetases (A. Tognoni, E. Franchi, C. Magistrelli, E. Colombo, P. Cosmina, and G. Grandi, Microbiology 141:645-648, 1995) and was thought to be the fengycin operon (V. Tosato, A. M. Albertini, M. Zotti, S. Sonda, and C. V. Bruschi, Microbiology 143:3443-3450, 1997). We claim that the pps operon is the pli operon, encoding plipastatin synthetase. By using a new high-performance liquid chromatography system, we revealed that strain 168 expressing only lpa-8 can also produce plipastatin, although the yield is very low. However, the introduction of the pleiotropic regulator degQ of strain YB8 into strain 168 expressing lpa-8 resulted in a 10-fold increase in the production of plipastatin.
Project description:Within the framework of biocontrol development, three natural substances produced by Bacillus subtilis, called lipopeptides, have been studied: fengycin (F), surfactin (S), and mycosubtilin (M). Their antifungal properties were tested in vitro, in liquid medium, on two strains of Venturia inaequalis, ascomycete fungi causing apple scab. These two strains were, respectively sensitive and less sensitive to tebuconazole, an active substance of the triazole family. These three molecules were tested on their own, in binary (FS, FM, SM) and ternary mixtures (FSM). The antifungal activities of lipopeptides were estimated by calculating an IC50, compared to tebuconazole chemical substance. In tests involving the sensitive strain, all lipopeptide modalities exhibited antifungal activity. However, modalities involving fengycin and its mixtures exhibited the best antifungal activities; the activity of fengycin alone being very similar to that of tebuconazole. Interestingly, regarding the strain with reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole, surfactin and fengycin alone were not efficient while mycosubtilin and the different mixtures showed interesting antifungal activities. Specifically, the antifungal activity of FS and FSM mixture were equivalent to that of tebuconazole. For both fungal strains, microscopic observations revealed important morphological modifications in the presence of fengycin and in a less important proportion in the presence of surfactin but not in the presence of mycosubtilin. Overall, this study highlights the diversity in mode of action of lipopeptides on apple scab strains.
Project description:Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants.