Progressive resistance of BTK-143 osteosarcoma cells to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis is mediated by acquisition of DcR2/TRAIL-R4 expression: resensitisation with chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Apo2 ligand (Apo2L, also known as TRAIL) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines that selectively induces the death of cancer cells, but not of normal cells. We observed that recombinant Apo2L/TRAIL was proapoptotic in early-passage BTK-143 osteogenic sarcoma cells, inducing 80% cell death during a 24 h treatment period. Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibition. With increasing passage in culture, BTK-143 cells became progressively resistant to the apoptotic effects of Apo2L/TRAIL. RNA and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL was paralleled by progressive acquisition of the decoy receptor, DcR2. Blocking of DcR2 function with a specific anti-DcR2 antibody restored sensitivity to Apo2L/TRAIL in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, treatment of resistant cells with the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, cisplatin and etoposide reversed the resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL, which was associated with drug-induced upregulation of mRNA encoding the death receptors DR4 and DR5. BTK-143 cells thus represent a useful model system to investigate both the mechanisms of acquisition of resistance of tumour cells to Apo2L/TRAIL and the use of conventional drugs and novel agents to overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL.
Project description:Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors.We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner.The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.
Project description:Apo2 ligand (Apo2L)/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent. Recombinant human Apo2L/TRAIL has been under clinical trials, whereas various kinds of malignant tumors have resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL. We and others have shown that several anticancer agents and flavonoids overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL by upregulating death receptor 5 (DR5) in malignant tumor cells. However, the mechanisms by which these compounds induce DR5 expression remain unknown. Here we show that the dietary flavonoid apigenin binds and inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), resulting in enhancement of Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of DR5. Apigenin and genistein, which are major flavonoids, enhanced Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Apigenin induced DR5 expression, but genistein did not. Using our method identifying the direct targets of flavonoids, we compared the binding proteins of apigenin with those of genistein. We discovered that ANT2 was a target of apigenin, but not genistein. Similarly to apigenin, knockdown of ANT2 enhanced Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating DR5 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Moreover, silencing of ANT2 attenuated the enhancement of Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by apigenin. These results suggest that apigenin upregulates DR5 and enhances Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by binding and inhibiting ANT2. We propose that ANT2 inhibitors may contribute to Apo2L/TRAIL therapy.
Project description:Previously, we have reported that overexpression of IHPK2 (inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2) sensitized NIH-OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cell lines to the growth-suppressive and apoptotic effects of IFN-beta (interferon-beta) treatment and gamma-irradiation. In the present study, we demonstrate that Apo2L/TRAIL (Apo2L/tumour-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a critical mediator of IFN-induced apoptosis in these cells. Compared with IFN-alpha2, IFN-beta is a more potent inducer of Apo2L/TRAIL and IHPK2 activity. Overexpression of IHPK2 converts IFN-alpha2-resistant cells into cells that readily undergo apoptosis in response to IFN-alpha2. In untreated cells transfected with IHPK2-eGFP (where eGFP stands for enhanced green fluorescent protein), the fusion protein is localized to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. After treatment with IFN-beta, IHPK2-eGFP translocated to the nucleus. In cells transfected with mutant IHPK2-NLS-eGFP (where NLS stands for nuclear localization sequence), containing point mutations in the NLS, the fusion protein remained trapped in the cytoplasm, even after IFN-beta treatment. Cells expressing mutant NLS mutation were more resistant to IFN-beta. The IC50 value of IHPK2-expressing cells was 2-3-fold lower than vector control. The IC50 value of NLS-mutant-expressing cells was 3-fold higher than vector control. Blocking antibodies to Apo2L/TRAIL or transfection with a dominant negative Apo2L/TRAIL receptor (DR5Delta) inhibited the antiproliferative effects of IFN-beta. Thus overexpression of IHPK2 enhanced apoptotic effects of IFN-beta, and expression of the NLS mutant conferred resistance to IFN-beta. Apo2L/TRAIL expression and nuclear localization of IHPK2 are both required for the induction of apoptosis by IFN-beta in ovarian carcinoma.
Project description:Human cholangiocarcinomas evade apoptosis by overexpression of Mcl-1. The drug obatoclax (GX15-070) inhibits antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family including Mcl-1. The purpose of this study is to determine if obatoclax sensitizes human cholangiocarcinoma cells to apoptosis. The human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, KMCH, KMBC, and TFK, were employed for these studies. Protein expression was assessed by immunoblot and protein-protein interactions detected by coprecipitation of the polypeptide of interest with S-tagged Mcl-1. Activation of Bak and Bax was observed by immunocytochemistry with conformation-specific antisera. Obatoclax induced minimal apoptosis alone; however, it increased apoptosis 3- to 13-fold in all three cancer cell lines when combined with Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Obatoclax did not alter cellular expression of Bid, Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bak, Bax, Mcl-1, or cFLIP. Mcl-1 binding to Bak was readily identified in untreated cells, and this association was disrupted by treating the cells with obatoclax. Additionally, Bim binding to Mcl-1 was markedly decreased by obatoclax treatment. We also identified alterations in Bak and Bax conformation following treatment with obatoclax plus Apo2L/TRAIL but not with either Apo2L/TRAIL or obatoclax alone. In conclusion, obatoclax releases Bak and Bim from Mcl-1 and sensitizes human cholangiocarcinoma cells to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Obatoclax is a potentially promising adjunctive agent for the treatment of this cancer.
Project description:Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that binds to the ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANKL) and inhibits bone resorption. OPG can also bind and inhibit the activity of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL), raising the possibility that the anticancer efficacy of soluble Apo2L/TRAIL may be abrogated in the bone microenvironment where OPG expression is high. In this study we used a murine model of breast cancer growth in bone to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant soluble Apo2L/TRAIL against intratibial tumors that were engineered to overexpress native full-length human OPG. In vitro, OPG-overexpressing breast cancer cells were protected from Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, an effect that was reversed with the addition of soluble RANKL or neutralizing antibodies to OPG. In vivo, mice injected intratibially with cells containing the empty vector developed large osteolytic lesions. In contrast, OPG overexpression preserved the integrity of bone and prevented breast cancer-induced bone destruction. This effect was due primarily to the complete absence of osteoclasts in the tibias of mice inoculated with OPG-transfected cells, confirming the biologic activity of the transfected OPG in vivo. Despite the secretion of supraphysiologic levels of OPG, treatment with Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in strong growth inhibition of both empty vector and OPG-overexpressing intratibial tumors. While Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis may be abrogated in vitro by OPG overexpression, the in vivo anticancer efficacy of recombinant soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is retained in the bone microenvironment even in the presence of biologically active OPG at supraphysiologic concentrations.
Project description:Apo2L/TRAIL stimulates cancer-cell death through the proapoptotic receptors DR4 and DR5, but the determinants of tumor susceptibility to this ligand are not fully defined. mRNA expression of the peptidyl O-glycosyl transferase GALNT14 correlated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma and melanoma cell lines (P < 0.00009; n=83), and up to 30% of samples from various human malignancies displayed GALNT14 overexpression. RNA interference of GALNT14 reduced cellular Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity, whereas overexpression increased responsiveness. Biochemical analysis of DR5 identified several ectodomain O-GalNAc-Gal-Sialic acid structures. Sequence comparison predicted conserved extracellular DR4 and DR5 O-glycosylation sites; progressive mutation of the DR5 sites attenuated apoptosis signaling. O-glycosylation promoted ligand-stimulated clustering of DR4 and DR5, which mediated recruitment and activation of the apoptosis-initiating protease caspase-8. These results uncover a novel link between death receptor O-glycosylation and apoptosis signaling, providing potential predictive biomarkers for Apo2L/TRAIL-based cancer therapy. Keywords: cell type comparison Overall design: Gene expression for untreated cell lines analyzed. Some cell lines have one replicate profile, some two (Samples with 2 CEL files). Normalized data for replicates was averaged. Analysis involved a regularized t-test to identify genes with expression differences between Apo2L sensitive and resistant lines.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/TNFSF10/Apo2L) holds promise for cancer therapy as it induces apoptosis in a large variety of cancer cells while exerting negligible toxicity in normal ones. However, TRAIL can also induce proliferative and migratory signaling in cancer cells resistant to apoptosis induced by this cytokine. In that regard, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor selectivity of TRAIL and those balancing apoptosis versus survival remain largely elusive. We show here that high mRNA levels of PLAU, which encodes urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), are characteristic of cancer cells with functional TRAIL signaling. Notably, decreasing uPA levels sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL, leading to markedly increased apoptosis. Mechanistic analyses revealed three molecular events taking place in uPA-depleted cells: reduced basal ERK1/2 prosurvival signaling, decreased preligand decoy receptor 2 (DcR2)-death receptor 5 (DR5) interaction and attenuated recruitment of DcR2 to the death-inducing signaling complex upon TRAIL challenge. These phenomena were accompanied by increased FADD and procaspase-8 recruitment and processing, thus guiding cells toward a caspase-dependent cell death that is largely independent of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Collectively, our results unveil PLAU mRNA levels as marker for the identification of TRAIL-responsive tumor cells and highlight a key role of uPA signaling in 'apoptosis versus survival' decision-making processes upon TRAIL challenge.
Project description:Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is elevated in tumors and high IFP, a negative cancer prognosticator, is known to limit the uptake and efficacy of anti-tumor therapeutics. Approaches that alter the tumor microenvironment and enhance uptake of therapeutics are collectively referred to as tumor "priming". Here we show that the cytotoxic biological therapy Apo2L/TRAIL can prime the tumor microenvironment and significantly lower IFP in three different human tumor xenograft models (Colo205, MiaPaca-2 and a patient gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma tumor xenograft). We found that a single dose of Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in a wave of apoptosis which reached a maximum at 8h post-treatment. Apoptotic debris subsequently disappeared concurrent with an increase in macrophage infiltration. By 24h post-treatment, treated tumors appeared less condensed with widening of the stromal areas which increased at 48 and 72h. Analysis of tumor vasculature demonstrated a significant increase in overall vessel size at 48 and 72h although the number of vessels did not change. Notably, IFP was significantly reduced in these tumors by 48h after Apo2L/TRAIL treatment. Administration of gemcitabine at this time resulted in increased tumor uptake of both gemcitabine and liposomal gemcitabine and significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal gemcitabine. These results suggest that Apo2L/TRAIL has a potential as a tumor priming agent and provides a rationale for developing a sequencing schema for combination therapy such that an initial dose of Apo2L/TRAIL would precede administration of gemcitabine or other therapies.
Project description:Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. Despite promising preclinical results, few patients responded to treatment with recombinant TRAIL (Apo2L/Dulanermin) or TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies, such as conatumumab (AMG655). It is unknown whether this was due to intrinsic TRAIL resistance within primary human cancers or insufficient agonistic activity of the TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R)-targeting drugs. Fc? receptors (Fc?R)-mediated crosslinking increases the cancer-cell-killing activity of TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies in vivo. We tested this phenomenon using Fc?R-expressing immune cells from patients with ovarian cancer. However, even in the presence of high numbers of Fc?R-expressing immune cells, as found in ovarian cancer ascites, AMG655-induced apoptosis was not enabled to any significant degree, indicating that this concept may not translate into clinical use. On the basis of these results, we next set out to determine whether AMG655 possibly interferes with apoptosis induction by endogenous TRAIL, which could be expressed by immune cells. To do so, we tested how AMG655 affected apoptosis induction by recombinant TRAIL. This, however, resulted in the surprising discovery of a striking synergy between AMG655 and non-tagged TRAIL (Apo2L/TRAIL) in killing cancer cells. This combination was as effective in killing cancer cells as highly active recombinant isoleucine-zipper-tagged TRAIL (iz-TRAIL). The increased killing efficiency was due to enhanced formation of the TRAIL death-inducing signalling complex, enabled by concomitant binding of Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG655 to TRAIL-R2. The synergy of AMG655 with Apo2L/TRAIL extended to primary ovarian cancer cells and was further enhanced by combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or a second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic. Importantly, primary human hepatocytes were not killed by the AMG655-Apo2L/TRAIL combination, also not when further combined with bortezomib or a SMAC mimetic. We therefore propose that clinical-grade non-tagged recombinant forms of TRAIL, such as dulanermin, could be combined with antibodies such as AMG655 to introduce a highly active TRAIL-R2-agonistic therapy into the cancer clinic.
Project description:Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia results from clonal expansion of CD3+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes or CD3- natural killer (NK) cells. Chronic antigen stimulation is postulated to promote long-term survival of LGL leukemia cells through constitutive activation of multiple survival pathways, resulting in global dysregulation of apoptosis and resistance to activation-induced cell death. We reported previously that nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) is a central regulator of the survival network for leukemic LGL. However, the mechanisms that trigger constitutive activation of NF-?B in LGL leukemia remain undefined. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but can also activate NF-?B through interaction with TRAIL receptors 1, 2, and 4 (also known as DR4, DR5, and DcR2, respectively). The role of TRAIL has not been studied in LGL leukemia. In this study, we hypothesized that TRAIL interaction with DcR2 contributes to NF-?B activation in LGL leukemia. We observed upregulated TRAIL messenger RNA and protein expression in LGL leukemia cells with elevated levels of soluble TRAIL protein in LGL leukemia patient sera. We also found that DcR2 is the predominant TRAIL receptor in LGL leukemia cells. We demonstrated that TRAIL-induced activation of DcR2 led to increased NF-?B activation in leukemic LGL. Conversely, interruption of TRAIL-DcR2 signaling led to decreased NF-?B activation. Finally, a potential therapeutic application of proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and ixazomib), which are known to inhibit NF-?B, was identified through their ability to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis in LGL leukemia cell lines and primary patient cells.