AP214, an analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, ameliorates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and mortality.
ABSTRACT: Sepsis remains a serious problem in critically ill patients with the mortality increasing to over half when there is attendant acute kidney injury. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits many forms of inflammation including that with acute kidney injury. We tested whether a new alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue (AP214), which has increased binding affinity to melanocortin receptors, improves sepsis-induced kidney injury and mortality using a cecal ligation and puncture mouse model. In the lethal cecal ligation-puncture model of sepsis, severe hypotension and bradycardia resulted and AP214 attenuated acute kidney injury of the lethal model with a bell-shaped dose-response curve. An optimum AP214 dose reduced acute kidney injury even when it was administered 6 h after surgery and it significantly improved blood pressure and heart rate. AP214 reduced serum TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels with a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Additionally; NF-kappaB activation in the kidney and spleen, and splenocyte apoptosis were decreased by the treatment. AP214 significantly improved survival in both lethal and sublethal models. We have shown that AP214 improves hemodynamic failure, acute kidney injury, mortality and splenocyte apoptosis attenuating pro- and anti-inflammatory actions due to sepsis.
Project description:While it is known that risk of death from sepsis is higher in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease its mechanism is unknown. To study this we established a two-stage mouse model where renal disease was first induced by folic acid injection followed by sub-lethal cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis. Septic mice with pre-existing renal disease had significantly higher mortality, serum creatinine, vascular permeability, plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, bacteremia, serum IL-10, splenocyte apoptosis and more severe septic shock when compared to septic mice without pre-existing disease. To evaluate the contribution of vascular and immunological dysfunction, we treated the folate-septic mice with soluble Flt-1 to bind VEGF and chloroquine to reduce splenocyte apoptosis. These treatments together resulted in a significant improvement in kidney injury, hemodynamics and survival. Our study shows that the sequential mouse model mimics human sepsis frequently complicated by pre-existing renal disease and might be useful in evaluating preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Multiple organ dysfunction induced by sepsis often involves kidney injury. Extracellular histones released in response to damage-associated molecular patterns are known to facilitate sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) and its lectin-like domain (D1) exert anti-inflammatory effects and neutralize damage-associated molecular patterns. However, the effects of rhTM and D1 on extracellular histone H3 levels and kidney injury remain poorly understood. Our purpose was to investigate the association between extracellular histone H3 levels and kidney injury, and to clarify the effects of rhTM and D1 on extracellular histone H3 levels, kidney injury, and survival in sepsis-induced rats. Rats in whom sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and puncture were used in this study. Histone H3 levels, histopathology of the kidneys, and the survival rate of rats at 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture were investigated. Histone H3 levels increased over time following cecal ligation and puncture. Histopathological analyses indicated that the distribution of degeneration foci among tubular epithelial cells of the kidney and levels of histone H3 increased simultaneously. Administration of rhTM and D1 significantly reduced histone H3 levels compared with that in the vehicle-treated group and improved kidney injury. The survival rates of rats in rhTM- and D1-treated groups were significantly higher than that in the vehicle-treated group. The results of this study indicated that rhTM and its D1 similarly reduce elevated histone H3 levels, thereby reducing acute kidney injury. Our findings also proposed that rhTM and D1 show potential as new treatment strategies for sepsis combined with acute kidney injury.
Project description:Although diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury uses serum creatinine, acute changes in creatinine lag behind both renal injury and recovery. The risk for mortality increases when acute kidney injury accompanies sepsis; therefore, we sought to explore the limitations of serum creatinine in this setting. In mice, induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture in bilaterally nephrectomized mice increased markers of nonrenal organ injury and serum TNF-alpha. Serum creatinine, however, was significantly lower in septic animals than in animals subjected to bilateral nephrectomy and sham cecal ligation and puncture. Under these conditions treatment with chloroquine decreased nonrenal organ injury markers but paradoxically increased serum creatinine. Sepsis dramatically decreased production of creatinine in nephrectomized mice, without changes in body weight, hematocrit, or extracellular fluid volume. In conclusion, sepsis reduces production of creatinine, which blunts the increase in serum creatinine after sepsis, potentially limiting the early detection of acute kidney injury. This may partially explain why small absolute increases in serum creatinine levels are associated with poor clinical outcomes. These data support the need for new biomarkers that provide better measures of renal injury, especially in patients with sepsis.
Project description:Severe sepsis involves massive activation of the innate immune system and leads to high mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that various types of TLRs mediate a systemic inflammatory response and contribute to organ injury and mortality in animal models of severe sepsis. However, the downstream mechanisms responsible for TLR-mediated septic injury are poorly understood. In this article, we show that activation of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 markedly enhanced complement factor B (cfB) synthesis and release by macrophages and cardiac cells. Polymicrobial sepsis, created by cecal ligation and puncture in a mouse model, augmented cfB levels in the serum, peritoneal cavity, and major organs including the kidney and heart. Cecal ligation and puncture also led to the alternative pathway activation, C3 fragment deposition in the kidney and heart, and cfB-dependent C3dg elevation. Bacteria isolated from septic mice activated the serum alternative pathway via a factor D-dependent manner. MyD88 deletion attenuated cfB/C3 upregulation as well as cleavage induced by polymicrobial infection. Importantly, during sepsis, absence of cfB conferred a protective effect with improved survival and cardiac function and markedly attenuated acute kidney injury. cfB deletion also led to increased neutrophil migratory function during the early phase of sepsis, decreased local and systemic bacterial load, attenuated cytokine production, and reduced neutrophil reactive oxygen species production. Together, our data indicate that cfB acts as a downstream effector of TLR signaling and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of severe bacterial sepsis.
Project description:Objectives:The furosemide stress test measures the volume of urine produced after a furosemide challenge. Furosemide stress test has previously demonstrated sensitive and specific prediction of progression to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guideline defined acute kidney injury stage III in the ICU. Furosemide is actively excreted into the nephron lumen where it inhibits the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, causing diuresis. We hypothesize that furosemide excretion is a more direct measure of tubule health than diuresis. Design:We developed a furosemide excretion stress test to evaluate this hypothesis in a murine model of septic-acute kidney injury. Setting:Basic science laboratory. Subjects:Male and female 8-week old CD-1 mice. Interventions:Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in male and female mice. Furosemide stress test/furosemide excretion stress test started 42 hours post-cecal ligation and puncture with a 1 mg/kg furosemide bolus and urine was collected for 12 hours. The mice were then euthanized or monitored until 7 days post-cecal ligation and puncture. In another cohort, mice were treated with vasopressin, which decreases urine volume. Furosemide concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Measurements and Main Results:Urine production during the 12-hour collection varied from 0.08 to 2.62?mL. Both urine production (furosemide stress test) and furosemide excretion (furosemide excretion stress test) predicted mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.925 and 0.916) and time of death (R 2 = 0.26 and 0.74). Male and female mice demonstrated consistent results. Following vasopressin treatment, furosemide stress test specificity fell to 33% (p = 0.016) but furosemide excretion stress test specificity was maintained. Conclusions:The furosemide stress test and furosemide excretion stress test performed similarly in predicting mortality; however, furosemide excretion stress test was superior in predicting time to death and maintained performance when challenged with vasopressin treatment in a mouse sepsis model.
Project description:WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC:Toll-like receptor 7 responds to elevated single-stranded RNA by increasing cytokine production. Sepsis is characterized by elevated plasma levels of tissue damage (and pathogen)-associated molecular patterns, including RNA. WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW:Using murine models of bacterial sepsis, knockout of the Toll-like receptor 7 resulted in lower mortality and cytokine levels and less end-organ injury. Therefore, Toll-like receptor 7, which mediates innate immune response, contributes to harm in experimental sepsis. BACKGROUND:Sepsis remains a critical illness with high mortality. The authors have recently reported that mouse plasma RNA concentrations are markedly increased during sepsis and closely associated with its severity. Toll-like receptor 7, originally identified as the sensor for single-stranded RNA virus, also mediates host extracellular RNA-induced innate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Here, the authors hypothesize that innate immune signaling via Toll-like receptor 7 contributes to inflammatory response, organ injury, and mortality during polymicrobial sepsis. METHODS:Sepsis was created by (1) cecal ligation and puncture or (2) stool slurry peritoneal injection. Wild-type and Toll-like receptor 7 knockout mice, both in C57BL/6J background, were used. The following endpoints were measured: mortality, acute kidney injury biomarkers, plasma and peritoneal cytokines, blood bacterial loading, peritoneal leukocyte counts, and neutrophil phagocytic function. RESULTS:The 11-day overall mortality was 81% in wild-type mice and 48% in Toll-like receptor 7 knockout mice after cecal ligation and puncture (N = 27 per group, P = 0.0031). Compared with wild-type septic mice, Toll-like receptor 7 knockout septic mice also had lower sepsis severity, attenuated plasma cytokine storm (wild-type vs. Toll-like receptor 7 knockout, interleukin-6: 43.2 [24.5, 162.7] vs. 4.4 [3.1, 12.0] ng/ml, P = 0.003) and peritoneal inflammation, alleviated acute kidney injury (wild-type vs. Toll-like receptor 7 knockout, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: 307 ± 184 vs.139 ± 41-fold, P = 0.0364; kidney injury molecule-1: 40 [16, 49] vs.13 [4, 223]-fold, P = 0.0704), lower bacterial loading, and enhanced leukocyte peritoneal recruitment and phagocytic activities at 24?h. Moreover, stool slurry from wild-type and Toll-like receptor 7 knockout mice resulted in similar level of sepsis severity, peritoneal cytokines, and leukocyte recruitment in wild-type animals after peritoneal injection. CONCLUSIONS:Toll-like receptor 7 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of polymicrobial sepsis by mediating host innate immune responses and contributes to acute kidney injury and mortality.
Project description:We tested the anti-inflammatory agent methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate (M2AA), an ethyl pyruvate analog, in a cecal ligation-and-puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in CD-1 mice. M2AA administration at the time of CLP improved survival, renal function, kidney histology, liver injury, and splenocyte apoptosis, and lowered cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10). When M2AA treatment was delayed 6 h (but not 12 h), M2AA still significantly reduced kidney dysfunction, liver injury, splenocyte apoptosis, and cytokine levels. NF-kappaB, a M2AA target, was transiently activated in spleen, peaking at 6 h; kidney and liver NF-kappaB increased steadily with a plateau at 12-24 h. M2AA reduced NF-kappaB activation in spleen at 6 h and in kidney and liver at 24 h. Splenectomy diminished the ability of M2AA to reduce cytokines, especially IL-6, but M2AA still decreased kidney and liver dysfunction, suggesting that splenic NF-kappaB is not central to M2AA action. In contrast, beneficial effects of chloroquine on cytokines and organ damage were neutralized by splenectomy, demonstrating a spleen-specific chloroquine target. Because M2AA and chloroquine act differently, we tested this combination. Survival at 96 h was highest with combination therapy (57%) vs. chloroquine (38%), M2AA (47.6%), or vehicle (5%). The benefit of combination therapy over chloroquine or M2AA alone did not reach statistical significance, indicating potential mechanistic overlap. We conclude that the transient target(s) for M2AA responsible for the narrow 6-h therapeutic window is not splenic NF-kappaB. Identifying this new target and downstream signaling pathways could lengthen the therapeutic window and improve combination therapy with chloroquine.
Project description:The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway is an essential component of innate immunity necessary for mediating proinflammatory responses in the setting of sepsis. We previously demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 inhibitor trametinib prevents endotoxin-induced renal injury in mice. We therefore assessed efficacy of trametinib in a more clinically relevant experimental model of sepsis.Controlled in vivo laboratory study.University animal research laboratory.Male C57BL/6 mice.Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis or underwent sham operation as controls. Six hours after cecal ligation and puncture, mice were randomized to four experimental groups as follows: 1) sham control; 2) sham control + trametinib (1?mg/kg, IP); 3) cecal ligation and puncture; and 4) cecal ligation and puncture + trametinib. All animals received buprenorphine (0.05?mg/kg, SC) and imipenem/cilastatin (14?mg/kg, SC) in 1.5?mL of warm saline (40?mL/kg) at the 6-hour time point. Mice were euthanized at 18 hours after induction of cecal ligation and puncture.Trametinib inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling 6 hours after cecal ligation and puncture attenuated increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and hypothermia at 18 hours. Trametinib also attenuated multiple organ injury as determined by serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. At the organ level, trametinib completely restored peritubular capillary perfusion in the kidney. Restoration of microvascular perfusion was associated with reduced messenger RNA expression of well-characterized markers of proximal tubule injury. mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase blockade attenuated cecal ligation and puncture-mediated up-regulation of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?) and restored interleukin-6 to control levels in the renal cortex, indicating the protective effects on the proximal tubule occur primarily through modulation of the proinflammatory response in sepsis.These data reveal that the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor trametinib attenuates systemic inflammation and multiple organ damage in a clinically relevant model of sepsis. Because trametinib has been safely used in humans, we propose that this drug might represent a translatable approach to limit organ injury in septic patients.
Project description:In the early stages of sepsis, lymphocytes undergo apoptosis, resulting in lymphopenia and immunosuppression. The trigger for septic lymphopenia is unknown. Using the polymicrobial model of murine sepsis, we investigated the role of C5a receptors in septic lymphopenia. In wild-type mice, cecal ligation and puncture resulted in splenocyte apoptosis and significant lymphopenia after 3 d, which was not observed in C5aR1(-/-) or C5aR2(-/-) mice. Our data show that mouse neutrophils exposed to recombinant mouse C5a cause release of histones in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Histone levels in spleen were significantly elevated following cecal ligation and puncture but were reduced by the absence of C5aR1. Histones induced significant lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro. Ab-mediated neutralization of histones prevented the development of lymphopenia in sepsis. Together, these results describe a new pathway of septic lymphopenia involving complement and extracellular histones. Targeting of this pathway may have therapeutic benefit for patients with sepsis or other serious illness.
Project description:Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has a renoprotective effect in chronic kidney disease; however, its effect on acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. In a rat model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced AKI, we found that ACTH gel prevented kidney injury, corrected acute renal dysfunction, and improved survival. Morphologically, ACTH gel ameliorated TNF-induced acute tubular necrosis, associated with a reduction in tubular apoptosis. While the steroidogenic response to ACTH gel plateaued, the kidney-protective effect continued to increase at even higher doses, suggesting steroid-independent mechanisms. Of note, ACTH also acts as a key agonist of the melanocortin system, with its cognate melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) abundantly expressed in renal tubules. In TNF-injured tubular epithelial cells in vitro, ACTH reinstated cellular viability and eliminated apoptosis. This beneficial effect was blunted in MC1R-silenced cells, suggesting that this receptor mediates the anti-apoptotic signaling of ACTH. Moreover, ACTH gel protected mice against cecal ligation puncture-induced septic AKI better than ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protein equal in biological activity to ACTH except for steroidogenesis. Thus, ACTH has additive renoprotective actions achieved by both steroid-dependent mechanisms and MC1R-directed anti-apoptosis. ACTH may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat AKI.