Identification of a hypervariable region in the long terminal repeat of equine infectious anemia virus.
ABSTRACT: An avirulent, field-derived isolate of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), designated MA-1, was molecularly cloned, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined for the 3' half of the viral genome. Comparisons between MA-1 and the prototype Wyoming strain of EIAV identified a 66-nucleotide stretch between CAAT (-91) and TATAA (-25) in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat, where sequence divergence was as high as 39.3%. The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and clone long terminal repeat sequences from Th-1, the in vivo parental stock of MA-1. Results indicated that the nucleotide sequences of MA-1 and Th-1 clones were less variable than was observed between MA-1 and Wyoming. However, MA-1 and Th-1 markedly differed in the types of enhancer sequences located in the hypervariable region. These results suggest that variation in lentivirus regulatory sequences may be important in EIAV host cell tropism and pathogenesis.
Project description:Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a persistent lentivirus that causes equine infectious anemia (EIA). In Brazil, EIAV is endemic in the Pantanal region, and euthanasia is not mandatory in this area. All of the complete genomic sequences from field viruses are from North America, Asia, and Europe, and only proviral genomic sequences are available. Sequences from Brazilian EIAV are currently available only for gag and LTR regions. Thus, the present study aimed for the first time to sequence the entire EIAV genomic RNA in naturally infected horses from an endemic area in Brazil. RNA in plasma from naturally infected horses was used for next-generation sequencing (NGS), and gaps were filled using Sanger sequencing methodology. Complete viral genomes of EIAV from two horses were obtained and annotated (Access Number: MN560970 and MN560971). Putative genes were analyzed and compared with previously described genes, showing conservation in gag and pol genes and high variations in LTR and env sequences. Amino acid changes were identified in the p26 protein, one of the most common targets used for diagnosis, and p26 molecular modelling showed surface amino acid alterations in some epitopes. Brazilian genome sequences presented 88.6% nucleotide identity with one another and 75.8 to 77.3% with main field strains, such as EIAV Liaoning, Wyoming, Ireland, and Italy isolates. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that this Brazilian strain comprises a separate monophyletic group. These results may help to better characterize EIAV and to overcome the challenges of diagnosing and controlling EIA in endemic regions.
Project description:The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and clone parts of the envelope gene and overlapping S3 open reading frame, thought to encode rev, of the virulent in vivo-derived Th-1 isolate of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The results indicated that EIAV consists of a heterogeneous mixture of genotypes present at the first febrile cycle after initial infection. We showed that the Th-1 isolate apparently contains nondefective genotypes as well as types which have transmembrane protein truncations or are rev deficient. Furthermore, we could confirm the presence of a hypervariable region in the gp90 envelope glycoprotein. Taken together with earlier data on the heterogeneity of the regulatory motifs present in the long terminal repeat sequences of viruses from the same in vivo isolate (S. Carpenter, S. Alexandersen, M. J. Long, S. Perryman, and B. Chesebro, J. Virol. 65:1605-1610, 1991), our findings indicate that EIAV uses a complex system of diversity in biological phenotypes together with variation in regulatory and antigenic makeup to evade host response and to cause persistent infection and recurrent chronic disease.
Project description:An infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone (19-2-6A) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was modified by substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment amplified by PCR techniques from a pathogenic variant (EIAV(PV)) of the cell culture-adapted strain of EIAV (EIAV(PR)). This substitution consisted of coding sequences for 77 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of the integrase, the S1 (encoding the second exon of tat), S2, and S3 (encoding the second exon of rev) open reading frames, the complete env gene (including the first exon of rev), and the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR). Modified 19-2-6A molecular clones were designated EIAV(PV3.3), and infection of a single pony (678) with viruses derived from a mixture of five of these molecular clones induced clinical signs of acute equine infectious anemia (EIA) at 23 days postinfection (dpi). As a consequence of this initial study, a single molecular clone, EIAV(PV3.3#3) (redesignated EIAV(UK)), was selected for further study and inoculated into two ponies (613 and 614) and two horses (700 and 764). Pony 614 and the two horses developed febrile responses by 12 dpi, which was accompanied by a 48 to 64% reduction in platelet number, whereas pony 613 did not develop fever (40.6 degrees C) until 76 dpi. EIAV could be isolated from the plasma of these animals by 5 to 7 dpi, and all became seropositive for antibodies to this virus by 21 dpi. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence demonstrated that the 3.3-kbp 3' fragment of EIAV(UK) differed from the consensus sequence of EIAV(PV) by just a single amino acid residue in the second exon of the rev gene. Complete homology with the EIAV(PV) consensus sequence was observed in the hypervariable region of the LTR. However, EIAV(UK) was found to contain an unusual 68-bp nucleotide insertion/duplication in a normally conserved region of the LTR sequence. These results demonstrate that substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment from the EIAV(PV) strain into the infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone 19-2-6A leads to the production of progeny virus particles with the ability to induce clinical signs of EIA. Therefore, EIAV(UK), which is the first pathogenic, cell culture-adapted molecular clone of EIAV to be described, should be of value in identifying viral determinants of pathogenicity.
Project description:Budding of retroviruses requires the structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, to target the plasma membrane through its N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. For HIV-1, the interaction between membrane signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PIP2) and MA induces the exposure of myristate and promotes membrane binding. Here we studied oligomerization of the naturally unmyristylated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) MA and its interaction with PIP2-C4 primarily using solution NMR spectroscopy. The measured 1H-15N residual dipolar coupling agrees with the atomic coordinates from the EIAV MA crystal structure. The analytical ultracentrifugation results show a dominant population of monomeric EIAV MA at a concentration of 63 microM and 20 degrees C, along with a small trimer and a broad distribution of other oligomers. The monomer-trimer equilibrium model and the quaternary packing of the trimer were further established by the concentration-dependent 15N spin relaxation rates and chemical shifts. Binding of MA to PIP2-C4 was detected by chemical shift mapping (CSM) with an apparent Kd of 182 +/- 56 microM, a value similar to that reported for HIV-1 MA. The PIP2 binding site includes the Loop region between Helix2 and Helix3 in the EIAV MA. CSM and spin relaxation dispersion reveal a coupling of conformational change and submillisecond dynamics, respectively, between the Loop and trimeric Interface Residues due to PIP2 binding. We infer that PIP2 participates in the initial trimer formation of EIAV MA, but more importantly, the concentration effect is dominant in shifting the equilibrium toward trimer, in line with the entropic switch mechanism proposed for myristylated HIV-1 MA.
Project description:Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) provides a uniquely dynamic system in which to study the mechanism and role of genomic variation in lentiviral persistence and pathogenesis. We have used a Shetland pony model of infection to investigate the association of specific long terminal repeat (LTR) and env gene genomic sequences with the initiation of infection and the onset of disease. We analyzed viral RNA isolated from a pathogenic stock of virus (EIAV PV) and from plasma taken during the first disease episode from two ponies infected with EIAV PV. Overall sequence variation within gp90 was low in EIAV PV and only slightly higher in plasma virus samples isolated from ponies during the first disease episode. However, a high proportion of mutations were localized to the principal neutralizing domain in EIAV PV and to the principal neutralizing domain and the gp90 hypervariable region in the two pony-derived samples. The rate of fixation of mutations was analyzed and determined to be approximately 4 x 10(-2) mutations per site per year. Sequence diversity within the U3 region of the LTR was extremely low, which suggested that the previously reported hypervariability of this region may be a consequence of selection for replication of EIAV in different host cells. The predominant EIAV PV env and LTR sequences were used to construct chimeric viruses so that the contribution of these sequences to viral pathogenicity could be examined. The chimeras replicated in cultured equine monocytes to the same extent as the parental nonpathogenic virus and did not cause disease in Shetland ponies by 120 days postinfection, suggesting that the EIAV genomic determinants of pathogenesis are complex.
Project description:We report the structure of the human annexin VI gene and compare the intron-exon organization with the known structures of the human annexin I and II genes. The gene is approximately 60 kbp long and contains 26 exons. Consistent with the published annexin VI cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence at the 3' end does not contain a canonical polyadenylation signal. The genomic sequence upstream of the transcription start site contains TATAA and CAAT motifs. The spatial organization of the exons does not reveal any obvious similarities between the two halves of the annexin VI gene. Comparison of the intron-exon boundary positions of the annexin VI gene with those of annexins I and II reveals that within the repeated domains the break points are perfectly conserved except for exon 8, which is one codon smaller in annexin II. The corresponding point in the second half of annexin VI is represented by two exons, exons 20 and 21. The latter exon is alternatively spliced, giving rise to two annexin VI isoforms that differ with respect to a 6-amino acid insertion at the start of repeat 7.
Project description:Serial passage of the prototype (PR) cell-adapted Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in fetal donkey dermal (FDD) rather than fetal horse (designated fetal equine kidney [FEK]) cell cultures resulted in the generation of a variant virus strain which produced accelerated cytopathic effects in FDD cells and was 100- to 1,000-fold more sensitive to neutralizing antibodies than its parent. This neutralization-sensitive variant was designated the FDD strain. Although there were differences in glycosylation between the PR and FDD strains, passage of the FDD virus in FEK cells did not reduce its sensitivity to neutralizing antibody. Nucleotide sequencing of the region encoding the surface unit (SU) protein from the FDD strain revealed nine amino acid substitutions compared with the PR strain. Two of these substitutions resulted in changes in the polarity of charge, four caused the introduction of a charged residue, and three had no net change in charge. Nucleotide sequence analysis was extended to the region of the FDD virus genome encoding the extracellular domain of the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (TM). Unlike the situation with the FDD virus coding region, there were minor variations in nucleotide sequence between individual molecular clones containing this region of the TM gene. Although each clone contained three nucleotide substitutions compared with the PR strain, only one of these was common to all, and this did not affect the amino acid content. Of the remaining two nucleotide substitutions, only one resulted in an amino acid change, and in each case, this change appeared to be conservative. To determine if amino acid substitutions in the SU protein of FDD cell-grown viruses were responsible for the enhanced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, chimeric viruses were constructed by using an infectious molecular clone of EIAV. These chimeric viruses contained all of the amino acid substitutions found in the FDD virus strain and were significantly more sensitive to neutralizing antibodies than viruses from the parental (PR) molecular clone. These results demonstrated that sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies in EIAV can be conferred by amino acid residues in the SU protein. However, such amino acid substitutions were not sufficient to enhance cytopathogenicity, as the chimeric viruses did not cause excessive degenererative effects in FDD cells, as was observed with the parental FDD virus strain.
Project description:The Gag polyprotein is key to the budding of retroviruses from host cells and is cleaved upon virion maturation, the N-terminal membrane-binding domain forming the matrix protein (MA). The 2.8-A resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the molecule can be superimposed on the MAs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, unlike the structures formed by HIV-1 and SIV MAs, the oligomerization state observed is not trimeric. We discuss the potential of this molecule for membrane binding in the light of conformational differences between EIAV MA and HIV or SIV MA.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2) ], the predominant phosphoinositide (PI) on the plasma membrane, binds the matrix (MA) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) with similar affinities in vitro. Interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is critical for HIV-1 assembly on the plasma membrane. EIAV has been shown to localize in internal compartments; hence, the significance of its interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is unclear. We therefore investigated the binding in vitro of other PIs to EIAV MA and whether intracellular association with compartments bearing these PIs was important for assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by Gag. In vitro, EIAV MA bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] with higher affinity than PI(4,5)P(2) as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra upon lipid titration. Gag was detected on the plasma membrane and in compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate [PI(3,5)P(2) ]. Treatment of cells with YM201636, a kinase inhibitor that blocks production of PI(3,5)P(2) from PI(3)P, caused Gag to colocalize with aberrant compartments and inhibited VLP release. In contrast to HIV-1, release of EIAV VLPs was not significantly diminished by coexpression with 5-phosphatase IV, an enzyme that specifically depletes PI(4,5)P(2) from the plasma membrane. However, coexpression with synaptojanin 2, a phosphatase with broader specificity, diminished VLP production. PI-binding pocket mutations caused striking budding defects, as revealed by electron microscopy. One of the mutations also modified Gag-Gag interaction, as suggested by altered bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We conclude that PI-mediated targeting to peripheral and internal membranes is a critical factor in EIAV assembly and release.
Project description:The promoter of the chicken alpha 2(VI) collagen gene reveals several interesting features characteristic of house-keeping genes and growth control related genes. It does not possess a typical TATAA or CAAT box, but it contains several potential binding sites for transcription factors Sp1 and ETF. The 5' flanking region of the gene forms a typical 'CpG island' where the dinucleotide sequence CpG occurs with high frequency relative to the bulk genome. Consistent with the lack of a TATAA element, the gene contains multiple transcription initiation sites distributed over 75 bp of genomic DNA. A short DNA fragment (207 bp) encompassing all the transcription initiation sites and the entire CpG island shows strong promoter activity when linked to a heterologous reporter gene. The upstream region of the promoter harbours a long homopurine/homopyrimidine element (403 bp) which is sensitive to endonuclease S1. This element might have the ability to adopt an intramolecular hairpin triplex structure and could play a role in the organization of the chromatin at the alpha 2(VI) collagen locus. Our results demonstrate that the structure of the alpha 2(VI) collagen promoter is completely different from that of any other collagen promoter characterized so far.