Inhibition of message for FcepsilonRI alpha chain blocks mast cell IL-4 production induced by co-culture with Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: We have previously described the activation of RBL-2H3 mast cells for IL-4 production by Mycoplasma pneumoniae but the mechanism remains unclear. M. pneumoniae binds eukaryotic cells primarily through sialoglycoproteins on the target cell surface. This study was undertaken to determine whether the sialated FcepsilonRI alpha chain on RBL cells is important for M. pneumoniae-induced IL-4 production. We found that IgE-mediated IL-4 release by a series of RBL sublines correlated with the release induced by M. pneumoniae. Further, aggregation of FcgammaRII (CD32) in RBL cells using a monoclonal antibody inhibited both IgE-mediated and mycoplasma-induced IL-4 production, providing further evidence for an Fc receptor-mediated mechanism of activation. To examine the role of FcepsilonRI in mycoplasma-induced IL-4 release, we created stably transfected RBL sublines using a vector expressing a short hairpin sequence designed to inhibit message for the FcepsilonRI alpha chain. IgE-induced IL-4 production by the transfected sublines was reduced in similar proportion to the degree of message suppression. M. pneumoniae-induced IL-4 production in the four transfected sublines was completely blocked in contrast to results with the controls or parent RBL cells. We conclude that the heavily glycosylated FcepsilonRI alpha chain is required for activation of mast cells for IL-4 production by M. pneumoniae.
Project description:1. To determine the role of actin assembly in the Ca(2+) signalling of mast cells activated by cross-linking of FcepsilonRI, we examined the effects of cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. 2. In the RBL-2H3 cells, F-actin content was increased by sensitization with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE. In these cells, cytochalasin D induced oscillatory increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)); these increase were inhibited by jasplakinolide, a stabilizer of actin filaments. 3. In the IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells, DNP-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) augmented actin assembly. DNP-HSA also increased the production of IP(3), [Ca(2+)](i) and degranulation. Cytochalasin D enhanced all of these DNP-HSA-induced effects. 4. In a Ca(2+)-free solution, DNP-HSA induced a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i), and this increase was accelerated by cytochalasin D. After cessation of the DNP-HSA-induced Ca(2+) release, the re-addition of Ca(2+) induced a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i) through capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE), and this increase was enhanced by cytochalasin D. 5 The effect of cytochalasin D in enhancing the CCE activity was prevented by xestospongin C. 6. In contrast, neither the Ca(2+) release nor the CCE activation that was induced by thapsigargin was affected by cytochalasin D. 7. These results suggest that actin de-polymerization stimulates the FcepsilonRI-mediated signalling to augment the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum in RBL-2H3 cells.
Project description:This study investigates the roles of Fer-CIP4 homology (FCH)-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) and SH2 domains of Fes protein tyrosine kinase in regulating its activation and signaling downstream of the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgE) receptor (FcepsilonRI) in mast cells. Homology modeling of the Fes F-BAR domain revealed conservation of some basic residues implicated in phosphoinositide binding (R113/K114). The Fes F-BAR can bind phosphoinositides and induce tubulation of liposomes in vitro. Mutation of R113/K114 to uncharged residues (RK/QQ) caused a significant reduction in phosphoinositide binding in vitro and a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization in transfected COS-7 cells. RBL-2H3 mast cells expressing full-length Fes carrying the RK/QQ mutation show defects in FcepsilonRI-induced Fes tyrosine phosphorylation and degranulation compared to cells expressing wild-type Fes. This correlated with reduced localization to Lyn kinase-containing membrane fractions for the RK/QQ mutant compared to wild-type Fes in mast cells. The Fes SH2 domain also contributes to Fes signaling in mast cells, via interactions with the phosphorylated FcepsilonRI beta chain and the actin regulatory protein HS1. We show that Fes phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues in HS1 implicated in actin stabilization. Thus, coordinated actions of the F-BAR and SH2 domains of Fes allow for coupling to FcepsilonRI signaling and potential regulation the actin reorganization in mast cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cockroach is an important allergen in inner-city asthma. The diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergy has been impeded by the lack of standardized cockroach extracts.<h4>Objective</h4>We investigated the utility of a mediator release assay based on rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells for comparing the potency of German cockroach extracts.<h4>Methods</h4>RBL cells (line 2H3) transfected with human FcepsilonRI were passively sensitized with sera from subjects with cockroach allergy and stimulated with serial dilutions of 3 commercial cockroach extracts (1:10 weight/volume). In addition, the in-house prepared extract was tested in separate experiments with pooled sera that produced optimal performance in the RBL assay. N-hexosaminidase release (NHR) was used as a marker of RBL cell degranulation and was examined in relation to the intradermal skin test (ID(50)EAL) and serum cockroach-specific and total IgE levels.<h4>Results</h4>The median cockroach-specific IgE concentration in 60 subjects was 0.72 kU(A)/L (interquartile range, 0.35-2.97 kU(A)/L); 19 sera (responders) produced a minimum 10% NHR to more than 1 extract. Responders had higher median cockroach-specific IgE (7.4 vs 1.0 kU(A)/L) and total IgE (429 vs 300 kU/L) levels than nonresponders. Ranking of extract potency was consistent between the mediator release assay and the ID(50)EAL. For the in-house prepared cockroach extract, the dose-response curves were shifted according to the concentration of the extract. NHR was reproducible between different experiments by using pooled sera.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The mediator release assay measures biologic potency and correlates with the ID(50)EAL. It should be further evaluated to determine whether it could be used to replace intradermal skin test titration for assessing the potency of cockroach extract.
Project description:Mast cells and basophils are central players in allergic reactions triggered by immunoglobulin E (IgE). They have intracellular granules containing allergic mediators (e.g., histamine, serotonin, inflammatory cytokines, proteases and ?-hexosaminidase), and stimulation by IgE-allergen complex leads to the release of such allergic mediators from the granules, that is, degranulation. Mast cells are residents of mucosal surfaces, including those of nasal and oral cavities, and play an important role in the innate defense system. Members of the mitis group streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. They produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product of sugar metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of streptococcal infection on RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line. Infection by oral streptococci did not induce degranulation of the cells. Stimulation of the RBL-2H3 cells with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE and DNP-conjugated human serum albumin triggers degranulation with the release of ?-hexosaminidase. We found that S. oralis and other mitis group streptococci inhibited the IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Since mitis group streptococci produce H2O2, we examined the effect of S. oralis mutant strain deficient in producing H2O2, and found that they lost the ability to suppress the degranulation. Moreover, H2O2 alone inhibited the IgE-induced degranulation. Subsequent analysis suggested that the inhibition of degranulation was related to the cytotoxicity of streptococcal H2O2. Activated RBL-2H3 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4); however, IL-4 production was not induced by streptococcal H2O2. Furthermore, an in vivo study using the murine pollen-induced allergic rhinitis model suggested that the streptococcal H2O2 reduces nasal allergic reaction. These findings reveal that H2O2 produced by oral mitis group streptococci inhibits IgE-stimulated degranulation by inducing cell death. Consequently, streptococcal H2O2 can be considered to modulate the allergic reaction in mucosal surfaces.
Project description:Mast cells are the major effector-cell type for immediate hypersensitivity and other forms of allergic reactions. Expression of 4-1BB, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is induced at mRNA and protein levels on stimulation through the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE; FcepsilonRI). In this study, we present evidence that agonistic anti-4-1BB antibodies can enhance FcepsilonRI-induced cytokine production and secretion. Consistent with this, 4-1BB-deficient mast cells exhibit reduced degranulation and cytokine production on FcepsilonRI stimulation. Analysis of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)-deficient cells supported this notion. As a potential mechanism for these defects, we identified a defect in Ca2+ flux induced by FcepsilonRI stimulation. The defective Ca2+ flux could be accounted for by the reduced activity of Lyn/Btk/phospholipase C-gamma2 pathway and constitutive interactions between 4-1BB and Lyn. Therefore, FcepsilonRI-inducible 4-1BB plays a costimulatory function together with FcepsilonRI stimulation.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving inflammation of the joints. Among the autoantibodies described in RA, anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific and predictive for RA. In addition, ACPAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. However, a direct functional response of immune cells from ACPA(+) RA patients toward citrullinated proteins has not been demonstrated. In this study, we show that exposure to citrullinated antigens leads to activation of basophils from ACPA(+) RA patients within 20 minutes. This was not observed after exposure of basophils to noncitrullinated control antigens or after stimulation of basophils from ACPA(-) RA patients and healthy controls. Basophil activation was correlated with the binding of citrullinated proteins to basophils. Furthermore, serum from ACPA(+) RA patients in contrast to that from ACPA(-) RA patients could specifically sensitize human FcepsilonRI expressing rat basophil cells (RBL), enabling activation by citrullinated proteins. Mast cell degranulation products such as histamine levels were enhanced in synovial fluid of ACPA(+) RA patients as compared with ACPA(-) RA and osteoarthritis patients. In addition, histamine levels in synovial fluid from ACPA(+) RA patients correlated with IgE levels, suggesting degranulation of mast cells by cross-linking IgE. Immunohistochemistry on synovial biopsies demonstrated an increased number of degranulated CD117(+) mast cells in ACPA(+) RA patients; IgE and FcepsilonRI expression in synovial mast cells from ACPA(+) RA patients was increased. In conclusion, our results show an immunological response of immune cells from ACPA(+) RA patients in a citrulline-specific manner. Moreover, these data indicate a role for IgE-ACPAs and FcepsilonRI-positive cells in the pathogenesis of RA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>For the detection of allergen-specific IgE in sera, solid-phase IgE-binding assays like the CAP test are commonly used. Although such immunochemical methods are very sensitive, they frequently produce false positives. Degranulation of the human IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-transfected rat mast cell (RBL) lines seems to be a possible indicator for human IgE, but spontaneous mediator release from these cells in the presence of human sera is not negligible.<h4>Methods</h4>The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT)-responsive luciferase reporter gene was stably transfected into human Fc?RI-expressing RBL-SX38 cells. One established clone (RS-ATL8) was sensitized with 1?:?100 dilution of sera from patients with egg white allergy and then stimulated with purified or a crude extract of egg white allergen.<h4>Results</h4>Sensitization with 15?pg/ml IgE was sufficient to detect IgE crosslinking-induced luciferase expression (EXiLE) by anti-IgE stimulation. Allergen-specific EXiLE was elicited by as little as 1?fg/ml of egg white protein without cytotoxicity. There was a good correlation between results with EXiLE and oral food challenge tests on patients with egg allergy (P?=?0.001687, Fisher's exact test). The measured values of EXiLE and the CAP test also correlated well (R?=?0.9127, Spearman's test).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The EXiLE test using RS-ATL8 cells is a promising in vitro IgE test to evaluate the biological activity of the binding between IgE and allergens.
Project description:Activation of the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcepsilonRI, is known to elicit its rapid down-regulation through internalization and degradation. In keeping with this, expression of all three FcepsilonRI subunits is decreased at the protein level after cross-linkage of IgE with antigen. However, we find that the FcepsilonRI beta-subunit is also selectively suppressed at the mRNA level, through a pathway primarily involving Fyn, Syk, PI3K, and NF-kappaB. IgG or calcium ionophore, stimuli known to mimic portions of the IgE signaling cascade, similarly suppressed beta-subunit expression. LPS, a NF-kappaB-activating TLR ligand, did not alter beta-subunit expression. As IgE increases FcepsilonRI expression, we examined the coordinated regulation of FcepsilonRI subunits during culture with IgE, followed by cross-linkage with antigen. IgE increased the expression of all three FcepsilonRI subunits and strikingly induced expression of the antagonistic beta(T). The ratio of beta:beta(T) protein expression decreased significantly during culture with IgE and was reset to starting levels by antigen cross-linkage. These changes in protein levels were matched by similar fluctuations in beta and beta(T) mRNAs. FcepsilonRIbeta is a key regulator of IgER expression and function, a gene in which polymorphisms correlate with allergic disease prevalence. The ability of IgE and FcepsilonRI signaling to coordinate expression of the beta and beta(T) subunits may comprise a homeostatic feedback loop-one that could promote chronic inflammation and allergic disease if dysregulated.
Project description:The interaction of IgE with its high-affinity Fc receptor (Fc?RI) followed by an antigenic challenge is the principal pathway in IgE mediated allergic reactions. As a consequence of the high affinity binding between IgE and Fc?RI, along with the continuous production of IgE by B cells, allergies usually persist throughout life, with currently no permanent cure available. Horses, especially race horses, which are commonly inbred, are a species of mammals that are very prone to the development of hypersensitivity responses, which can seriously affect their performance. Physiological responses to allergic sensitization in horses mirror that observed in humans and dogs. In this paper we describe the development of an in situ assay system for the quantitative assessment of the release of mediators of the allergic response pertaining to the equine system. To this end, the gene encoding equine Fc?RI? was transfected into and expressed onto the surface of parental Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells. The gene product of the transfected equine ?-chain formed a functional receptor complex with the endogenous rat ?- and ?-chains. The resultant assay system facilitated an assessment of the quantity of mediator secreted from equine Fc?RI? transfected RBL-2H3.1 cells following sensitization with equine IgE and antigenic challenge using ?-hexosaminidase release as a readout. Mediator release peaked at 36.68% ± 4.88% at 100 ng ml(-1) of antigen. This assay was modified from previous assays used to study human and canine allergic responses. We have also shown that this type of assay system has multiple applications for the development of diagnostic tools and the safety assessment of potential therapeutic intervention strategies in allergic disease.
Project description:We demonstrate that binding of different IgE molecules (IgEs) to their receptor, FcepsilonRI, induces a spectrum of activation events in the absence of a specific antigen and provide evidence that such activation reflects aggregation of FcepsilonRI. Highly cytokinergic IgEs can efficiently induce production of cytokines and render mast cells resistant to apoptosis in an autocrine fashion, whereas poorly cytokinergic IgEs induce these effects inefficiently. Highly cytokinergic IgEs seem to induce more extensive FcepsilonRI aggregation than do poorly cytokinergic IgEs, which leads to stronger mast cell activation and survival effects. These effects of both types of IgEs require Syk tyrosine kinase and can be inhibited by FcepsilonRI disaggregation with monovalent hapten. In hybridoma-transplanted mice, mucosal mast cell numbers correlate with serum IgE levels. Therefore, survival effects of IgE could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic disease.