Evolution of the capsid protein genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus: antigenic variation without accumulation of amino acid substitutions over six decades.
ABSTRACT: The genetic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C over a 6-decade period was studied by comparing nucleotide sequences of the capsid protein-coding regions of viruses isolated in Europe, South America, and The Philippines. Phylogenetic trees were derived for VP1 and P1 (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4) RNAs by using the least-squares method. Confidence intervals of the derived phylogeny (significance levels of nodes and standard deviations of branch lengths) were placed by application of the bootstrap resampling method. These procedures defined six highly significant major evolutionary lineages and a complex network of sublines for the isolates from South America. In contrast, European isolates are considerably more homogeneous, probably because of the vaccine origin of several of them. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that FMDV CGC Ger/26 (one of the earliest FMDV isolates available) belonged to an evolutionary line which is now apparently extinct. Attempts to date the origin (ancestor) of the FMDVs analyzed met with considerable uncertainty, mainly owing to the stasis noted in European viruses. Remarkably, the evolution of the capsid genes of FMDV was essentially associated with linear accumulation of silent mutations but continuous accumulation of amino acid substitutions was not observed. Thus, the antigenic variation attained by FMDV type C over 6 decades was due to fluctuations among limited combinations of amino acid residues without net accumulation of amino acid replacements over time.
Project description:Epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype A FMDV. Previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from Asia, Europe and Latin America. In this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in African serotype A FMDVs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. Twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to be of antigenic significance by analysing the capsid sequences (n?=?56) using in silico methods, and six residues by correlating capsid sequence with serum-virus neutralization data. The predicted residues were distributed on the surface-exposed capsid regions, VP1-VP3. The significance of residue changes at eight of the predicted epitopes was tested by site-directed mutagenesis using a cDNA clone resulting in the generation of 12 mutant viruses involving seven sites. The effect of the amino acid substitutions on the antigenic nature of the virus was assessed by virus neutralization (VN) test. Mutations at four different positions, namely VP1-43, VP1-45, VP2-191 and VP3-132, led to significant reduction in VN titre (P value?=?0.05, 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the antigenic regions encompassing amino acids VP1-43 to -45 (equivalent to antigenic site 3 in serotype O), VP2-191 and VP3-132 have been predicted as epitopes and evaluated serologically for serotype A FMDVs. This identifies novel capsid epitopes of recently circulating serotype A FMDVs in East Africa.
Project description:Many picornaviruses cause important diseases in humans and other animals including poliovirus, rhinoviruses (causing the common cold) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). These small, non-enveloped viruses comprise a positive-stranded RNA genome (ca. 7-9 kb) enclosed within a protein shell composed of 60 copies of three or four different capsid proteins. For the aphthoviruses (e.g. FMDV) and cardioviruses, the capsid precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the 3C protease (3Cpro) to generate VP0, VP3 and VP1 plus 2A. For enteroviruses, e.g. poliovirus, the capsid precursor is P1 alone, which is cleaved by the 3CD protease to generate just VP0, VP3 and VP1. The sequences required for correct processing of the FMDV capsid protein precursor in mammalian cells were analyzed. Truncation of the P1-2A precursor from its C-terminus showed that loss of the 2A peptide (18 residues long) and 27 residues from the C-terminus of VP1 (211 residues long) resulted in a precursor that cannot be processed by 3Cpro although it still contained two unmodified internal cleavage sites (VP0/VP3 and VP3/VP1 junctions). Furthermore, introduction of small deletions within P1-2A identified residues 185-190 within VP1 as being required for 3Cpro-mediated processing and for optimal accumulation of the precursor. Within this C-terminal region of VP1, five of these residues (YCPRP), are very highly conserved in all FMDVs and are also conserved amongst other picornaviruses. Mutant FMDV P1-2A precursors with single amino acid substitutions within this motif were highly resistant to cleavage at internal junctions. Such substitutions also abrogated virus infectivity. These results can explain earlier observations that loss of the C-terminus (including the conserved motif) from the poliovirus capsid precursor conferred resistance to processing. Thus, this motif seems essential for maintaining the correct structure of picornavirus capsid precursors prior to processing and subsequent capsid assembly; it may represent a site that interacts with cellular chaperones.
Project description:The presence of sequence divergence through adaptive mutations in the major capsid protein VP1, and also in VP0 (VP4 and VP2) and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is relevant to a broad range of viral characteristics. To explore the potential role of isolate-specific residues in the VP0 and VP3 coding regions of PanAsia-1 strains in genetic and phenotypic properties of FMDV, a series of recombinant full-length genomic clones were constructed using Cathay topotype infectious cDNA as the original backbone. The deleterious and compensatory effects of individual amino acid substitutions at positions 4008 and 3060 and in several different domains of VP2 illustrated that the chain-based spatial interaction patterns of VP1, VP2, and VP3 (VP1-3), as well as between the internal VP4 and the three external capsid proteins of FMDV, might contribute to the assembly of eventually viable viruses. The Y2079H site-directed mutants dramatically induced a decrease in plaque size on BHK-21 cells and viral pathogenicity in suckling mice. Remarkably, the 2079H-encoding viruses displayed a moderate increase in acid sensitivity correlated with NH4Cl resistance compared to the Y2079-encoding viruses. Interestingly, none of all the 16 rescued viruses were able to infect heparan sulfate-expressing CHO-K1 cells. However, viral infection in BHK-21 cells was facilitated by utilizing non-integrin-dependent, heparin-sensitive receptor(s) and replacements of four uncharged amino acids at position 3174 in VP3 of FMDV had no apparent influence on heparin affinity. These results provide particular insights into the correlation of evolutionary biology with genetic diversity in adapting populations of FMDV.IMPORTANCE The sequence variation within the capsid proteins occurs frequently in the infection of susceptible tissue cultures, reflecting the high levels of genetic diversity of FMDV. A systematic study for the functional significance of isolate-specific residues in VP0 and VP3 of FMDV PanAsia-1 strains suggested that the interaction of amino acid side chains between the N terminus of VP4 and several potential domains of VP1-3 had cascading effects on the viability and developmental characteristics of progeny viruses. Y2079H in VP0 of the indicated FMDVs could affect plaque size and pathogenicity, as well as acid sensitivity correlated with NH4Cl resistance, whereas there was no inevitable correlation in viral plaque and acid-sensitive phenotypes. The high affinity of non-integrin-dependent FMDVs for heparin might be explained by the differences in structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the surfaces of different cell lines. These results may contribute to our understanding of the distinct phenotypic properties of FMDV in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by FMDV 3C protease to yield VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. Cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is the slowest. Serotype O FMDVs with uncleaved VP1-2A (having a K210E substitution in VP1; at position P2 in cleavage site) have been described previously and acquired a second site substitution (VP1 E83K) during virus rescue. Furthermore, introduction of the VP1 E83K substitution alone generated a second site change at the VP1/2A junction (2A L2P, position P2' in cleavage site). These virus adaptations have now been analysed using next-generation sequencing to determine sub-consensus level changes in the virus; this revealed other variants within the E83K mutant virus population that changed residue VP1 K210. The construction of serotype A viruses with a blocked VP1/2A cleavage site (containing K210E) has now been achieved. A collection of alternative amino acid substitutions was made at this site, and the properties of the mutant viruses were determined. Only the presence of a positively charged residue at position P2 in the cleavage site permitted efficient cleavage of the VP1/2A junction, consistent with analyses of diverse FMDV genome sequences. Interestingly, in contrast to the serotype O virus results, no second site mutations occurred within the VP1 coding region of serotype A viruses with the blocked VP1/2A cleavage site. However, some of these viruses acquired changes in the 2C protein that is involved in enterovirus morphogenesis. These results have implications for the testing of potential antiviral agents targeting the FMDV 3C protease.
Project description:Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.
Project description:The antigenic inconsistency of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is very broad, such that a vaccine made from one isolate will not offer protection against infection with other isolates from the same serotype. Viral particles (VPs) or surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1-VP3, of FMDV determine both the antigenicity of the virus and its receptor-mediated entry into the host cell. Therefore, modifications of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. Here we show putative cavities on the FMDV-SAT1 (FMDV Southern African Territories1) capsid as possible binding sites for the receptor-mediated viral entry into the host cell. We identified three possible cavities on the FMDV capsid surface, from which the largest one (C2) is shaped in the contact regions of VP1-VP3. Our results demonstrate the significance of VP1, in the formation of FMDV-SAT1 surface cavities, which is the main component in all the identified cavities. Our findings can have profound implications in the protein engineering of FMDV in the contact region of VP1-VP3 found to be embedded in several cavities. Such information is of great significance in the context of vaccine design, as it provides the ground for future improvement of synthetic vaccines to control FMD caused by FMDV-SAT1 serotypes.
Project description:The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus composed of single stranded positive sense RNA. FMDV has been known to infect cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. FMDV is rapidly spreading outward to neighboring regions, often leading to a high mortality rate. Thus, early diagnosis of FMDV is critical to suppress propagation of FMDV and minimize economic losses. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of polyclonal and six monoclonal antibodies against VP1 through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. These VP1 antibodies will be useful as tools to detect serotypes A and O of FMDVs for diagnostic usage.
Project description:Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) utilize integrin-mediated cell entry but many, including Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses, are difficult to adapt to BHK-21 cells, thus hampering large-scale propagation of vaccine antigen. However, FMDVs acquire the ability to bind to cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans, following serial cytolytic infections in cell culture, likely by the selection of rapidly replicating FMDV variants. In this study, fourteen SAT1 and SAT2 viruses, serially passaged in BHK-21 cells, were virulent in CHO-K1 cells and displayed enhanced affinity for heparan, as opposed to their low-passage counterparts. Comparative sequence analysis revealed the fixation of positively charged residues clustered close to the icosahedral 5-fold axes of the virus, at amino acid positions 83-85 in the ?D-?E loop and 110-112 in the ?F-?G loop of VP1 upon adaptation to cultured cells. Molecular docking simulations confirmed enhanced binding of heparan sulphate to a model of the adapted SAT1 virus, with the region around VP1 arginine 112 contributing the most to binding. Using this information, eight chimeric field strain mutant viruses were constructed with additional positive charges in repeated clusters on the virion surface. Five of these bound heparan sulphate with expanded cell tropism, which should facilitate large-scale propagation. However, only positively charged residues at position 110-112 of VP1 enhanced infectivity of BHK-21 cells. The symmetrical arrangement of even a single amino acid residue in the FMD virion is a powerful strategy enabling the virus to generate novel receptor binding and alternative host-cell interactions.
Project description:The picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. The FMDV capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at pH values slightly below neutrality. This acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. In this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of FMDV acid-induced disassembly by isolating and characterizing a panel of novel FMDV mutants differing in acid sensitivity. Amino acid replacements altering virion stability were preferentially distributed in two different regions of the capsid: the N terminus of VP1 and the pentameric interface. Even more, the acid labile phenotype induced by a mutation located at the pentameric interface in VP3 could be compensated by introduction of an amino acid substitution in the N terminus of VP1. These results indicate that the acid sensitivity of FMDV can be considered a multifactorial trait and that virion stability is the fine-tuned product of the interaction between residues from different capsid proteins, in particular those located within the N terminus of VP1 or close to the pentameric interface.The viral capsid protects the viral genome from environmental factors and contributes to virus dissemination and infection. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate capsid stability is of interest for the basic knowledge of the biology of viruses and as a tool to improve the stability of conventional vaccines based on inactivated virions or empty capsids. Using foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which displays a capsid with extreme acid sensitivity, we have performed a genetic study to identify the molecular determinants involved in capsid stability. A panel of FMDV mutants with differential sensitivity to acidic pH was generated and characterized, and the results showed that two different regions of FMDV capsid contribute to modulating viral particle stability. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of acid-mediated FMDV uncoating.
Project description:The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3C(pro) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (E83K, S134C, and K210E) were identified within the VP1 region of the P1-2A precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). Expression of the O1 Manisa P1-2A (wt or with the S134C substitution in VP1) plus 3C(pro), using a transient expression system, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3C(pro) at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of "self-tagged" empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is not essential for virus viability. The production of such engineered self-tagged empty capsid particles may facilitate their purification for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.