Receptor properties of two varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins, gpI and gpIV, homologous to herpes simplex virus gE and gI.
ABSTRACT: The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome contains 70 reading frames (ORF), 5 of which encode the glycoproteins gpI, gpII, gpIII, gpIV, and gpV. ORF 67 and 68 lie adjacent to each other in the unique short region of the VZV genome and code for gpIV and gpI, respectively. These two genes, which are contained within the HindIII C fragment of the VZV genome, were subcloned in the correct orientation downstream from the promoter regions of the eukaryotic expression vectors pCMV5 and pBJ. After transfection, 5 to 20% of the Cos cells bound antibody specific for the given glycoprotein. In this study, it was shown that only the cells transfected with the gpI construct bound to the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin G. Neither the transfected gpIV gene product nor the vector only bound to the Fc fragment. Thus, VZV gpI is confirmed to be the VZV-encoded Fc-binding glycoprotein. Like the wild-type form of gpI expressed in VZV-infected cells, gpI precipitated from transfected cells contained both N-linked and O-linked glycans and was heavily sialated. In addition, the transfected gpI gene product was phosphorylated both in cell culture and in protein kinase assays by mammalian casein kinases I and II. Extensive computer-assisted analyses of the VZV gpI sequence, as well as those of alphaherpesviral homolog glycoproteins, disclosed properties similar to those of other cell surface receptors; these included (i) exocytoplasmic regions rich in cysteine residues, (ii) membrane-proximal regions with potential O-linked glycosylation sites, and (iii) cytoplasmic domains with consensus phosphorylation sites.
Project description:The unique short region of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome contains two open reading frames which encode glycoproteins designated gpI and gpIV (herpes simplex virus homologs gE and gI, respectively). Like its herpesviral counterpart gE, the VZV gpI gene product functions as a cell surface receptor (V. Litwin, W. Jackson, and C. Grose, J. Virol. 66:3643-3651, 1992). To evaluate the biosynthesis of the two VZV glycoproteins and further explore their relationship to one another, the two glycoprotein genes were individually cloned into a pTM1 vector under control of the T7 promoter. Transfection of the cloned gpI or gpIV construct into HeLa cells previously infected with vaccinia recombinant virus expressing bacteriophage T7 polymerase resulted in a much higher level expression of each VZV glycoprotein than previously achieved. Synthesis of both gpI and gpIV included intermediary partially glycosylated forms and mature N- and O-linked final product. Transfections in the presence of 32Pi demonstrated that the mature forms of both gpI and gpIV were phosphorylated, while similar experiments with [35S]sulfate showed that only the mature gpI was sulfated. When gpI and gpIV were coexpressed in the same cell, the two glycoproteins were complexed to each other, as both proteins could be immunoprecipitated by antibodies against either gpI or gpIV. Coprecipitation did not occur as a result of a shared epitope, because gpI expressed alone was not precipitated by antibody to gpIV, and gpIV expressed alone was not precipitated by antibody to gpI. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that the gpI-gpIV association occurred early in processing; furthermore, this complex formation interfered with posttranslational modifications and thereby reduced the M(r)s of the mature forms of both gpI and gpIV. Similarly, the molecular masses of the cotransfected gene products corresponded with those of the infected cell glycoproteins, a result which suggested that authentic gpI and gpIV were ordinarily found within a complex. Thus, the adjacent open reading frames 67 and 68 code for two glycoproteins which in turn form a distinctive sulfated and phosphorylated cell surface complex with receptor properties.
Project description:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpIV, to be renamed VZV gI, forms a heterodimer with glycoprotein gpI (gE) which functions as an Fc receptor in virus-infected cells. Like VZV gpI (gE), this viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated in cell culture during biosynthesis. In this report, we investigated the nature and specificity of the phosphorylation event involving VZV gpIV (gI). Phosphoamino acid analysis indicated that gpIV (gI) was modified mainly on serine residues. To identify the precise location of the phosphorylation site on the 64-kDa protein, a step-by-step mutagenesis procedures was followed. Initially a tailless mutant was generated, and this truncated product was no longer phosphorylated. Thereafter, point mutations were made within the cytoplasmic tail of gpIV (gI) at potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation site was localized to the following sequence: Ser-Pro-Pro (amino acids 343 to 345). Examination of the point mutants established that serine 343 in the cytoplasmic tail was the major phosphoacceptor. In addition, we found that the prolines located immediately to the C terminus of serine 343 were an integral part of the kinase recognition sequence. This site was located immediately N terminal to a predicted beta-turn secondary structure. By comparison with known substrate consensus sequences for various protein kinases, these data suggested that the phosphorylation of VZV gpIV (gI) was catalyzed by a proline-directed protein kinase. Computer homology analysis of other alphaherpesviruses demonstrated that a similar potential phosphorylation site was highly conserved in the cytoplasmic tails of herpes simplex virus type 1 gI, equine herpesvirus type 1 gI, and pseudorabies virus gp63.
Project description:In 2010, a universal nomenclature for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) clades was established, which is very useful in the monitoring of viral evolution, recombination, spread and genetic diversity. Currently, information about VZV clades has been disclosed worldwide, however, there are limited data regarding the characterization of circulating VZV clades in China, even where varicella remains widely epidemic.From 2008 to 2012, clinical samples with varicella or zoster were collected in General Hospital in eight provinces and analyzed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The viral clades were determined by analysis of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 447-bp fragment of open reading frame (ORF) 22, and the restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of ORF 38 (PstI), ORF 54 (BglI) and ORF 62 (SmaI) were evaluated to understand genetic diversity of VZV and determinate varicella vaccine adverse event (VVAE).Seventy-seven varicella and 11 zoster samples were identified as being positive for VZV. The five SNPs profile showed that the majority of VZV strains belonged to clade 2, but clade 5 and clade 4 strains were also found in Guangdong. The RFLPs analysis of the DNA fragments of ORF 38, 54 and 62 showed that 85 of these samples were characterized as PstI + BglI + SamI-, and the remaining three VZV strains from varicella patients were characterized as PstI-BglI + SamI+ which is the genetic profile of VVAEs.The study suggested that the predominant clade 2 VZVs had been continually circulating since at least the 1950s in China. Nearly all VZV strains except VVAEs possessed the genetic profile of PstI + BglI + Sam-. However, the other clades were also found to be co-circulating with clade 2, especially in the border regions. These results highlighted the need for the constant and broad use of virologic surveillance to provide an important genetic baseline for varicella control and vaccination programs in China.
Project description:We developed a single-tube rapid method for the detection and differentiation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine and wild-type strains that combines rapid-cycle PCR with wild-type-specific fluorescent probe melting profiles for product genotyping. A region including the polymorphic site in VZV open reading frame (ORF) 62 was amplified in the presence of two fluorescence-labeled hybridization probes. During the annealing step of the thermal cycling, both probes bound to their complementary sequences in the amplicon, resulting in resonance energy transfer, thus providing real-time fluorescence monitoring of PCR. Continuous acquisition of fluorescence data during a melting curve analysis at the completion of PCR revealed that loss of fluorescence occurred in a strain-specific manner as the detection probe, which was fully complementary to the wild-type VZV ORF 62 region, melted off the template. Use of this method allowed genotyping of samples within minutes after the completion of PCR, eliminating the need for post-PCR sample manipulation. In addition to reducing the time required to produce a result, this method substantially reduces the risk of contamination of the final product as well as the risk of sample tracking errors. The genotypes of 79 VZV-positive samples determined by this fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) method were identical to the genotypes obtained by conventional PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The genotyping of VZV strains by the FRET method is a rapid and reliable method that is suitable for typing and that is also practical for use for the processing of large numbers of specimens.
Project description:We report the discovery of a novel gene in the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome, designated open reading frame (ORF) S/L. This gene, located at the left end of the prototype VZV genome isomer, expresses a polyadenylated mRNA containing a splice within the 3' untranslated region in virus-infected cells. Sequence analysis reveals significant differences between the ORF S/Ls of wild-type and attenuated strains of VZV. Antisera raised to a bacterially expressed portion of ORF S/L reacted specifically with a 21-kDa protein synthesized in cells infected with a VZV clinical isolate and with the original vaccine strain of VZV (Oka-ATCC). Cells infected with other VZV strains, including a wild-type strain that has been extensively passaged in tissue culture and commercially produced vaccine strains of Oka, synthesize a family of proteins ranging in size from 21 to 30 kDa that react with the anti-ORF S/L antiserum. MeWO cells infected with recombinant VZV harboring mutations in the C-terminal region of the ORF S/L gene lost adherence to the stratum and adjacent cells, resulting in an altered plaque morphology. Immunohistochemical analysis of VZV-infected cells demonstrated that ORF S/L protein localizes to the cytoplasm. ORF S/L protein was present in skin lesions of individuals with primary or reactivated infection and in the neurons of a dorsal root ganglion during virus reactivation.
Project description:The present study aimed to explore the effects of a stabilizing ligand, Shield?1, on the replication of recombinant varicella?zoster virus (VZV) containing FK506 binding protein (FKPB) tags in essential open reading frames (ORF) 4 and 48. A specific galactokinase (galK) selection method was conducted, following the addition of galK labels to VZV ORF4 and 48, using a SW102 VZV bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Subsequently, recombinant VZV containing FKPB tags in ORF4 and 48 was constructed by counterselection and homologous recombination. Recombinant viral plasmids containing FKPB?tagged VZV ORF4 and 48 were extracted and transfected into human acute retinal pigment epithelial ARPE?19 cells. The results demonstrated that the FKPB?tagged viral protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in recombinant virus?infected ARPE?19 cells. In addition, the recombinant VZVORF4?FKBP?ORF48?FKBP virus could not grow if a synthetic ligand of FKBP, Shield1, was not added to the ARPE?19 cell culture medium; however, the degradation of FKPB?tagged viral protein was prevented if Shield1 was added to the ARPE?19 cell culture medium, thereby allowing viral replication in ARPE?19 cells. These results indicated that Shield1 may regulate replication of recombinant VZVORF4?FKBP?ORF48?FKBP following transfection into human epithelial cells.
Project description:The cell surface of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana is coated by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins, a GPI-anchored lipophosphoglycan and a class of free GPI glycolipids. To investigate whether the anchor or free GPIs are required for parasite growth we cloned the L.mexicana gene for dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase (DPMS) and attempted to create DPMS knockout mutants by targeted gene deletion. DPMS catalyzes the formation of dolichol-phosphate mannose, the sugar donor for all mannose additions in the biosynthesis of both the anchor and free GPIs, except for a alpha1-3-linked mannose residue that is added exclusively to the free GPIs and lipophosphoglycan anchor precursors. The requirement for dolichol-phosphate-mannose in other glycosylation pathways in L.mexicana is minimal. Deletion of both alleles of the DPMS gene (lmdpms) consistently resulted in amplification of the lmdpms chromosomal locus unless the promastigotes were first transfected with an episomal copy of lmdpms, indicating that lmdpms, and possibly GPI biosynthesis, is essential for parasite growth. As evidence presented in this and previous studies indicates that neither GPI-anchored glycoproteins nor lipophosphoglycan are required for growth of cultured parasites, it is possible that the abundant and functionally uncharacterized free GPIs are essential membrane components.
Project description:The neurotropic herpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in humans following primary infection. The low abundance of VZV nucleic acids in human neurons has hindered an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate viral gene transcription during latency. To overcome this critical barrier, we optimized a targeted capture protocol to enrich VZV DNA and cDNA prior to whole-genome/transcriptome sequence analysis. Since the VZV genome is remarkably stable, it was surprising to detect that VZV32, a VZV laboratory strain with no discernible growth defect in tissue culture, contained a 2,158-bp deletion in open reading frame (ORF) 12. Consequently, ORF 12 and 13 protein expression was abolished and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited. The discovery of the ORF 12 deletion, revealed through targeted genome sequencing analysis, points to the need to authenticate the VZV genome when the virus is propagated in tissue culture.IMPORTANCE Viruses isolated from clinical samples often undergo genetic modifications when cultured in the laboratory. Historically, VZV is among the most genetically stable herpesviruses, a notion supported by more than 60 complete genome sequences from multiple isolates and following multiple in vitro passages. However, application of enrichment protocols to targeted genome sequencing revealed the unexpected deletion of a significant portion of VZV ORF 12 following propagation in cultured human fibroblast cells. While the enrichment protocol did not introduce bias in either the virus genome or transcriptome, the findings indicate the need for authentication of VZV by sequencing when the virus is propagated in tissue culture.
Project description:We have previously described the activation of RBL-2H3 mast cells for IL-4 production by Mycoplasma pneumoniae but the mechanism remains unclear. M. pneumoniae binds eukaryotic cells primarily through sialoglycoproteins on the target cell surface. This study was undertaken to determine whether the sialated FcepsilonRI alpha chain on RBL cells is important for M. pneumoniae-induced IL-4 production. We found that IgE-mediated IL-4 release by a series of RBL sublines correlated with the release induced by M. pneumoniae. Further, aggregation of FcgammaRII (CD32) in RBL cells using a monoclonal antibody inhibited both IgE-mediated and mycoplasma-induced IL-4 production, providing further evidence for an Fc receptor-mediated mechanism of activation. To examine the role of FcepsilonRI in mycoplasma-induced IL-4 release, we created stably transfected RBL sublines using a vector expressing a short hairpin sequence designed to inhibit message for the FcepsilonRI alpha chain. IgE-induced IL-4 production by the transfected sublines was reduced in similar proportion to the degree of message suppression. M. pneumoniae-induced IL-4 production in the four transfected sublines was completely blocked in contrast to results with the controls or parent RBL cells. We conclude that the heavily glycosylated FcepsilonRI alpha chain is required for activation of mast cells for IL-4 production by M. pneumoniae.
Project description:A new method was developed to identify and differentiate varicella-zoster virus (VZV) wild-type strains from the attenuated varicella Oka vaccine strain. The PCR technique was used to amplify a VZV open reading frame (ORF) 62 region. A single specific amplicon of 268 bp was obtained from 71 VZV clinical isolates and several laboratory strains. Subsequent digestion of the VZV ORF 62 amplicons with SmaI enabled accurate strain differentiation (three SmaI sites were present in amplicons of vaccine strain VZV, compared with two enzyme cleavage sites for all other VZV strains tested). This method accurately differentiated the Oka vaccine strain from wild-type VZV strains circulating in countries representing all six populated continents. Moreover, the assay more reliably distinguished wild-type Japanese strains from the vaccine strain than did previously described methods.