Phenotypes of murine leukemia virus-induced tumors: influence of 3' viral coding sequences.
ABSTRACT: Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) induce leukemias and lymphomas in mice. We have used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to determine the hematopoietic phenotypes of tumor cells induced by a number of MuLVs. Tumor cells induced by ecotropic Moloney, amphotropic 4070A, and 10A1 MuLVs and by two chimeric MuLVs, Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1), were examined with antibodies to 13 lineage-specific cell surface markers found on myeloid cell, T-cell, and B-cell lineages. The chimeric Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1) MuLVs, consisting of Moloney MuLV with the carboxy half of the Pol region and nearly all of the Env region of 4070A and 10A1, respectively, were constructed to examine the possible influence of these sequences on Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cell phenotypes. In some instances, these phenotypic analyses were supplemented by Southern blot analysis for lymphoid cell-specific genomic DNA rearrangements at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain, the T-cell receptor gamma, and the T-cell receptor beta loci. The results of our analysis showed that Moloney MuLV, 4070A, Mo(4070A), and Mo(10A1) induced mostly T-cell tumors. Moloney MuLV and Mo(4070A) induced a wide variety of T-cell phenotypes, ranging from immature to mature phenotypes, while 4070A induced mostly prothymocyte and double-negative (CD4- CD8-) T-cell tumors. The tumor phenotypes obtained with 10A1 and Mo(10A1) were each less variable than those obtained with the other MuLVs tested. 10A1 uniformly induced a tumor consisting of lineage marker-negative cells that lack lymphoid cell-specific DNA rearrangements and histologically appear to be early undifferentiated erythroid cell-like precursors. The Mo(10A1) chimera consistently induced an intermediate T-cell tumor. The chimeric constructions demonstrated that while 4070A 3' pol and env sequences apparently did not influence the observed tumor cell phenotypes, the 10A1 half of pol and env had a strong effect on the phenotypes induced by Mo(10A1) that resulted in a phenotypic consistency not seen with other viruses. This result implicates 10A1 env in an active role in the tumorigenic process.
Project description:Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) initiate infection of NIH 3T3 cells by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a cell surface receptor. Interference assays have shown that MuLVs can be divided into four groups, each using a distinct receptor: ecotropic, polytropic, amphotropic, and 10A1. In this study, we have attempted to map the determinants within viral Env proteins by constructing chimeric env genes. Chimeras were made in all six pairwise combinations between Moloney MCF (a polytropic MuLV), amphotropic MuLV, and 10A1, using a conserved EcoRI site in the middle of the Env coding region. The receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity seems to map to the N-terminal portion of surface glycoprotein gp70SU. The difference between amphotropic and 10A1 receptor specificity can be attributed to one or more of only six amino acid differences in this region. Nearly all other cases showed evidence of interaction between Env domains in the generation of receptor specificity. Thus, a chimera composed exclusively of MCF and amphotropic sequences was found to exhibit 10A1 receptor specificity. None of the chimeras were able to infect cells by using the MCF receptor; however, two chimeras containing the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU could bind to this receptor, while they were able to infect cells via the amphotropic receptor. This result raises the possibility that receptor binding maps to the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU but requires MCF N-terminal sequences for a functional interaction with the MCF receptor.
Project description:Polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are generated by recombination of ecotropic MuLVs with env genes of a family of endogenous proviruses in mice, resulting in viruses with an expanded host range and greater virulence. Inbred mouse strains contain numerous endogenous proviruses that are potential donors of the env gene sequences of polytropic MuLVs; however, the precise identification of those proviruses that participate in recombination has been elusive. Three different structural groups of proviruses in NFS/N mice have been described and different ecotropic MuLVs preferentially recombine with different groups of proviruses. In contrast to other ecotropic MuLVs such as Friend MuLV or Akv that recombine predominantly with a single group of proviruses, Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) recombines with at least two distinct groups. In this study, we determined that only three endogenous proviruses, two of one group and one of another group, are major participants in recombination with M-MuLV. Furthermore, the distinction between the polytropic MuLVs generated by M-MuLV and other ecotropic MuLVs is the result of recombination with a single endogenous provirus. This provirus exhibits a frameshift mutation in the 3' region of the surface glycoprotein-encoding sequences that is excluded in recombinants with M-MuLV. The sites of recombination between the env genes of M-MuLV and endogenous proviruses were confined to a short region exhibiting maximum homology between the ecotropic and polytropic env sequences and maximum stability of predicted RNA secondary structure. These observations suggest a possible mechanism for the specificity of recombination observed for different ecotropic MuLVs.
Project description:Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) M813 was originally isolated from the Southeast Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. As with the ecotropic MuLVs derived from Mus musculus, its host range is limited to rodent cells. Earlier studies have mapped its receptor to chromosome 2, but it has not been established whether M813 shares a common receptor with any other MuLVs. In this study, we have performed interference assays with M813 and viruses from four interference groups of MuLV. The infection efficiency of M813 was not compromised in cells expressing any one of the other MuLVs, demonstrating that M813 must use a distinct receptor for cell entry. The entire M813 env coding region was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other MuLVs but with a unique receptor-binding domain. Substitution of M813 env sequences in Moloney MuLV resulted in a replication-competent virus with a host range and interference profile similar to those of the biological clone M813. M813 thus defines a novel receptor interference group of type C MuLVs.
Project description:Retroviruses can be used to accelerate hematopoietic cancers predisposed to neoplastic disease by prior genetic manipulations such as in transgenic or knockout mice. The virus imparts a second neoplastic "hit," providing evidence that the initial hit is transforming. In the present study, a unique retrovirus was developed that can induce a high incidence of myeloid disease and has a broad host range. This agent is a Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV)-based virus that has most of the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) replaced with that of retrovirus 4070A. Like Mo-MuLV, this virus, called MOL4070LTR, is NB-tropic and not restricted by Fv1 allelles. MOL4070LTR causes myeloid leukemias in ca. 50% of mice, a finding in contrast to Mo-MuLV, which induces almost exclusively lymphoid disease. The data suggest that the LTR of the 4070A virus expands the tissue tropism of the disease to the myeloid lineage. Interesting, MCF recombinant envelope was expressed in the lymphoid but not the myeloid neoplasms of BALB/c mice. This retrovirus has the potential for accelerating myeloid disease in genetically engineered mice.
Project description:To identify retroviral antigenic determinants recognized by CD4+ T helper cells during tumor rejection, we established four noncytolytic, helper-type, CD4+ T-cell clones by limiting dilution cultures of mixed lymphocyte-tumor cultures from mice immune to a Friend virus-induced tumor, FBL-3. Among these, three T helper cell clones were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and the fourth was isolated from a (BALB/c x C57BL/6)F1 mouse. All these clones proliferated in response to the immunizing FBL-3 tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted manner. Each clone expressed a distinct T-cell receptor with a characteristic combination of alpha and beta chains. The localization of helper T-cell determinants on viral proteins was analyzed with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) gag or env genes or shorter fragments of the env gene. Epitopes recognized by these T-cell clones were mapped to at least two distinct portions in the env region of the F-MuLV genome. These epitopes were identified more precisely with synthetic peptides derived from the F-MuLV envelope protein sequence. One of these epitopes was common to Friend and Moloney MuLVs and was located in the N-terminal region of the gp70 glycoprotein at amino acids 122 to 141. The second epitope, which was recognized in the context of hybrid I-Eb/d major histocompatibility complex class II molecule, was located close to the C-terminal end of gp70 at amino acids 462 to 479. In addition, a possible third epitope was located in the N-terminal half of the gp70 sequence and differed from the first epitope in that it was not cross-reactive with the Moloney MuLV envelope protein.
Project description:Passage of 4070A murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in D17 cells resulted in a G-to-R change at position 100 within the VRA of the envelope protein (Env). Compared with 4070A MuLV, virus with the G100R Env displayed enhanced binding on target cells, internalized the virus more rapidly, and increased the overall viral titer in multiple cell types. This provides a direct correlation between binding strength and efficiency of viral entry. Deletion of a His residue at the SU N terminus eliminated the transduction efficiency by the G100R virus, suggesting that the G100R virus maintains the regulatory characteristics of 4070A viral entry. The improved transduction efficiency of G100R Env would be an asset for gene delivery systems.
Project description:One of the unique features of gammaretroviruses is that they contain an additional extended form of Gag, glyco-gag, which initiates in the leader sequence. MuLV glyco-gag, gPr80Gag, promotes retrovirus replication and disease progression. Although virtually all infectious MuLVs encode glyco-gag, XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) lacks the classical gPr80Gag sequence. We examined XMRV to determine if its leader sequence contains glyco-gag activity, whether the presence of conventional gPr80Gag affects replication of XMRV, and we describe the evolution of glyco-gag-deficient MuLVs in Mus.We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. Infectivity assays with several cell lines showed that glyco-gag increases XMRV infectivity in all cell lines tested, but the level of this increase varies in different cell lines. Because MuLV glyco-gag counteracts mouse APOBEC3, we investigated whether M-MuLV glyco-gag enhances XMRV infection by counteracting human APOBEC3. Comparison of hAPOBEC3 isoforms expressed in different cell lines indicated that hA3B was the most likely candidate for a restrictive hA3. However over-expression of hA3B showed no enhanced restriction of infection by XMRV compared to MXMRV. Endogenous MuLVs in the sequenced mouse genome were screened for canonical glyco-gag, which was identified in two clades of xenotropic MuLVs (X-MuLVs) and ecotropic MuLVs, but not in other X-MuLVs or in any polytropic MuLVs.M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitates XMRV replication, and the leader sequence region in XMRV does not encode proteins equivalent to M-MuLV glyco-gag. The fact that the ability of glyco-gag to enhance XMRV infection varies in different cell lines suggests a glyco-gag sensitive restrictive factor that further reduces XMRV infectivity. The M-MuLV glyco-gag enhancement for XMRV replication is through a hAPOBEC3 independent mechanism. The absence of glyco-gag in MuLVs carried by western European mice suggests that loss of this sequence is a relatively recent event with limited subspecies distribution.
Project description:Two types of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs), termed AKV- and Cas-E-type MuLVs, differ in nucleotide sequence and distribution in wild mouse subspecies. In contrast to AKV-type MuLV, Cas-E-type MuLV is not carried by common laboratory mice. Wild mice of Mus musculus (M. m.) castaneus carry multiple copies of Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV, including the Fv-4(r) gene that is a truncated form of integrated MuLV and functions as a host's resistance gene against ecotropic MuLV infection. Our genetic cross experiments showed that only the Fv-4(r) gene was associated with resistance to ecotropic F-MuLV infection. Because the spontaneous expression of infectious virus was not detected in M. m. castaneus, we generated mice that did not carry the Fv-4(r) gene but did carry a single or a few endogenous MuLV loci. In mice not carrying the Fv-4(r) gene, infectious MuLVs were isolated in association with three of six Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV loci. The isolated viruses showed a weak syncytium-forming activity for XC cells, an interfering property of ecotropic MuLV, and a slight antigenic variation. Two genomic DNAs containing endogenous Cas-E-type MuLV were cloned and partially sequenced. All of the Cas-E-type endogenous MuLVs were closely related, hybrid-type viruses with an ecotropic env gene and a xenotropic long terminal repeat. Duplications and a deletion were found in a restricted region of the hypervariable proline-rich region of Env glycoprotein.
Project description:Chimeras were previously generated between the ecotropic (Moloney-MuLV) and amphotropic (4070A) SU and TM proteins of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). After passage in D17 cells, three chimeras with junctions in the C terminus of SU (AE5, AE6, and AE7), showed improved kinetics of viral spreading, suggesting that they had adapted. Sequencing of the viruses derived from the D17 cell lines revealed second-site changes within the env gene. Changes were detected in the receptor binding domain, the proline-rich region, the C terminus of SU, and the ectodomain of TM. Second-site changes were subcloned into the parental DNA, singly and in combination, and tested for viability. All viruses had maintained their original cloned mutations and junctions. Reconstruction and passage of AE7 or AE6 virus with single point mutations recovered the additional second-site changes identified in the parental population. The AE5 isolate required changes in the VRA, the VRC, the VRB-hinge region, and the C terminus of SU for efficient infection. Passage of virus, including the parental 4070A, in D17 cells resulted in a predominant G100R mutation within the receptor binding domain. Viruses were subjected to titer determination in three cell types, NIH 3T3, canine D17, and 293T. AE6 viruses with changes in the proline-rich region initially adapted for growth on D17 cells could infect all cell types tested. AE6-based chimeras with additional mutations in the C terminus of SU could infect D17 and 293T cells. Infection of NIH 3T3 cells was dependent on the proline-rich mutation. AE7-based chimeras encoding L538Q and G100R were impaired in infecting NIH 3T3 and 293T cells.
Project description:PVC-441 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a member of the PVC group of Friend MuLV (F-MuLV)-derived neuropathogenic retroviruses. In order to determine the molecular basis for the difference in neuropathogenicity between PVC-441 and the previously characterized PVC-211 MuLVs, the entire nucleotide sequence of PVC-441 MuLV was determined and compared with those of PVC-211 and F-MuLV. The results suggest that PVC-441 and PVC-211 MuLVs were formed as a result of random mutations of F-MuLV and developed differently. The distinct pathogenicities of PVC-441 and PVC-211 MuLVs were maintained in the viruses regenerated from their molecular clones, and the sequences responsible for the pathological differences observed can be localized to the env gene. The amino acid sequence of PVC-441 deduced from its nucleotide sequence revealed a number of differences from PVC-211, the most striking of which was a difference at position 129 of the SU proteins in the two viruses. Host range studies with a brain capillary endothelial cell line (RTEC-6) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) revealed that PVC-441, like PVC-211, could infect these cells but its efficiency of infection was lower than that of PVC-211. These results may account for the difference in neuropathogenicity between PVC-441 and PVC-211.