Cdc1p is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized putative lipid phosphatase that affects Golgi inheritance and actin polarization by activating Ca2+ signaling.
ABSTRACT: In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in the essential gene CDC1 cause defects in Golgi inheritance and actin polarization. However, the biochemical function of Cdc1p is unknown. Previous work showed that cdc1 mutants accumulate intracellular Ca(2+) and display enhanced sensitivity to the extracellular Mn(2+) concentration, suggesting that Cdc1p might regulate divalent cation homeostasis. By contrast, our data indicate that Cdc1p is a Mn(2+)-dependent protein that can affect Ca(2+) levels. We identified a cdc1 allele that activates Ca(2+) signaling but does not show enhanced sensitivity to the Mn(2+) concentration. Furthermore, our studies show that Cdc1p is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized transmembrane protein with a putative phosphoesterase domain facing the lumen. cdc1 mutant cells accumulate an unidentified phospholipid, suggesting that Cdc1p may be a lipid phosphatase. Previous work showed that deletion of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel Cch1p partially suppressed the cdc1 growth phenotype, and we find that deletion of Cch1p also suppresses the Golgi inheritance and actin polarization phenotypes. The combined data fit a model in which the cdc1 mutant phenotypes result from accumulation of a phosphorylated lipid that activates Ca(2+) signaling.
Project description:Temperature-sensitive cdc1(ts) mutants are reported to stop the cell cycle upon a shift to 30°C in early G2, that is, as small budded cells having completed DNA replication but unable to duplicate the spindle pole body. A recent report showed that PGAP5, a human homologue of CDC1, acts as a phosphodiesterase removing an ethanolamine phosphate (EtN-P) from mannose 2 of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, thus permitting efficient endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport of GPI proteins. We find that the essential CDC1 gene can be deleted in mcd4? cells, which do not attach EtN-P to mannose 1 of the GPI anchor, suggesting that Cdc1 removes the EtN-P added by Mcd4. Cdc1-314(ts) mutants do not accumulate GPI proteins in the ER but have a partial secretion block later in the secretory pathway. Growth tests and the genetic interaction profile of cdc1-314(ts) pinpoint a distinct cell wall defect. Osmotic support restores GPI protein secretion and actin polarization but not growth. Cell walls of cdc1-314(ts) mutants contain large amounts of GPI proteins that are easily released by ?-glucanases and not attached to cell wall ?1,6-glucans and that retain their original GPI anchor lipid. This suggests that the presumed transglycosidases Dfg5 and Dcw1 of cdc1-314(ts) transfer GPI proteins to cell wall ?1,6-glucans inefficiently.
Project description:The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling activates virulence expression during hyphal development in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans. The hyphal growth is characterized by Golgi polarization toward the hyphal tips, which is thought to enhance directional vesicle transport. However, how the hypha-induction signal regulates Golgi polarization is unknown. Gyp1, a Golgi-associated protein and the first GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in the Rab GAP cascade, critically regulates membrane trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we report a novel pathway by which the cAMP-PKA signaling triggers Golgi polarization during hyphal growth. We demonstrate that Gyp1 plays a crucial role in actin-dependent Golgi polarization. Hyphal induction activates PKA, which in turn phosphorylates Gyp1. Phosphomimetic mutation of four PKA sites identified by mass spectrometry (Gyp1(4E)) caused strong Gyp1 polarization to hyphal tips, whereas nonphosphorylatable mutations (Gyp1(4A)) abolished it. Gyp1(4E) exhibited enhanced association with the actin motor Myo2, while Gyp1(4A) showed the opposite effect, providing a possible mechanism for Golgi polarization. A GAP-dead Gyp1 (Gyp1(R292K)) showed strong polarization similar to that seen with Gyp1(4E), indicating a role for the GAP activity. Mutating the PKA sites on Gyp1 also impaired the recruitment of a late Golgi marker, Sec7. Furthermore, proper PKA phosphorylation and GAP activity of Gyp1 are required for virulence in mice. We propose that the cAMP-PKA signaling directly targets Gyp1 to promote Golgi polarization in the yeast-to-hypha transition, an event crucial for C. albicans infection.
Project description:Neural cell differentiation involves a complex regulatory signal transduction network in which Ca(2+) ions and the secretory pathway play pivotal roles. The secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 (SPCA1) is found in the Golgi apparatus where it is actively involved in the transport of Ca(2+) or Mn(2+) from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen. Its expression during brain development in different types of neurons has been documented recently, which raises the possibility that SPCA1 contributes to neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the potential impact of SPCA1 on neuronal polarization both in a cell line and in primary neuronal culture. In N2a neuroblastoma cells, SPCA1 was immunocytochemically localized in the juxtanuclear Golgi. Knockdown of SPCA1 by RNA interference markedly delayed the differentiation in these cells. The cells retarded in differentiation showed increased numbers of neurites of reduced length compared with control cells. Ca(2+) imaging assays showed that the lack of SPCA1 impaired Golgi Ca(2+) homeostasis and resulted in disturbed trafficking of different classes of proteins including normally Golgi-localized cameleon GT-YC3.3, bearing a Golgi-specific galactosyltransferase N terminus, and a normally plasma membrane-targeted, glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored cyan fluorescent protein construct. Also in hippocampal primary neurons, which showed a differential distribution of SPCA1 expression in Golgi stacks depending on differentiation stage, partial silencing of SPCA1 resulted in delayed differentiation, whereas total suppression drastically affected the cell survival. The disturbed overall cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and/or the altered targeting of organellar proteins under conditions of SPCA1 knockdown highlight the importance of SPCA1 function for normal neural differentiation.
Project description:SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca(2+) on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER-Golgi transport.
Project description:The mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the Golgi are incompletely understood. Using Aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late Golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose Golgi identity while acquiring post-Golgi RabE(RAB11) identity. This behavior of late Golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. Post-Golgi RabE(RAB11) carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. These carriers, which are loaded with kinesin, dynein, and MyoE(MYO5), move on a microtubule-based bidirectional conveyor belt relaying them to actin, which ultimately focuses exocytosis at the apex. Dynein drags RabE(RAB11) carriers away if engagement of MyoE(MYO5) to actin cables fails. Microtubules seemingly cooperating with F-actin capture can sustain secretion if MyoE(MYO5) is absent. Thus, filamentous fungal secretion involving post-Golgi carriers is remarkably similar, mechanistically, to the transport of melanosomes in melanocyte dendrites, even though melanosome biogenesis involves lysosomes rather than Golgi.
Project description:Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for highly contagious infection and huge economic losses in pig industry. Two species, PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are distinguished, PRRSV-1 being more prevalent in Europe. PRRSV-1 can further be divided in subtypes. PRRSV-1.3 such as Lena are more pathogenic than PRRSV-1.1 such as Lelystad or Flanders13. PRRSV-1.3 viruses trigger a higher Th1 response than PRRSV-1.1, although the role of the cellular immune response in PRRSV clearance remains ill defined. The pathogenicity as well as the T cell response inductions may be differentially impacted according to the capacity of the virus strain to infect and/or activate DCs. However, the interactions of PRRSV with in vivo-differentiated-DC subtypes such as conventional DC1 (cDC1), cDC2, and monocyte-derived DCs (moDC) have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, DC subpopulations from Lena in vivo infected pigs were analyzed for viral genome detection. This experiment demonstrates that cDC1, cDC2, and moDC are not infected in vivo by Lena. Analysis of DC cytokines production revealed that cDC1 are clearly activated in vivo by Lena. In vitro comparison of 3 Europeans strains revealed no infection of the cDC1 and cDC2 and no or little infection of moDC with Lena, whereas the two PRRSV-1.1 strains infect none of the 3 DC subtypes. In vitro investigation of T helper polarization and cytokines production demonstrate that Lena induces a higher Th1 polarization and IFN? secretion than FL13 and LV. Altogether, this work suggests an activation of cDC1 by Lena associated with a Th1 immune response polarization.
Project description:Ca(2+) release from the Golgi apparatus regulates key functions of the organelle, including vesicle trafficking. We found that the Golgi apparatus was the source of prolonged Ca(2+) release events that originated near the nuclei of primary cardiomyocytes. Golgi Ca(2+) release was unaffected by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), and disruption of the Golgi apparatus abolished Golgi Ca(2+) release without affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum function, suggesting functional and spatial independence of Golgi and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. ?1-Adrenoceptor stimulation triggers the production of the second messenger cAMP, which activates the Epac family of Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors and the kinase PKA (protein kinase A). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including those in the PDE3 and PDE4 families, degrade cAMP. Activation of ?1-adrenoceptors stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release, an effect that required activation of Epac, PKA, and the kinase CaMKII. Inhibition of PDE3s or PDE4s potentiated ?1-adrenergic-induced Golgi Ca(2+) release, which is consistent with compartmentalization of cAMP signaling near the Golgi apparatus. Interventions that stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release appeared to increase the trafficking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) from the Golgi apparatus to the surface membrane of cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes from rats with heart failure, decreases in the abundance of PDE3s and PDE4s were associated with increased Golgi Ca(2+) release events. These data suggest that the Golgi apparatus is a focal point for ?1-adrenergic-stimulated Ca(2+) signaling and that the Golgi Ca(2+) store functions independently from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the global Ca(2+) transients that trigger contraction in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Shiga toxin (Stx) binds to the cell, and it is transported via endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol, where it exerts its toxic effect. We have recently shown that Stx activates the tyrosine kinase Syk, which in turn induces clathrin phosphorylation and up-regulates Stx uptake. Here, we show that toxin-induced signaling can also regulate another step in intracellular Stx transport. We demonstrate that transport of Stx to the Golgi apparatus is dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Treatment of cells with chemical inhibitors or small interfering RNA targeting p38 inhibited Stx transport to the Golgi and reduced Stx toxicity. This p38 dependence is specific to Stx, because transport of the related toxin ricin was not affected by p38 inhibition. Stx rapidly activated p38, and recruited it to early endosomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Furthermore, agonist-induced oscillations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels were inhibited upon Stx stimulation, possibly reflecting Stx-dependent local alterations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Intracellular transport of Stx is Ca(2+) dependent, and we provide evidence that Stx activates a signaling cascade involving cross talk between Ca(2+) and p38, to regulate its trafficking to the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn(2+)/Ca(2+) transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn(2+) transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn(2+) transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment.
Project description:Manganese is a trace element that is an essential co-factor in many enzymes critical to diverse biological pathways. However, excess Mn(2+) leads to neurotoxicity, with psychiatric and motor dysfunction resembling parkinsonism. The liver is the main organ for Mn(2+) detoxification by excretion into bile. Although many pathways of cellular Mn(2+) uptake have been established, efflux mechanisms remain essentially undefined. In this study, we evaluated a potential role in Mn(2+) detoxification by the Secretory Pathway Ca(2+), Mn(2+)-ATPase in rat liver and a liver-derived cell model WIF-B that polarizes to distinct bile canalicular and sinusoidal domains in culture. Of two known isoforms, only secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 (SPCA1) was expressed in liver and WIF-B cells. As previously observed in non-polarized cells, SPCA1 showed overlapping distribution with TGN38, consistent with Golgi/TGN localization. However, a prominent novel localization of SPCA1 to an endosomal population close to, but not on the basolateral membrane was also observed. This was confirmed by fractionation of rat liver homogenates which revealed dual distribution of SPCA1 to the Golgi/TGN and a fraction that included the early endosomal marker, EEA1. We suggest that this novel pool of endosomes may serve to sequester Mn(2+) as it enters from the sinusoidal/basolateral domains. Isoform-specific partial knockdown of SPCA1 delayed cell growth and formation of canalicular domain by about 30% and diminished viability upon exposure to Mn(2+). Conversely, overexpression of SPCA1 in HEK 293T cells conferred tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for SPCA1 in Mn(2+) detoxification in liver.