Large-scale phosphorylation mapping reveals the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation regulates a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we report the proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in Arabidopsis by using complementary phosphopeptide enrichment techniques coupled with high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Using unfractionated whole cell lysates of Arabidopsis, we identified 2597 phosphopeptides with 2172 high-confidence, unique phosphorylation sites from 1346 proteins. The distribution of phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine sites was 85.0, 10.7, and 4.3%. Although typical tyrosine-specific protein kinases are absent in Arabidopsis, the proportion of phosphotyrosines among the phospho-residues in Arabidopsis is similar to that in humans, where over 90 tyrosine-specific protein kinases have been identified. In addition, the tyrosine phosphoproteome shows features distinct from those of the serine and threonine phosphoproteomes. Taken together, we highlight the extent and contribution of tyrosine phosphorylation in plants.
Project description:Deregulated cellular signalling is a common hallmark of disease, and delineating tissue phosphoproteomes is key to unravelling the underlying mechanisms. Here we present the broadest tissue catalogue of phosphoproteins to date, covering 31,480 phosphorylation sites on 7,280 proteins quantified across 14 rat organs and tissues. We provide the data set as an easily accessible resource via a web-based database, the CPR PTM Resource. A major fraction of the presented phosphorylation sites are tissue-specific and modulate protein interaction networks that are essential for the function of individual organs. For skeletal muscle, we find that phosphotyrosines are over-represented, which is mainly due to proteins involved in glycogenolysis and muscle contraction, a finding we validate in human skeletal muscle biopsies. Tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in both skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, whereas glycogenolytic enzymes are tyrosine phosphorylated in skeletal muscle but not in the liver. The presented phosphoproteomic method is simple and rapid, making it applicable for screening of diseased tissue samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of proteins plays a crucial role in the regulation and activation of metabolic and signaling pathways and constitutes an important target for pharmaceutical intervention. Central to the phosphorylation process is the recognition of specific target sites by protein kinases followed by the covalent attachment of phosphate groups to the amino acids serine, threonine, or tyrosine. The experimental identification as well as computational prediction of phosphorylation sites (P-sites) has proved to be a challenging problem. Computational methods have focused primarily on extracting predictive features from the local, one-dimensional sequence information surrounding phosphorylation sites. RESULTS: We characterized the spatial context of phosphorylation sites and assessed its usability for improved phosphorylation site predictions. We identified 750 non-redundant, experimentally verified sites with three-dimensional (3D) structural information available in the protein data bank (PDB) and grouped them according to their respective kinase family. We studied the spatial distribution of amino acids around phosphorserines, phosphothreonines, and phosphotyrosines to extract signature 3D-profiles. Characteristic spatial distributions of amino acid residue types around phosphorylation sites were indeed discernable, especially when kinase-family-specific target sites were analyzed. To test the added value of using spatial information for the computational prediction of phosphorylation sites, Support Vector Machines were applied using both sequence as well as structural information. When compared to sequence-only based prediction methods, a small but consistent performance improvement was obtained when the prediction was informed by 3D-context information. CONCLUSION: While local one-dimensional amino acid sequence information was observed to harbor most of the discriminatory power, spatial context information was identified as relevant for the recognition of kinases and their cognate target sites and can be used for an improved prediction of phosphorylation sites. A web-based service (Phos3D) implementing the developed structure-based P-site prediction method has been made available at (http://phos3d.mpimp-golm.mpg.de).
Project description:High accuracy mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful technology for the large scale identification of serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation in the living cell. However, despite many described phosphoproteomes, there has been no comparative study of the extent of phosphorylation and its evolutionary conservation in all domains of life. Here we analyze the results of phosphoproteomics studies performed with the same technology in a diverse set of organisms. For the most ancient organisms, the prokaryotes, only a few hundred proteins have been found to be phosphorylated. Applying the same technology to eukaryotic species resulted in the detection of thousands of phosphorylation events. Evolutionary analysis shows that prokaryotic phosphoproteins are preferentially conserved in all living organisms, whereas-site specific phosphorylation is not. Eukaryotic phosphosites are generally more conserved than their non-phosphorylated counterparts (with similar structural constraints) throughout the eukaryotic domain. Yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans are two exceptions, indicating that the majority of phosphorylation events evolved after the divergence of higher eukaryotes from yeast and reflecting the unusually large number of nematode-specific kinases. Mitochondria present an interesting intermediate link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains. Applying the same technology to this organelle yielded 174 phosphorylation sites mapped to 74 proteins. Thus, the mitochondrial phosphoproteome is similarly sparse as the prokaryotic phosphoproteomes. As expected from the endosymbiotic theory, phosphorylated as well as non-phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins are significantly conserved in prokaryotes. However, mitochondrial phosphorylation sites are not conserved throughout prokaryotes, consistent with the notion that serine/threonine phosphorylation in prokaryotes occurred relatively recently in evolution. Thus, the phosphoproteome reflects major events in the evolution of life.
Project description:The propagation of phosphorylation downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases is a key dynamic cellular event involved in signal transduction, which is often deregulated in disease states such as cancer. Probing phosphorylation dynamics is therefore crucial for understanding receptor tyrosine kinases' function and finding ways to inhibit their effects. MS methods combined with metabolic labeling such as stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) have already proven successful in deciphering temporal phosphotyrosine perturbations. However, they are limited in terms of multiplexing, and they also are time consuming, because several experiments need to be performed separately. Here, we introduce an innovative approach based on 5-plex SILAC that allows monitoring of phosphotyrosine signaling perturbations induced by a drug treatment in one single experiment. Using this new labeling strategy specifically tailored for phosphotyrosines, it was possible to generate the time profiles for 318 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 215 proteins from an erlotinib-treated breast cancer cell line model. Hierarchical clustering of the time profiles followed by pathway enrichment analysis highlighted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) and ErbB2 signaling as the major pathways affected by erlotinib, thereby validating the method. Moreover, based on the similarity of its time profile to those of other proteins in the ErbB pathways, the phosphorylation at Tyr453 of protein FAM59A, a recently described adaptor of EGFR, was confirmed as tightly involved in the signaling cascade. The present investigation also demonstrates the remote effect of EGFR inhibition on ErbB3 phosphorylation sites such as Tyr1289 and Tyr1328, as well as a potential feedback effect on Tyr877 of ErbB2. Overall, the 5-plex SILAC is a straightforward approach that extends sample multiplexing and builds up the arsenal of methods for tyrosine phosphorylation dynamics.
Project description:Invadopodia are matrix-degrading membrane protrusions in invasive carcinoma cells enriched in proteins that regulate actin polymerization. The on-off regulatory switch that initiates actin polymerization in invadopodia requires phosphorylation of tyrosine residues 421, 466, and 482 on cortactin. However, it is unknown which of these cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation sites control actin polymerization. We investigated the contribution of individual tyrosine phosphorylation sites (421, 466, and 482) on cortactin to the regulation of actin polymerization in invadopodia. We provide evidence that the phosphorylation of tyrosines 421 and 466, but not 482, is required for the generation of free actin barbed ends in invadopodia. In addition, these same phosphotyrosines are important for Nck1 recruitment to invadopodia via its SH2 domain, for the direct binding of Nck1 to cortactin in vitro, and for the FRET interaction between Nck1 and cortactin in invadopodia. Furthermore, matrix proteolysis-dependent tumor cell invasion is dramatically inhibited in cells expressing a mutation in phosphotyrosine 421 or 466. Together, these results identify phosphorylation of tyrosines 421 and 466 on cortactin as the crucial residues that regulate Nck1-dependent actin polymerization in invadopodia and tumor cell invasion, and suggest that specifically blocking either tyrosine 421 or 466 phosphorylation might be effective at inhibiting tumor cell invasion in vivo.
Project description:Mechanisms regulating transit of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) from inactive to active states are incompletely described, but require autophosphorylation of tyrosine(s) within a kinase domain 'activation loop'. Here, we employ functional biological assays with mutated TRK receptors to assess a 'switch' model for RTK activation. In this model: (i) ligand binding stimulates activation loop tyrosine phosphorylation; (ii) these phosphotyrosines form specific charge pairs with nearby basic residues; and (iii) the charge pairs stabilize a functionally active conformation in which the activation loop is restrained from blocking access to the kinase catalytic core. Our findings both support this model and identify residues that form specific charge pairs with each of the three TRK activation loop phosphotyrosines.
Project description:Here we describe a bead-based method capable of profiling tyrosine kinase phosphorylations in a multiplexed, high-throughput and low-cost manner. This approach allows for the discovery of tyrosine kinase-activating events, even when the DNA sequence is wild-type. In an effort to pilot the establishment of a tyrosine kinase activation catalog, we profiled tyrosine phosphorylation levels of 62 tyrosine kinases in 130 human cancer lines, and followed-up on the frequent SRC phosphorylation in glioblastoma. Keywords: quantitative measurements of tyrosine phosphorylation levels on tyrosine kinases Total protein lysates were collected from 130 cancer cell lines. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels on 62 tyrosine kinases were measured with the bead assay.
Project description:Proteins can be modified by multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), creating a PTM code that controls the function of proteins in space and time. Unraveling this complex PTM code is one of the great challenges in molecular biology. Here, using mass spectrometry-based assays, we focus on the most common PTMs-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation-and investigate how they affect each other. We demonstrate two generic crosstalk mechanisms. First, we define a frequently occurring, very specific and stringent phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay motif, (pSp/T)P(V/A/T)(gS/gT), whereby phosphorylation strongly inhibits O-GlcNAcylation. Strikingly, this stringent motif is substantially enriched in the human (phospho)proteome, allowing us to predict hundreds of putative O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) substrates. A set of these we investigate further and show them to be decent substrates of OGT, exhibiting a negative feedback loop when phosphorylated at the P-3 site. Second, we demonstrate that reciprocal crosstalk does not occur at PX(S/T)P sites, i.e., at sites phosphorylated by proline-directed kinases, which represent 40% of all sites in the vertebrate phosphoproteomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction. Due to the difficulty in performing high-throughput mass spectrometry-based experiment, there is a desire to predict phosphorylation sites using computational methods. However, previous studies regarding in silico prediction of plant phosphorylation sites lack the consideration of kinase-specific phosphorylation data. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method that investigates different substrate specificities in plant phosphorylation sites. RESULTS: Experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from TAIR9-a protein database containing 3006 phosphorylation data from the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. In an attempt to investigate the various substrate motifs in plant phosphorylation, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. Profile hidden Markov model (HMM) is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. Cross-validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 82.4% for serine, 78.6% for threonine, and 89.0% for tyrosine models. Moreover, independent test results using Arabidopsis thaliana phosphorylation data from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot show that the proposed models are able to correctly predict 81.4% phosphoserine, 77.1% phosphothreonine, and 83.7% phosphotyrosine sites. Interestingly, several MDD-clustered subgroups are observed to have similar amino acid conservation with the substrate motifs of well-known kinases from Phospho.ELM-a database containing kinase-specific phosphorylation data from multiple organisms. CONCLUSIONS: This work presents a novel method for identifying plant phosphorylation sites with various substrate motifs. Based on cross-validation and independent testing, results show that the MDD-clustered models outperform models trained without using MDD. The proposed method has been implemented as a web-based plant phosphorylation prediction tool, PlantPhos http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/PlantPhos/. Additionally, two case studies have been demonstrated to further evaluate the effectiveness of PlantPhos.
Project description:The tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) binds to the majority of the known members of the cytokine family of receptors. Ligand-receptor binding leads to activation of the associated JAK2 molecules, resulting in rapid autophosphorylation of multiple tyrosines within JAK2. Phosphotyrosines can then serve as docking sites for downstream JAK2 signaling molecules. Despite the importance of these phosphotyrosines in JAK2 function, only a few sites and binding partners have been identified. Using two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping and a phosphospecific antibody, we identified tyrosine 813 as a site of JAK2 autophosphorylation of overexpressed JAK2 and endogenous JAK2 activated by growth hormone. Tyrosine 813 is contained within a YXXL sequence motif associated with several other identified JAK2 phosphorylation sites. We show that phosphorylation of tyrosine 813 is required for the SH2 domain-containing adapter protein SH2-B beta to bind JAK2 and to enhance the activity of JAK2 and STAT5B. The homologous tyrosine in JAK3, tyrosine 785, is autophosphorylated in response to interleukin-2 stimulation and is required for SH2-B beta to bind JAK3. Taken together these data strongly suggest that tyrosine 813 is a site of autophosphorylation in JAK2 and is the SH2-B beta-binding site within JAK2 that is required for SH2-B beta to enhance activation of JAK2.