The interaction of IQGAP1 with the exocyst complex is required for tumor cell invasion downstream of Cdc42 and RhoA.
ABSTRACT: Invadopodia are actin-based membrane protrusions formed at contact sites between invasive tumor cells and the extracellular matrix with matrix proteolytic activity. Actin regulatory proteins participate in invadopodia formation, whereas matrix degradation requires metalloproteinases (MMPs) targeted to invadopodia. In this study, we show that the vesicle-tethering exocyst complex is required for matrix proteolysis and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the exocyst subunits Sec3 and Sec8 interact with the polarity protein IQGAP1 and that this interaction is triggered by active Cdc42 and RhoA, which are essential for matrix degradation. Interaction between IQGAP1 and the exocyst is necessary for invadopodia activity because enhancement of matrix degradation induced by the expression of IQGAP1 is lost upon deletion of the exocyst-binding site. We further show that the exocyst and IQGAP1 are required for the accumulation of cell surface membrane type 1 MMP at invadopodia. Based on these results, we propose that invadopodia function in tumor cells relies on the coordination of cytoskeletal assembly and exocytosis downstream of Rho guanosine triphosphatases.
Project description:Invadopodia are actin-rich membrane protrusions formed by tumor cells that degrade the extracellular matrix for invasion. Invadopodia formation involves membrane protrusions driven by Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the focal degrading sites. The exocyst mediates the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane for exocytosis and has recently been implicated in regulating actin dynamics during cell migration. Here, we report that the exocyst plays a pivotal role in invadopodial activity. With RNAi knockdown of the exocyst component Exo70 or Sec8, MDA-MB-231 cells expressing constitutively active c-Src failed to form invadopodia. On the other hand, overexpression of Exo70 promoted invadopodia formation. Disrupting the exocyst function by siEXO70 or siSEC8 treatment or by expression of a dominant negative fragment of Exo70 inhibited the secretion of MMPs. We have also found that the exocyst interacts with the Arp2/3 complex in cells with high invasion potential; blocking the exocyst-Arp2/3 interaction inhibited Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and invadopodia formation. Together, our results suggest that the exocyst plays important roles in cell invasion by mediating the secretion of MMPs at focal degrading sites and regulating Arp2/3-mediated actin dynamics.
Project description:The Exocyst is a conserved multisubunit complex involved in the docking of post-Golgi transport vesicles to sites of membrane remodeling during cellular processes such as polarization, migration, and division. In mammalian epithelial cells, Exocyst complexes are recruited to nascent sites of cell-cell contact in response to E-cadherin-mediated adhesive interactions, and this event is an important early step in the assembly of intercellular junctions. Sec3 has been hypothesized to function as a spatial landmark for the development of polarity in budding yeast, but its role in epithelial cells has not been investigated. Here, we provide evidence in support of a function for a Sec3-containing Exocyst complex in the assembly or maintenance of desmosomes, adhesive junctions that link intermediate filament networks to sites of strong intercellular adhesion. We show that Sec3 associates with a subset of Exocyst complexes that are enriched at desmosomes. Moreover, we found that membrane recruitment of Sec3 is dependent on cadherin-mediated adhesion but occurs later than that of the known Exocyst components Sec6 and Sec8 that are recruited to adherens junctions. RNA interference-mediated suppression of Sec3 expression led to specific impairment of both the morphology and function of desmosomes, without noticeable effect on adherens junctions. These results suggest that two different exocyst complexes may function in basal-lateral membrane trafficking and will enable us to better understand how exocytosis is spatially organized during development of epithelial plasma membrane domains.
Project description:Exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved vesicle tethering complex functioning especially in the last stage of exocytosis. Homologs of its eight canonical subunits - Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84 - were found also in higher plants and confirmed to form complexes in vivo, and to participate in cell growth including polarized expansion of pollen tubes and root hairs. Here we present results of a phylogenetic study of land plant exocyst subunits encoded by a selection of completely sequenced genomes representing a variety of plant, mostly angiosperm, lineages. According to their evolution histories, plant exocyst subunits can be divided into several groups. The core subunits Sec6, Sec8, and Sec10, together with Sec3 and Sec5, underwent few, if any fixed duplications in the tracheophytes (though they did amplify in the moss Physcomitrella patens), while others form larger families, with the number of paralogs ranging typically from two to eight per genome (Sec15, Exo84) to several dozens per genome (Exo70). Most of the diversity, which can be in some cases traced down to the origins of land plants, can be attributed to the peripheral subunits Exo84 and, in particular, Exo70. As predicted previously, early land plants (including possibly also the Rhyniophytes) encoded three ancestral Exo70 paralogs which further diversified in the course of land plant evolution. Our results imply that plants do not have a single "Exocyst complex" - instead, they appear to possess a diversity of exocyst variants unparalleled among other organisms studied so far. This feature might perhaps be directly related to the demands of building and maintenance of the complicated and spatially diverse structures of the endomembranes and cell surfaces in multicellular land plants.
Project description:RhoGDIs are negative regulators of small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family, which have essential cellular functions in most aspects of actin-based morphology and motility processes. They extract Rho proteins from membranes, keep them in inactive rhoGDI/Rho complexes and eventually deliver them again to specific membranes in response to cellular signals. RhoGDI3, the most divergent member of the rhoGDI family, is well suited to document the underlying molecular mechanisms, since the active and inactive forms of its cellular target, RhoG, have well-separated subcellular localizations. In this study, we investigate trafficking structures and molecular interactions involved in rhoGDI3-mediated shuttling of RhoG between the Golgi and the plasma membrane.Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and acceptor-photobleaching FRET experiments suggest that rhoGDI3 and RhoG form complexes on Golgi and vesicular structures in mammalian cells. 4D-videomicroscopy confirms this localization, and show that RhoG/rhoGDI3-labelled structures are less dynamic than RhoG and rhoGDI3-labeled vesicles, consistent with the inhibitory function of rhoGDI3. Next, we identify the Exocyst subunit Sec3 as a candidate rhoGDI3 partner in cells. RhoGDI3 relocates a subcomplex of the Exocyst (Sec3 and Sec8) from the cytoplasm to the Golgi, while Sec6 is unaffected. Remarkably, Sec3 increases the level of GTP-bound endogenous RhoG, the RhoG-dependent induction of membrane ruffles, and the formation of intercellular tunneling nanotube-like protrusions.Altogether, our study identifies a novel link between vesicular traffic and the regulation of Rho proteins by rhoGDIs. It also suggests that components of the Exocyst machinery may be involved in RhoG functions, possibly regulated by rhoGDI3.
Project description:The exocyst complex is a heterooctameric protein complex composed of Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70 and Exo84. This complex plays an essential role in trafficking secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane through its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and small GTPases. To date, the near-full-length structural information of each subunit has been limited to Exo70, although the C-terminal half structures of Sec6, Sec15 and Exo84 and the structures of the small GTPase-binding domains of Sec3, Sec5 and Exo84 have been reported. Here, we report the crystal structure of the near-full-length zebrafish Sec10 (zSec10) at 2.73?Å resolution. The structure of zSec10 consists of tandem antiparallel helix bundles that form a straight rod, like helical core regions of other exocyst subunits. This structure provides the first atomic details of Sec10, which may be useful for future functional and structural studies of this subunit and the exocyst complex.
Project description:The exocyst complex tethers post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to docking and fusion. In this study, we identify Sec3, the missing component of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe exocyst complex (SpSec3). SpSec3 shares many properties with its orthologs, and its mutants are rescued by human Sec3/EXOC1. Although involved in exocytosis, SpSec3 does not appear to mark the site of exocyst complex assembly at the plasma membrane. It does, however, mark the sites of actin cytoskeleton recruitment and controls the organization of all three yeast actin structures: the actin cables, endocytic actin patches and actomyosin ring. Specifically, SpSec3 physically interacts with For3 and sec3 mutants have no actin cables as a result of a failure to polarize this nucleating formin. SpSec3 also interacts with actin patch components and sec3 mutants have depolarized actin patches of reduced endocytic capacity. Finally, the constriction and disassembly of the cytokinetic actomyosin ring is compromised in these sec3 mutant cells. We propose that a role of SpSec3 is to spatially couple actin machineries and their independently polarized regulators. As a consequence of its dual role in secretion and actin organization, Sec3 appears as a major co-ordinator of cell morphology in fission yeast.
Project description:Remodeling of the extracellular matrix by carcinoma cells during metastatic dissemination requires formation of actin-based protrusions of the plasma membrane called invadopodia, where the trans-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) accumulates. Here, we describe an interaction between the exocyst complex and the endosomal Arp2/3 activator Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and Scar homolog (WASH) on MT1-MMP–containing late endosomes in invasive breast carcinoma cells. We found that WASH and exocyst are required for matrix degradation by an exocytic mechanism that involves tubular connections between MT1-MMP–positive late endosomes and the plasma membrane in contact with the matrix. This ensures focal delivery of MT1-MMP and supports pericellular matrix degradation and tumor cell invasion into different pathologically relevant matrix environments. Our data suggest a general mechanism used by tumor cells to breach the basement membrane and for invasive migration through fibrous collagen-enriched tissues surrounding the tumor.
Project description:Exocytosis involves fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, thereby delivering membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. The tethering of the secretory vesicles before membrane fusion is mediated by the exocyst, an essential phylogenetically conserved octameric protein complex. Exocyst biogenesis is regulated by several processes, but the mechanisms by which the exocyst is degraded are unknown. Here, to unravel the components of the exocyst degradation pathway, we screened for extragenic suppressors of a temperature-sensitive fission yeast strain mutated in the exocyst subunit Sec3 (sec3-913). One of the suppressing DNAs encoded a truncated dominant-negative variant of the 26S proteasome subunit, Rpt2, indicating that exocyst degradation is controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The temperature-dependent growth defect of the sec3-913 strain was gene dosage-dependent and suppressed by blocking the proteasome, Hsp70-type molecular chaperones, the Pib1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and the deubiquitylating enzyme Ubp3. Moreover, defects in cell septation, exocytosis, and endocytosis in sec3 mutant strains were similarly alleviated by mutation of components in this pathway. We also found that, particularly under stress conditions, wild-type Sec3 degradation is regulated by Pib1 and the 26S proteasome. In conclusion, our results suggest that a cytosolic protein quality control pathway monitors folding and proteasome-dependent turnover of an exocyst subunit and, thereby, controls exocytosis in fission yeast.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the products of at least 15 genes are involved specifically in vesicular transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Previously, we have shown that three of these genes, SEC6, SEC8 and SEC15, encode components of a multisubunit complex which localizes to the tip of the bud, the predominant site of exocytosis in S. cerevisiae. Mutations in three more of these genes, SEC3, SEC5 and SEC10, were found to disrupt the subunit integrity of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex, indicating that these genes may encode some of the remaining components of this complex. To examine this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the SEC5 and SEC10 genes, disrupted them, and either epitope tagged them (Sec5p) or prepared polyclonal antisera (Sec10p) to them for co-immunoprecipitation studies. Concurrently, we biochemically purified the remaining unidentified polypeptides of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex for peptide microsequencing. The genes encoding these components were identified by comparison of predicted amino acid sequences with those obtained from peptide microsequencing of the purified complex components. In addition to Sec6p, Sec8p and Sec15p, the complex contains the proteins encoded by SEC3, SEC5, SEC10 and a novel gene, EXO70. Since these seven proteins function together in a complex required for exocytosis, and not other intracellular trafficking steps, we have named it the Exocyst.
Project description:Vesicle and target membrane fusion involves tethering, docking and fusion. The GTPase SECRETORY4 (SEC4) positions the exocyst complex during vesicle membrane tethering, facilitating docking and fusion. Glycine max (soybean) Sec4 functions in the root during its defense against the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines as it attempts to develop a multinucleate nurse cell (syncytium) serving to nourish the nematode over its 30-day life cycle. Results indicate that other tethering proteins are also important for defense. The G. max exocyst is encoded by 61 genes: 5 EXOC1 (Sec3), 2 EXOC2 (Sec5), 5 EXOC3 (Sec6), 2 EXOC4 (Sec8), 2 EXOC5 (Sec10) 6 EXOC6 (Sec15), 31 EXOC7 (Exo70) and 8 EXOC8 (Exo84) genes. At least one member of each gene family is expressed within the syncytium during the defense response. Syncytium-expressed exocyst genes function in defense while some are under transcriptional regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The exocyst component EXOC7-H4-1 is not expressed within the syncytium but functions in defense and is under MAPK regulation. The tethering stage of vesicle transport has been demonstrated to play an important role in defense in the G. max-H. glycines pathosystem, with some of the spatially and temporally regulated exocyst components under transcriptional control by MAPKs.