SOCS3 inhibiting migration of A549 cells correlates with PYK2 signaling in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is considered to inhibit cytokine responses and play a negative role in migration of various cells. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) is a non-receptor kinase and has been found crucial to cell motility. However, little is known about whether SOCS3 could regulate PYK2 pro-migratory function in lung cancer.The methylation status of SOCS3 was investigated in HBE and A549 cell lines by methylation-specific PCR. A549 cells were either treated with a demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or transfected with three SOCS3 mutants with various functional domains deleted. Besides, cells were pretreated with a proteasome inhibitor beta-lactacystin where indicated. The effects of SOCS3 up-regulation on PYK2 expression, PYK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations were assessed by western blot using indicated antibodies. RT-PCR was used to estimate PYK2 mRNA levels. Transwell experiments were performed to evaluate cell migration.SOCS3 expression was found impaired in A549 cells and higher PYK2 activity was correlated with enhanced cell migration. We identified that SOCS3 was aberrantly methylated in the exon 2, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored SOCS3 expression. Reactivation of SOCS3 attenuated PYK2 expression and phosphorylation, cell migration was inhibited as well. Transfection studies indicated that exogenous SOCS3 interacted with PYK2, and both the Src homology 2 (SH2) and the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) domains of SOCS3 contributed to PYK2 binding. Furthermore, SOCS3 was found to inhibit PYK2-associated ERK1/2 activity in A549 cells. SOCS3 possibly promoted degradation of PYK2 in a SOCS-box-dependent manner and interfered with PYK2-related signaling events, such as cell migration.These data indicate that SOCS3 negatively regulates cell motility and decreased SOCS3 induced by methylation may confer a migration advantage to A549 cells. These results also suggest a negative role of SOCS3 in PYK2 signaling, and a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for PYK2 function.
Project description:DNA methylation plays a critical role during the development of acquired chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify candidate DNA methylation drivers of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. Gene expression and methylation profiling were determined by high-throughput microarrays. Relationship of methylation status and DDP response was validated in primary tumor cell culture and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and response to DDP were determined in vitro and in vivo. A total of 372 genes showed hypermethylation and downregulation in A549/DDP cells, and these genes were involved in most fundamental biological processes. Ten candidate genes (S100P, GDA, WISP2, LOXL1, TIMP4, ICAM1, CLMP, HSP8, GAS1, BMP2) were selected, and exhibited varying degrees of association with DDP resistance. Low dose combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) reversed drug resistance of A549/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo, along with demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes (GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2). Forced expression of GAS1 in A549/DDP cells by gene transfection contributed to increased sensitivity to DDP, proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis enhancement, and in vivo growth retardation. Together, our study demonstrated that a panel of candidate genes downregulated by DNA methylation induced DDP resistance in NSCLC, and showed that epigenetic therapy resensitized cells to DDP.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of miRNAs, both oncogenic miRNAs and tumour-suppressive miRNAs, is closely associated with cancer development and progression. The levels of miRNAs could be changed epigenetically by DNA methylation in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of pre-mature miRNAs. To investigate whether DNA methylation alters the expression of miR-129 in lung cancer, we did DNA methylation assays and found that 5' UTR region of miR-129-2 gene was absolutely methylated in both A549 and SPCA-1 lung cancer cells, but totally un-methylated in 95-D cells. The expression of miR-129 was restored by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), a de-methylation agent, in both A549 and SPCA-1 cells, resulting in attenuated cell migration and invasion ability, and decreased protein level of NF-?B, which indicates the involvement of NF-?B pathway. To further illustrate the roles of miR-129 in lung tumourigenesis, we overexpressed miR-129 in lung cancer cells by transfection of miR-129 mimics, and found arrested cell proliferation at G2/M phase of cell cycle and inhibited cell invasion. These findings strongly suggest that miR-129 is a tumour suppressive miRNA, playing important roles in the development and progression of human lung cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND AIMS: Gastric cancer is the most frequent gastrointestinal tumor in adults and is the most lethal form of human cancer. Despite of the improvements in treatments, the underlying mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis is not well known. To define novel modulators that regulate susceptibility to tumorgenesis, we focused on miR-219-2-3p. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to investigate the level of miR-219-2-3p in gastric cancer (GC) tissues (n = 113) and their matched adjacent normal tissues (n = 113). In vitro cell proliferation, apoptosis assays, cell migration, and invasion assays were performed to elucidate biological effects of miR-219-2-3p. Since silencing of miRNA by promoter CpG island methylation may be an important mechanism in tumorgenesis, GC cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and expression changes of miR-219-2-3p were subsequently examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Finally, the methylation status of CpG island upstream of miR-219-2-3p was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR in GC tissues (n = 22). RESULTS: miR-219-2-3p was down-regulated in GC and cell lines. In addition, the experiments documented the lower expression of miR-219-2-3p in GC specimens with higher grade and later stage tumors. Meanwhile, miR-219-2-3p exerted antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic roles and reduced levels of p-ERK1/2 in GC cells. Furthermore, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A increased the expression (~2 fold) of miR-219-2-3p in GC cells. By methylation-specific PCR, DNA methylation in the upstream region of miR-219-2-3p was detected in both adjacent normal tissues and cancer tissues. As expected, the methylation level was considerably higher in the miR-219-2-3p down-regulated group than up-regulated group. CONCLUSIONS: miR-219-2-3p is potentially involved in gastric cancer progression and metastasis by regulating ERK1/2-related signal pathways, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of gastric cancer. Methylation mechanism may be involved in modulating the expression level of miR-219-2-3p in gastric cancer.
Project description:?-Catenin plays dual role in adhesion complex formation and the Wnt signaling pathway. Although ?-catenin expression appears to be upregulated and Wnt signaling pathway is activated in the majority of cancers, its expression level seems to be lost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We previously reported that the promoter of ?-catenin was hypermethylated in two NSCLC cell lines. In the current study, we expanded our analysis for the methylation status of ?-catenin promoter region and its protein expression in seven NSCLC cell lines and a series of 143 cases of primary human lung cancer with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis showed methylation of ?-catenin promoter region in five NSCLC cell lines, with increased ?-catenin protein levels upon 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. The methylation status in SPC (methylated) and A549 (unmethylated) was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. 5-Aza-dC treatment inhibited invasiveness of SPC but not A549. Immunofluorescence analysis showed membranous ?-catenin expression was lost in SPC and could be re-established by 5-aza-dC, while Wnt3a treatment led to nuclear translocation of ?-catenin in both SPC and A549. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that 5-aza-dC treatment caused no significant increase in Wnt signaling activity compared with Wnt3a treatment. The effect of demethylation agent in SPC can be reversed by ?-catenin depletion but not E-cadherin depletion which indicated that the methylation mediated ?-catenin silencing might enhance NSCLC invasion and metastasis in an E-cadherin independent manner. Subsequent immunohistochemistry results further confirmed that ?-catenin promoter hypermethylation correlated with loss of immunoreactive protein expression, positive lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and poor prognosis. The present study implicates ?-catenin promoter hypermethylation in the mechanism of epigenetic changes underlying NSCLC metastasis and progression, thus indicating the potential of ?-catenin as a novel epigenetic target for the treatment of NSCLC patients.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that, in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from smokers, methylation of an antiviral gene was associated with impaired antiviral defense responses. To expand these findings and better understand biological mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke (CS)-induced modifications of host defense responses, we aimed to compare DNA methylation of genes that may play a role in antiviral response. We used a two-tiered analytical approach, where we first implemented a genome-wide strategy. NECs from smokers differed in the methylation levels of 390 genes, the majority (84%) of which showed decreased methylation in smokers. Secondly, we generated an a priori set of 161 antiviral response-related genes, of which five were differentially methylated in NEC from smokers (CCL2, FDPS, GSK3B, SOCS3, and ULBP3). Assessing these genes at the systems biology level revealed a protein interaction network associated with CS-induced epigenetic modifications involving SOCS3 and ULBP3 signaling, among others. Subsequent confirmation studies focused on SOCS3 and ULBP3, which were hypomethylated and hypermethylated, respectively. Expression of SOCS3 was increased, whereas ULBP3 expression was decreased in NECs from smokers. Addition of the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced ULBP3 expression in NECs from smokers. Furthermore, infection of differentiated NECs with influenza virus resulted in significantly lower levels of ULBP3 in cells from smokers. Taken together, our findings show that genomic DNA methylation profiles are altered in NECs from smokers and that these changes are associated with decreased antiviral host defense responses, indicating that epigenenic dysregulation of genes such as SOCS3 and ULBP3 likely impacts immune responses in the epithelium.
Project description:Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.
Project description:DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic marker associated with the silencing of gene expression. Although various genome-wide studies revealed aberrantly methylated gene targets as molecular biomarkers for early detection, the survival rate of lung cancer patients is still poor. In order to identify methylation-driven biomarkers, genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and differential expression in 32 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal lung tissue in non-smoking women were examined. This concurrent analysis identified 21 negatively correlated probes (r???-0.5), corresponding to 17 genes. Examining the endogenous expression in lung cancer cell lines, five of the genes were found to be significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in tumor cells alone, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment increased the expression levels of STXBP6 in a dose dependent manner and pyrosequencing showed higher percentage of methylation in STXBP6 promoter. Functional analysis revealed that overexpressed STXBP6 in A549 and H1299 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration, and increased apoptosis. Finally, significantly lower survival rates (P?<?0.05) were observed when expression levels of STXBP6 were low. Our results provide a basis for the genetic etiology of lung adenocarcinoma by demonstrating the possible role of hypermethylation of STXBP6 in poor clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients.
Project description:Nuclear reprogramming induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer is an inefficient process, and donor cell DNA methylation status is thought to be a major factor affecting cloning efficiency. Here, the role of donor cell DNA methylation status regulated by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (5-methyl-dCTP) in the early development of porcine cloned embryos was investigated. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC or 5-methyl-dCTP significantly reduced or increased the global methylation levels and altered the methylation and expression levels of key genes in donor cells. However, the development of cloned embryos derived from these cells was reduced. Furthermore, disrupted pseudo-pronucleus formation and transcripts of early embryo development-related genes were observed in cloned embryos derived from these cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that alteration of the DNA methylation status of donor cells by 5-aza-dC or 5-methyl-dCTP disrupted nuclear reprogramming and impaired the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos.
Project description:The epigenetic regulation of transcription factor genes is critical for T cell lineage specification. A specific methylation pattern within a conserved region of the lineage specifying transcription factor gene FOXP3, the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), is restricted to regulatory T (Treg) cells and required for stable expression of FOXP3 and suppressive function. We analyzed the impact of hypomethylating agents 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on human CD4+CD25- T for generating Treg cell specific DNA methylation pattern within FOXP3-TSDR and inducing functional Treg cells. Gene expression, including lineage specifying transcription factors of the major T cell lineages and their leading cytokines, functional properties and global transcriptome changes were analyzed. 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine induced FOXP3-TSDR methylation and expression of Treg cell specific genes FOXP3 and LRRC32. Proliferation of 5-Aza-2Â´deoxycytidine treated cells was reduced, but they did not show suppressive function. Hypomethylation was not restricted to FOXP3-TSDR and expression of master transcription factors and leading cytokines of Th1 and Th17 cells were induced. EGCG induced global DNA hypomethylation to a lower degree than 5-Aza-2Â´deoxycitidine, but no relevant hypomethylation within FOXP3-TSDR or expression of Treg cell specific genes. Both DNMT inhibitors did not induce full functional human Treg cells. Although 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine treated cells phenotypically appeared to be Treg cells, they did not suppress proliferation of responder cells, which is an essential capability to be used in Treg cell transfer therapy. In this study we analyze the potency of the two hypomethylating agents 5-Aza-2`-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for in vitro induction of functional Treg cell cells through generation of a specific methylation pattern within FOXP3-TSDR. We analyzed the expression of Treg cell specific genes and for their functional properties from CD4+CD25- T cells. 5-Aza-dC is a derivative of 5-Azacytidine. Both substances are inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and used for therapy of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia. In these patients, 5-Azacytidine has been reported to augment regulatory T cell expansion in blood. EGCG is the most abundant catechin of green tea and has been reported to have cardio protective, anti-cancer, anti-infective properties and protective effects on autoimmune diseases. EGCG has also been described as a potent inhibitor of DNMTs and to induce Foxp3 in Jurkat T cell line.
Project description:DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (MTIs) have recently emerged as promising chemotherapeutic or preventive agents for cancer, despite their poorly characterized mechanisms of action. The present study shows that DNA methylation is integral to the regulation of SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP1) expression, but not for regulation of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS)1 or SOCS3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. SHP1 expression correlates with down-regulation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3/STAT5) signalling, which is mediated in part by tyrosine dephosphorylation events and modulation of the proteasome pathway. Up-regulation of SHP1 expression was achieved using a DNA MTI, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc), which also generated significant down-regulation of JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 signalling. We demonstrate that 5-aza-dc suppresses growth of CRC cells, and induces G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through regulation of downstream targets of JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 signalling including Bcl-2, p16(ink4a), p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1). Although 5-aza-dc did not significantly inhibit cell invasion, 5-aza-dc did down-regulate expression of focal adhesion kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor in CRC cells. Our results demonstrate that 5-aza-dc can induce SHP1 expression and inhibit JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 signalling. This study represents the first evidence towards establishing a mechanistic link between inhibition of JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 signalling and the anticancer action of 5-aza-dc in CRC cells that may lead to the use of MTIs as a therapeutic intervention for human colorectal cancer.