Ephrins as negative regulators of adult neurogenesis in diverse regions of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in only two restricted areas, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from other CNS regions suggests that their neurogenic potential is dictated by local environmental cues. Here, we report that astrocytes in areas outside of the SGZ and SVZ of adult mice express high levels of ephrin-A2 and -A3, which present an inhibitory niche, negatively regulating neural progenitor cell growth. Adult mice lacking both ephrin-A2 and -A3 display active ongoing neurogenesis throughout the CNS. These findings suggest that neural cell replacement therapies for neurodegeneration or injury in the adult CNS may be achieved by manipulating ephrin signaling pathways.
Project description:The central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals regenerates poorly; in vivo, neurogenesis occurs only in two restricted areas, the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Neurogenic potential depends on both the intrinsic properties of neural progenitors and the environment, or niche, in which progenitor cells reside. Isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from broad CNS regions suggests that the neurogenic potential of the adult CNS is dictated by local environmental cues. Here, we report that astrocytes in the neurogenic brain regions, the SGZ and SVZ, of adult mice release molecular signals, such as sonic hedgehog (Shh), that stimulate adult neural progenitors to reenter the cell cycle and generate new neurons in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of SGZ astrocytes or application of Shh caused de novo neurogenesis from the non-neurogenic neocortex of adult mice. These findings identify a molecular target that can activate the dormant neurogenic potential from nonconventional neurogenic regions of the adult CNS and suggest a novel mechanism of neural replacement therapy for treating neurodegenerative disease and injury without transplanting exogenous cells.
Project description:AIM:cAMP signal transduction cascade activation is important in regulating neurogenesis in adult rodents by increasing the proliferation of newborn cells. Although the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) both contain large populations of neural stem/precursor cells; it remains unclear whether an alternative target of cAMP, the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2), is involved in adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and SGZ. Here, we investigated the cell-specific expression of Epac2 protein in the V-SVZ and SGZ of the adult mouse brain. METHODS:Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using antibodies against Epac2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), doublecortin (DCX), and beta-catenin, to examine the co-localization of Epac2 protein and neural stem/precursor cells in the V-SVZ and SGZ in three 8-week-old male mice. RESULTS:In the V-SVZ of the lateral ventricle, most GFAP-positive adult neural stem cells (NSC, defined as type B cells) and 75% of DCX-positive migrating neuroblasts (type A cells) expressed Epac2 proteins. Ninety-three percent of beta-catenin-positive ependymal cells (type E cells), which are in direct contact with NSCs and the ventricles, also expressed Epac2 protein. Similarly, in the SGZ of the hippocampus, Epac2-immunopositive signals were shown by 83% of GFAP-positive radial-glia-like NSCs (type 1 cells), 86% of DCX-positive transiently amplifying cells (type 2 and type 3 cells), and 71% of DCX-positive immature neurons. The present data suggest that a PKA-independent cAMP signaling pathway via Epac2 may be party to adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and the SGZ.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis mainly occurs at the subventricular zone (SVZ) on the walls of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). However, the majority of newborn neurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during the period of proliferation, migration, and integration. Stroke activates neural stem cells (NSCs) in both SVZ and SGZ. This process is regulated by a wide variety of signaling pathways. However, the newborn neurons derived from adult neurogenesis are insufficient for tissue repair and function recovery. Thus, enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis driven by ischemia and promoting the survival of newborn neurons can be promising therapeutic interventions for stroke. Here, we present an overview of the process of adult neurogenesis and the potential of stroke-induced neurogenesis on brain repair.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis is important for the development of regenerative therapies for human diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) through the recruitment of adult neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are characterized by the capacity to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. To identify key factors involved in manipulating the adult NSC neurogenic fate thus has crucial implications for the clinical application. Here, we report that BAF45D is expressed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and the central canal (CC) of the adult spinal cord. Coexpression of BAF45D with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a radial glial like cell marker protein, was identified in the SGZ, the SVZ and the adult spinal cord CC. Quantitative analysis data indicate that BAF45D is preferentially expressed in the neurogenic zone of the LV and the neurons of the adult CNS. Furthermore, during the neuroectoderm differentiation of H9 cells, BAF45D is required for the expression of PAX6, a neuroectoderm determinant that is also known to regulate the self-renewal and neuronal fate specification of adult neural stem/progenitor cells. Together, our results may shed new light on the expression of BAF45D in the adult neurogenic zones and the contribution of BAF45D to early neural development.
Project description:In the adult rodent brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ), which are specialized niches in which young neurons for the olfactory bulb (OB) and hippocampus, respectively, are generated. Recent studies have significantly modified earlier views on the mechanisms of NSC self-renewal and neurogenesis in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the molecular control, heterogeneity, regional specification and cell division modes of V-SVZ NSCs, and draw comparisons with NSCs in the SGZ. We highlight how V-SVZ NSCs are regulated by local signals from their immediate neighbors, as well as by neurotransmitters and factors that are secreted by distant neurons, the choroid plexus and vasculature. We also review recent advances in single cell RNA analyses that reveal the complexity of adult neurogenesis. These findings set the stage for a better understanding of adult neurogenesis, a process that one day may inspire new approaches to brain repair.
Project description:Neurogenesis-the generation of new neurons-is an ongoing process that persists in the adult mammalian brain of several species, including humans. In this work we analyze two discrete brain regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles; and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in mice and shed light on the SVZ and SGZ specific neurogenesis. We propose a computational model that relies on the construction and analysis of region specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from the publicly available data on these two regions. Using this model a number of putative factors involved in neuronal stem cell (NSC) identity and maintenance were identified. We also demonstrate potential gender and niche-derived differences based on cell surface and nuclear receptors via Ar, Hif1a, and Nr3c1. We have also conducted cell fate determinant analysis for SVZ NSC populations to Olfactory Bulb interneurons and SGZ NSC populations to the granule cells of the Granular Cell Layer. We report 31 candidate cell fate determinant gene pairs, ready to be validated. We focus on Ar-Pax6 in SVZ and Sox2-Ncor1 in SGZ. Both pairs are expressed and localized in the suggested anatomical structures as shown by in situ hybridization and found to physically interact. Finally, we conclude that there are fundamental differences between SGZ and SVZ neurogenesis. We argue that these regulatory mechanisms are linked to the observed differential neurogenic potential of these regions. The presence of nuclear and cell surface receptors in the region specific regulatory circuits indicate the significance of niche derived extracellular factors, hormones and region specific factors such as the oxygen sensitivity, dictating SGZ and SVZ specific neurogenesis.
Project description:Hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an acute brain threat across all age groups. Therapeutic hypothermia ameliorates resulting injury in neonates but its side effects prevent routine use in adults. Hypothermia up-regulates a small protein subset that includes RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), which is neuroprotective under stressful conditions. Here we show how RBM3 stimulates neuronal differentiation and inhibits HI-induced apoptosis in the two areas of persistent adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ), while promoting neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation after HI injury only in the SGZ. RBM3 interacts with IGF2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IMP2), elevates its expression and thereby stimulates IGF2 release in SGZ but not SVZ-NSPCs. In summary, we describe niche-dependent regulation of neurogenesis after adult HI injury via the novel RBM3-IMP2-IGF2 signaling pathway.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is implicated in the control of gene dosage in neurogenic niches. Here we address the importance of Igf2 imprinting for murine adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in vivo. In the SVZ, paracrine IGF2 is a cerebrospinal fluid and endothelial-derived neurogenic factor requiring biallelic expression, with mutants having reduced activation of the stem cell pool and impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis. In contrast, Igf2 is imprinted in the hippocampus acting as an autocrine factor expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) solely from the paternal allele. Conditional mutagenesis of Igf2 in blood vessels confirms that endothelial-derived IGF2 contributes to NSC maintenance in SVZ but not in the SGZ, and that this is regulated by the biallelic expression of IGF2 in the vascular compartment. Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis.
Project description:Understanding the fate of adult-generated neurons and the mechanisms that influence them requires consistent labeling and tracking of large numbers of stem cells. We generated a nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mouse to inducibly label nestin-expressing stem cells and their progeny in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ). Several findings show that the estrogen ligand tamoxifen (TAM) specifically induced recombination in stem cells and their progeny in nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP mice: 97% of SGZ stem-like cells (GFAP/Sox2 with radial glial morphology) expressed YFP; YFP+ neurospheres could be generated in vitro after recombination in vivo, and maturing YFP+ progeny were increasingly evident in the olfactory bulb (OB) and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer. Revealing an unexpected regional dissimilarity in adult neurogenesis, YFP+ cells accumulated up to 100 d after TAM in the OB, but in the SGZ, YFP+ cells reached a plateau 30 d after TAM. In addition, most SVZ and SGZ YFP+ cells became neurons, underscoring a link between nestin and neuronal fate. Finally, quantification of YFP+ cells in nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP mice allowed us to estimate, for example, that stem cells and their progeny contribute to no more than 1% of the adult DG granule cell layer. In addition to revealing the dynamic contribution of nestin-expressing stem cells to adult neurogenesis, this work highlights the utility of the nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP mouse for inducible gene ablation in stem cells and their progeny in vivo in the two major regions of adult neurogenesis.
Project description:AIMS:Neurogenesis in the postnatal human brain occurs in two neurogenic niches; the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The extent to which this physiological process continues into adulthood is an area of ongoing research. This study aimed to characterize markers of cell proliferation and assess the efficacy of antibodies used to identify neurogenesis in both neurogenic niches of the human brain. METHODS:Cell proliferation and neurogenesis were simultaneously examined in the SVZ and SGZ of 23 individuals aged 0.2-59 years, using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence in combination with unbiased stereology. RESULTS:There was a marked decline in proliferating cells in both neurogenic niches in early infancy with levels reaching those seen in the adjacent parenchyma by 4 and 1 year of age, in the SVZ and SGZ, respectively. Furthermore, the phenotype of these proliferating cells in both niches changed with age. In infants, proliferating cells co-expressed neural progenitor (epidermal growth factor receptor), immature neuronal (doublecortin and beta III tubulin) and oligodendrocytic (Olig2) markers. However, after 3 years of age, microglia were the only proliferating cells found in either niche or in the adjacent parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates a marked decline in neurogenesis in both neurogenic niches in early childhood, and that the sparse proliferating cells in the adult brain are largely microglia.