Effectiveness of multiple-level decompression in laminoplasty and simultaneous C1 laminectomy for patients with cervical myelopathy.
ABSTRACT: A retrospective study to investigate the relationship between the surgical levels and decompression effects was performed in patients with cervical myelopathy who had undergone Tension-band laminoplasty (TBL) with/without simultaneous C1 laminectomy. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (115 males, 53 females; age: 31-80 years, average 58.9 years; follow-up period: 12-120 months, average 20 months) were divided into three groups according to the range of the surgical levels: seventy-two patients in group A underwent TBL at the C2-C7 levels with C1 laminectomy; 60 patients in group B underwent TBL at the C2-C7 levels; 36 patients in group C underwent TBL at the C3-C7 levels. Neurological evaluation was performed by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system. The alignment changes of the spinal column and the spinal cord were analyzed using pre- and post-operative roentgenograms and MRIs. The differences in the pre- and post-operative anterior subarachnoid spaces (D-ASAS), the spinal cord diameters (D-CORD), and the dural sleeve diameters (D-DURA) at the C1-C7 levels were also analyzed by using MRIs. The JOA scores improved in all groups. As for the spinal alignment, neither significant changes between pre- and post-operation in any group nor significant differences among the three groups were found. The lordosis of the cervical spinal cord was decreased in all groups. D-ASAS of group A was larger than that of group B at the C1-C5 levels (P<0.05), as were those of D-CORD and D-DURA at the C1-C2 and C4-C5 levels (P<0.05). D-ASAS of group A was larger than that of group C at the C1-C4 levels (P<0.05), as were those of D-CORD and D-DURA at the C1-C5 levels (P<0.05). In conclusion, laminoplasty including the C2-C7 levels with simultaneous C1 laminectomy was proven to allow the most posterior shift of the spinal cord within the widened dural sleeve at C5 or higher levels without significantly changing the spinal alignment.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective case series. Objectives The kinematics of the cervical spine has been investigated by many researchers. However, the occupancy of the disk bulges, spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and the rest of the canal as well as the changes of these structures with motion have not yet been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate these dynamic changes. Methods The kinetic magnetic resonance images of 248 patients (124 men and 124 women) were evaluated, and the occupancy of each structure for each cervical level at neutral, flexion, and extension were calculated. Results Whole canal anteroposterior (AP) diameters showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels (p < 0.05). The mean disk bulges showed significant differences between neutral-flexion and flexion-extension at the C4-C5, C5-C6, C6-C7, and C7-T1 levels (p < 0.01). The mean spinal canal AP diameter showed significant differences between flexion-extension and neutral-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the ligamentum flavum showed significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between neutral-extension at the C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the spinal cord showed significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3-C4 and C4-C5 levels (p < 0.01). The rest of the canal showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.005). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.01). Conclusions The occupancy of each structure in the cervical spine for each level was revealed by this study. In addition, the dynamic changes in the cervical spine with flexion and extension were seen to have different characteristics for each level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:C5 palsy is a serious but poorly understood complication after posterior cervical decompression that could lead to muscle weakness, brachialgia and numbness of the upper limbs. The incidence of C5 palsy varies greatly between studies. The risk factors are inconclusive and even conflicting. OBJECT:To perform a systematic review on the incidence and risk factors of C5 palsy after posterior cervical decompression. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Four databases, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL, were searched to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odd ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS:Of the 589 pre-recruited studies, 25 were included in this study for systematic review. The pooled incidence of C5 palsy after posterior decompression was 5.8% (95%CI: 4.4-7.2%). The incidence after open-door laminoplasty, double-door laminoplasty and laminectomy was 4.5%, 3.1% and 11.3%, respectively. The significant risk factors of C5 palsy were OPLL (OR, 2.188; 95%CI, 1.307-3.665), narrower intervertebral foramen (SMD, -0.972; 95%CI, -1.398 to -0.545), laminectomy (vs. open-door laminoplasty, OR, 2.988; 95%CI, 1.298-6.876), excessive spinal cord drift (SMD, 1.289, 95%CI, 0,197-2.381) and male gender (OR, 1.54; 95%CI, 1.036-2.301). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this systematic review suggest that patients with excessive spinal cord drift, preexisting intervertebral foramenal stenosis, OPLL, laminectomy and male gender are at high risk for postoperative C5 palsy, and risk-reduction options should be considered for such patients.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the effect of green tea extract (that was administered 25 mg/kg intraperitoneal at 1 and 6 h after injury) in experimental animal model of spinal cord injury. The spinal cord trauma was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterised by oedema, neutrophilic infiltration and apoptosis. Also, immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in immune reactivity for nitrotyrosine. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract. The degree of spinal cord inflammation, nitrotyrosine, poli (ADP-ribosio) synthetase (PARS) and neutrophilic infiltration was markedly reduced. Green tea extract significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function. Values shown are mean +/- SE mean of ten mice for each group. *p < 0.01 versus sham, degrees p < 0.01 versus spinal cord injury. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that green tea extract treatment ameliorates spinal cord injury oxidative stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A case report on observing the recovery of sensory-motor function after cervical spinal cord transection. CASE DESCRIPTION:Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on a male beagle weighing 3.5 kg. After applying polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the severed part, reconstruction of cervical spinal cord was confirmed by the restoration of sensorimotor function. Tetraplegia was observed immediately after operation, however, the dog showed stable respiration and survival without any complication. The dog showed fast recovery after 1 week, and recovered approximately 90% of normal sensorimotor function 3 weeks after the operation, although urinary disorder was still present. All recovery stages were recorded by video camera twice a week for behavioral analysis. CONCLUSION:While current belief holds that functional recovery is impossible after a section greater than 50% at C5-6 in the canine model, this case study shows the possibility of cervical spinal cord reconstruction after near-total transection. Furthermore, this case study also confirms that PEG can truly expedite the recovery of sensorimotor function after cervical spinal cord sections in dogs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The spectrum of motor neuron disease (MND) includes numerous phenotypes with various life expectancies. The degree of upper and lower motor neuron involvement can impact prognosis. Phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) imaging has been shown to detect in vivo gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in the spinal cord of other patient populations but has not been explored in MND. METHODS:In this study, total cord, WM and GM areas of ten patients with a diagnosis within the MND spectrum were compared to those of ten healthy controls (HC). Patients' diagnosis included amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), primary lateral sclerosis, primary muscular atrophy, facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy and ALS-Frontotemporal dementia. Axial 2D PSIR images were acquired at four cervical disc levels (C2-C3, C3-C4, C5-C6 and C7-T1) with a short acquisition time (2 minutes) protocol. Total cross-sectional areas (TCA), GM and WM areas were measured using a combination of highly reliable manual and semi-automated methods. Cord areas in MND patients were compared with HC using linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Correlation of WM and GM areas in MND patients was explored to gain insights into underlying atrophy patterns. RESULTS:MND patients as a group had significantly smaller cervical cord GM area compared to HC at all four levels (C2-C3: p = .009; C3-C4: p = .001; C5-C6: p = .006; C7-T1: p = .002). WM area at C5-C6 level was significantly smaller (p = .001). TCA was significantly smaller at C3-C4 (p = .018) and C5-C6 (p = .002). No significant GM and WM atrophy was detected in the two patients with predominantly bulbar phenotype. Concomitant GM and WM atrophy was detected in solely upper or lower motor neuron level phenotypes. There was a significant correlation between GM and WM areas at all four levels in this diverse population of MND. CONCLUSION:Spinal cord GM and WM atrophy can be detected in vivo in patients within the MND spectrum using a short acquisition time 2D PSIR imaging protocol. PSIR imaging shows promise as a method for quantifying spinal cord involvement and thus may be useful for diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring disease progression.
Project description:Recent findings from the ISCoPe study indicate that, after severe contusion to the spinal cord, edema originating in the spinal cord accumulates and compresses the tissue against the surrounding dura mater, despite decompressive laminectomy. It is hypothesized that this compression results in restricted flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and central canal and ultimately collapses local vasculature, exacerbating ischemia and secondary injury. Here we developed a surgically mounted osmotic transport device (OTD) that rests on the dura and can osmotically remove excess fluid at the injury site. Tests were performed in 4-h studies immediately following severe (250 kD) contusion at T8 in rats using the OTD. A 3-h treatment with the OTD after 1-h post injury significantly reduced spinal cord edema compared to injured controls. A first approximation mathematical interpretation implies that this modest reduction in edema may be significant enough to relieve compression of local vasculature and restore flow of CSF in the region. In addition, we determined the progression of edema up to 28 days after insult in the rat for the same injury model. Results showed peak edema at 72 h. These preliminary results suggest that incorporating the OTD to operate continuously at the site of injury throughout the critical period of edema progression, the device may significantly improve recovery following contusion spinal cord injury.
Project description:Study Design Case report. Objective Synovial cysts in the subaxial cervical spine are rare and are most commonly reported at the cervicothoracic junction. Only six cases of symptomatic C5-C6 synovial cysts have been reported in the literature; the condition is usually treated with decompressive laminectomy. We present a patient with a synovial cyst arising from the C5-C6 facet joint, associated with spondylolisthesis, and causing radiculomyelopathy. The patient was treated with a posterior excision of the cyst, decompressive laminectomy, and fusion. Methods A 67-year-old man had vertebral canal stenosis at C5-C6 secondary to a synovial cyst and spondylolisthesis with symptoms and signs of radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical management involved C5-C6 posterior decompressive laminectomy and excision of the cyst and C4-C6 instrumented fusion with lateral mass screws and rods. A literature review of symptomatic cervical synovial cysts is presented. Results The imaging studies identified grade I spondylolisthesis and a 3.3 × 4.3-mm extradural lentiform-like mass associated with focal compression of the spinal cord and exiting the C6 nerve root. After the surgery, the patient had an immediate full recovery and was asymptomatic by the 6-month examination. No operative complications were reported. The histologic report confirmed the presence of a synovial cyst. Conclusions C5-C6 is an unusual localization for symptomatic synovial cysts. Similar cases reported in the literature achieved excellent results after cyst excision and decompressive laminectomy. Because spondylolisthesis plus laminectomy are risk factors for segmental instability in the cervical spine, we report a case of a C5-C6 facet synovial cyst successfully treated with posterior laminectomy and C4-C6 fusion.
Project description:Dermatomal maps are a mainstay of clinical practice and provide information on the spatial distribution of the cutaneous innervation of spinal nerves. Dermatomal deficits can help isolate the level of spinal nerve root involvement in spinal conditions and guide clinicians in diagnosis and treatment. Dermatomal maps, however, have limitations, and the spatial distribution of spinal cord sensory activity in humans remains to be quantitatively assessed. Here we used spinal cord functional MRI to map and quantitatively compare the spatial distribution of sensory spinal cord activity during tactile stimulation of the left and right lateral shoulders (i.e. C5 dermatome) and dorsal third digits of the hands (i.e., C7 dermatome) in healthy humans (n ?= ?24, age ?= ?36.8 ?± ?11.8 years). Based on the central sites for processing of innocuous tactile sensory information, we hypothesized that the activity would be localized more to the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord with the lateral shoulder stimulation activity being localized more superiorly than the dorsal third digit. The findings demonstrate lateralization of the activity with the left- and right-sided stimuli having more activation in the ipsilateral hemicord. Contradictory to our hypotheses, the activity for both stimulation sites was spread across the dorsal and ventral hemicords and did not demonstrate a clear superior-inferior localization. Instead, the activity for both stimuli had a broader than expected distribution, extending across the C5, C6, and C7 spinal cord segments. We highlight the complexity of the human spinal cord neuroanatomy and several sources of variability that may explain the observed patterns of activity. While the findings were not completely consistent with our a priori hypotheses, this study provides a foundation for continued work and is an important step towards developing normative quantitative spinal cord measures of sensory function, which may become useful objective MRI-based biomarkers of neurological injury and improve the management of spinal disorders.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN: Case report. CLINICAL QUESTION: To report successful surgical therapy for spinal cord compression in a patient with spinal metastases from a pancreatic gastrinoma. METHODS: A 43-year-old man presented three times within 4 years with cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord compression because of metastatic gastrinoma. He had two previous spine metastases to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, a T11 compressive lesion which required a T9L1 fusion, and an L4 lesion that was treated with chemotherapy and stereotactic radiation. The compression was relieved each time by surgery. RESULTS: The patient underwent three surgeries in 4 years: (1) debulking and removal of the rib head on the left at T3, and debulking of the tumor at T3 with hemilaminectomy and spinal cord decompression with internal fixation from T1-T5 using posterolateral instrumented fusion and allograft; (2) anterior C7 corpectomy with placement of a cage from C7-T1 with both anterior and posterior fusion of C2C7; and (3) T1-T3 laminectomy, T1-T3 exploration of wound, revision of hardware, T1-T3 removal of spinal tumor, and T3 bilateral transpedicular circumferential decompression. The patient is alive and regained the ability to walk 8 years after initial diagnosis, despite the appearance of spinal metastases 1 year after the diagnosis of liver metastases. CONCLUSION: Surgery for spinal cord compression in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors can be effective in relieving radicular pain, weakness and numbness, and while not curative can greatly improve quality of life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is low. Functional and quantitative MRI could be more accurate. We aimed to examine the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord in patients with ALS. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Fourteen patients with ALS and 15 sex- and age-matched controls were examined with DTI at a 3T MRI scanner. Region-of-interest (ROI) based fractional anisotropy measurements were performed at the levels C2-C4, C5-C7 and Th1-Th3. ROIs were placed at different anatomical locations of the axial cross sections of the spinal cord. RESULTS:FA was significantly reduced in ALS patients in anterolateral ROIs and the whole cross section at the C2-C4 level and the cross section of the Th1-Th3 level. There was a trend towards a statistically significant FA reduction in the anterolateral ROIs at the C5-C7 level in ALS patients. No significant differences between patients and controls were found in posterior ROIs. CONCLUSION:FA was reduced in ROIs representing the motor tracts in ALS patients. DTI with FA measurements is a promising method in this circumstance. However, for DTI to become a valuable and established method in the diagnostic workup of ALS, larger studies and further standardisation are warranted.