Activation of D-tyrosine by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: 1. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis reveals the mechanistic basis for the recognition of D-tyrosine.
ABSTRACT: Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is able to catalyze the transfer of both l- and d-tyrosine to the 3' end of tRNA(Tyr). Activation of either stereoisomer by ATP results in formation of an enzyme-bound tyrosyl-adenylate intermediate and is accompanied by a blue shift in the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein. Single turnover kinetics for the aminoacylation of tRNA(Tyr) by D-tyrosine were monitored using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase binds d-tyrosine with an 8.5-fold lower affinity than that of l-tyrosine (K (D-Tyr)(d) = 102 microm) and exhibits a 3-fold decrease in the forward rate constant for the activation reaction (k (D-Tyr)(3) = 13 s(-1)). Furthermore, as is the case for l-tyrosine, tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase exhibits "half-of-the-sites" reactivity with respect to the binding and activation of D-tyrosine. Surprisingly, pyrophosphate binds to the TyrRS.d-Tyr-AMP intermediate with a 14-fold higher affinity than it binds to the TyrRS.l-Tyr-AMP intermediate (K (PPi)(d) = 0.043 for TyrRS.d-Tyr-AMP.PP(i)). tRNA(Tyr) binds with a slightly (2.3-fold) lower affinity to the TyrRS.d-Tyr-AMP intermediate than it does to the TyrRS.l-Tyr-AMP intermediate. The observation that the K (Tyr)(d) and k(3) values are similar for l- and d-tyrosine suggests that their side chains bind to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in similar orientations and that at least one of the carboxylate oxygen atoms in d-tyrosine is properly positioned for attack on the alpha-phosphate of ATP.
Project description:Catalysis of tRNA(Tyr) aminoacylation by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase can be divided into two steps. In the first step, tyrosine is activated by ATP to form the tyrosyl-adenylate intermediate. In the second step, the tyrosyl moiety is transferred to the 3' end of tRNA. To investigate the roles that enthalpic and entropic contributions play in catalysis by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), the temperature dependence for the activation of tyrosine and subsequent transfer to tRNA(Tyr) has been determined using single turnover kinetic methods. A van't Hoff plot for binding of ATP to the TyrRS.Tyr complex reveals three distinct regions. Particularly striking is the change occurring at 25 degrees C, where the values of DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) go from -144 kJ/mol and -438 J/mol K below 25 degrees C to +137.9 kJ/mol and +507 J/mol K above 25 degrees C. Nonlinear Eyring and van't Hoff plots are also observed for formation of the TyrRS.[Tyr-ATP](double dagger) and TyrRS.Tyr-AMP complexes. Comparing the van't Hoff plots for the binding of ATP to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in the absence and presence of saturating tyrosine concentrations indicates that the temperature-dependent changes in DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) for the binding of ATP only occur when tyrosine is bound to the enzyme. Previous investigations revealed a similar synergistic interaction between the tyrosine and ATP substrates when the "KMSKS" signature sequence is deleted or replaced by a nonfunctional sequence. We propose that the temperature-dependent changes in DeltaH(0) and DeltaS(0) are because of the KMSKS signature sequence being conformationally constrained and unable to disrupt this synergistic interaction below 25 degrees C.
Project description:To guarantee specific tRNA and amino acid pairing, several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases correct aminoacylation errors by deacylating or "editing" misaminoacylated tRNA. A previously developed variant of Escherichia coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (iodoTyrRS) esterifies or "charges" tRNA(Tyr) with a nonnatural amino acid, 3-iodo-l-tyrosine, and with l-tyrosine less efficiently. In the present study, the editing domain of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) was transplanted into iodoTyrRS to edit tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) and thereby improve the overall specificity for 3-iodo-l-tyrosine. The beta-subunit fragments of the PheRSs from Pyrococcus horikoshii and two bacteria were tested for editing activity. The isolated B3/4 editing domain of the archaeal PheRS, which was exogenously added to the tyrosylation reaction with iodoTyrRS, efficiently reduced the production of tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr). In addition, the transplantation of this domain into iodoTyrRS at the N terminus prevented tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) production most strongly among the tested fragments. We next transplanted this archaeal B3/4 editing domain into iodoTyrRS at several internal positions. Transplantation into the connective polypeptide in the Rossmann-fold domain generated a variant that efficiently charges tRNA(Tyr) with 3-iodo-l-tyrosine, but hardly produces tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr). This variant, iodoTyrRS-ed, was used, together with an amber suppressor derived from tRNA(Tyr), in a wheat germ cell-free translation system and incorporated 3-iodo-l-tyrosine, but not l-tyrosine, in response to the amber codon. Thus, the editing-domain transplantation achieved unambiguous pairing between the tRNA and the nonnatural amino acid in an expanded genetic code.
Project description:Quality control operates at different steps in translation to limit errors to approximately one mistranslated codon per 10,000 codons during mRNA-directed protein synthesis. Recent studies have suggested that error rates may actually vary considerably during translation under different growth conditions. Here we examined the misincorporation of Phe at Tyr codons during synthesis of a recombinant antibody produced in tyrosine-limited Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Tyr to Phe replacements were previously found to occur throughout the antibody at a rate of up to 0.7% irrespective of the identity or context of the Tyr codon translated. Despite this comparatively high mistranslation rate, no significant change in cellular viability was observed. Monitoring of Phe and Tyr levels revealed that changes in error rates correlated with changes in amino acid pools, suggesting that mischarging of tRNA(Tyr) with noncognate Phe by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase was responsible for mistranslation. Steady-state kinetic analyses of CHO cytoplasmic tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed a 25-fold lower specificity for Tyr over Phe as compared with previously characterized bacterial enzymes, consistent with the observed increase in translation error rates during tyrosine limitation. Functional comparisons of mammalian and bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase revealed key differences at residues responsible for amino acid recognition, highlighting differences in evolutionary constraints for translation quality control.
Project description:Misincorporation of D-tyrosine (D-Tyr) into cellular proteins due to mischarging of tRNA(Tyr) with D-Tyr by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase inhibits growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, many B. subtilis strains lack a functional gene encoding D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase, which prevents misincorporation of D-Tyr in most organisms. B. subtilis has two genes that encode tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: tyrS is expressed under normal growth conditions, and tyrZ is known to be expressed only when tyrS is inactivated by mutation. We hypothesized that tyrZ encodes an alternate tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, expression of which allows the cell to grow when D-Tyr is present. We show that TyrZ is more selective for L-Tyr over D-Tyr than is TyrS; however, TyrZ is less efficient overall. We also show that expression of tyrZ is required for growth and biofilm formation in the presence of D-Tyr. Both tyrS and tyrZ are preceded by a T box riboswitch, but tyrZ is found in an operon with ywaE, which is predicted to encode a MarR family transcriptional regulator. Expression of tyrZ is repressed by YwaE and also is regulated at the level of transcription attenuation by the T box riboswitch. We conclude that expression of tyrZ may allow growth when excess D-Tyr is present.Accurate protein synthesis requires correct aminoacylation of each tRNA with the cognate amino acid and discrimination against related compounds. Bacillus subtilis produces D-Tyr, an analog of L-Tyr that is toxic when incorporated into protein, during stationary phase. Most organisms utilize a D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase to prevent misincorporation of D-Tyr. This work demonstrates that the increased selectivity of the TyrZ form of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase may provide a mechanism by which B. subtilis prevents misincorporation of D-Tyr in the absence of a functional D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase gene.
Project description:Non-natural amino acids have been genetically encoded in living cells, using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA pairs orthogonal to the host translation system. In the present study, we engineered Escherichia coli cells with a translation system orthogonal to the E. coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS)-tRNA(Tyr) pair, to use E. coli TyrRS variants for non-natural amino acids in the cells without interfering with tyrosine incorporation. We showed that the E. coli TyrRS-tRNA(Tyr) pair can be functionally replaced by the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tyrosine pairs, which do not cross-react with E. coli TyrRS or tRNA(Tyr). The endogenous TyrRS and tRNA(Tyr) genes were then removed from the chromosome of the E. coli cells expressing the archaeal TyrRS-tRNA(Tyr) pair. In this engineered strain, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and 3-azido-L-tyrosine were each successfully encoded with the amber codon, using the E. coli amber suppressor tRNATyr and a TyrRS variant, which was previously developed for 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and was also found to recognize 3-azido-L-tyrosine. The structural basis for the 3-azido-L-tyrosine recognition was revealed by X-ray crystallography. The present engineering allows E. coli TyrRS variants for non-natural amino acids to be developed in E. coli, for use in both eukaryotic and bacterial cells for genetic code expansion.
Project description:Bacteria produce d-amino acids for incorporation into the peptidoglycan and certain nonribosomally produced peptides. However, D-amino acids are toxic if mischarged on tRNAs or misincorporated into protein. Common strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are particularly sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of D-tyrosine due to the absence of D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents misincorporation of D-tyrosine and other D-amino acids into nascent proteins. We isolated spontaneous mutants of B. subtilis that survive in the presence of a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tryptophan, and D-tyrosine. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that these strains harbored mutations affecting tRNA(Tyr) charging. Three of the most potent mutations enhanced the expression of the gene (tyrS) for tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. In particular, resistance was conferred by mutations that destabilized the terminator hairpin of the tyrS riboswitch, as well as by a mutation that transformed a tRNA(Phe) into a tyrS riboswitch ligand. The most potent mutation, a substitution near the tyrosine recognition site of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, improved enzyme stereoselectivity. We conclude that these mutations promote the proper charging of tRNA(Tyr), thus facilitating the exclusion of D-tyrosine from protein biosynthesis in cells that lack D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase.Proteins are composed of L-amino acids. Mischarging of tRNAs with D-amino acids or the misincorporation of D-amino acids into proteins causes toxicity. This work reports on mutations that confer resistance to D-amino acids and their mechanisms of action.
Project description:The bifunctional Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) both aminoacylates mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) and acts as a structure-stabilizing splicing cofactor for group I introns. Previous studies showed that CYT-18 has distinct tRNA(Tyr) and group I intron-binding sites, with the latter formed by three small "insertions" in the nucleotide-binding fold and other structural adaptations compared with nonsplicing bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases. Here, analysis of genomic sequences shows that mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases with structural adaptations similar to CYT-18's are uniquely characteristic of fungi belonging to the subphylum Pezizomycotina, and biochemical assays confirm group I intron splicing activity for the enzymes from several of these organisms, including Aspergillus nidulans and the human pathogens Coccidioides posadasii and Histoplasma capsulatum. By combining multiple sequence alignments with a previously determined cocrystal structure of a CYT-18/group I intron RNA complex, we identify conserved features of the Pezizomycotina enzymes related to group I intron and tRNA interactions. Our results suggest that mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases with group I intron splicing activity evolved during or after the divergence of the fungal subphyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina by a mechanism involving the concerted differentiation of preexisting protein loop regions. The unique group I intron splicing activity of these fungal enzymes may provide a new target for antifungal drugs.
Project description:Human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and a truncated version with its C-terminal S4-like domain deleted were purified and crystallized. Only the truncated version, which is active in tyrosine activation and Escherichia coli tRNA(Tyr) charging, yielded crystals suitable for structure determination. These tetragonal crystals, belonging to space group P4(3)2(1)2, were obtained in the presence of PEG 4000 as a crystallizing agent and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 A resolution. Complete data sets could be collected and led to structure solution by molecular replacement.
Project description:The Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme Rv2275 catalyzes the formation of cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr) using two molecules of Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) as substrates. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of Rv2275 was determined to 2.0-Å resolution, revealing that Rv2275 is structurally related to the class Ic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family of enzymes. Mutagenesis and radioactive labeling suggests a covalent intermediate in which L-tyrosine is transferred from Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) to an active site serine (Ser88) by transesterification with Glu233 serving as a critical base, catalyzing dipeptide bond formation.
Project description:Tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase is irreversibly inactivated by Procion Brown MX-5BR with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 8.8 microM and maximum rate of inactivation k3 0.192 s-1. The specificity of the interaction is supported by two previously reported observations. Firstly, Brown MX-5BR inactivation of tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase is inhibited by substrates, and secondly, the animated derivative of Brown MX-5BR is a competitive inhibitor of tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase with a Ki of 2 X 10(-4) M with respect to both tryptophan and ATP. Tryptic digestion of the dye-affinity-labelled enzyme and subsequent resolution of the peptides by h.p.l.c. yielded one major dye-peptide peak. Amino acid sequence analysis resulted in the identification of the dye-binding domain centred on lysine-178. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase is also inactivated by Procion Brown MX-5BR, and this inactivation is prevented by ATP but not by tyrosine. The interaction of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase with hydroxylated Brown MX-5BR exhibited non-competitive kinetics with respect to the amino acid-binding site and competitive kinetics against ATP with a Ki of 6 X 10(-6) M.