The two-component system CesRK controls the transcriptional induction of cell envelope-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics.
ABSTRACT: The two-component system CesRK of Listeria monocytogenes responds to cell wall-acting antibiotics. We show here that CesRK controls the transcription of several cell envelope-related genes. The CesRK-dependent induction of these genes may be viewed as an attempt by L. monocytogenes to protect itself against the damaging effects of cell wall-acting antibiotics.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can cause a variety of illnesses ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicemia. The beta-lactam antibiotic ampicillin remains the drug of choice for the treatment of listeriosis. We have previously identified a response regulator of a putative two-component signal transduction system that plays a role in the virulence and ethanol tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Here we present evidence that the response regulator, CesR, and a histidine protein kinase, CesK, which is encoded by the gene downstream from cesR, are involved in the ability of L. monocytogenes to tolerate ethanol and cell wall-acting antibiotics of the beta-lactam family. Furthermore, CesRK controls the expression of a putative extracellular peptide encoded by the orf2420 gene, located immediately downstream from cesRK. Inactivation of orf2420 revealed that it contributes to ethanol tolerance and pathogenesis in mice. Interestingly, we found that transcription of orf2420 was strongly induced by subinhibitory concentrations of various cell wall-acting antibiotics, ethanol, and lysozyme. The induction of orf2420 expression was abolished in the absence of CesRK. Our data suggest that CesRK is involved in regulating aspects of the cell envelope architecture and that changes in cell wall integrity provide a potent stimulus for CesRK-mediated regulation. These results further our understanding of how L. monocytogenes senses and responds to antibiotics that are used therapeutically in the treatment of infectious diseases.
Project description:While β-lactam antibiotics are a critical part of the antimicrobial arsenal, they are frequently compromised by various resistance mechanisms, including changes in penicillin binding proteins of the bacterial cell wall. Genetic deletion of the penicillin binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated protein (PASTA) kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to restore β-lactam susceptibility. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and whether pharmacologic inhibition would have the same effect is unknown. In this study, we found that deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the PASTA kinase in Listeria monocytogenes by the nonselective kinase inhibitor staurosporine results in enhanced susceptibility to both aminopenicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Resistance to vancomycin, another class of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, or antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis was unaffected by staurosporine treatment. Phosphorylation assays with purified kinases revealed that staurosporine selectively inhibited the PASTA kinase of L. monocytogenes (PrkA). Importantly, staurosporine did not inhibit a L. monocytogenes kinase without a PASTA domain (Lmo0618) or the PASTA kinase from MRSA (Stk1). Finally, inhibition of PrkA with a more selective kinase inhibitor, AZD5438, similarly led to sensitization of L. monocytogenes to β-lactam antibiotics. Overall, these results suggest that pharmacologic targeting of PASTA kinases can increase the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics.
Project description:The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is susceptible to the ?-lactam antibiotics penicillin G and ampicillin, and these are the drugs of choice for the treatment of listerial infections. However, these antibiotics exert only a bacteriostatic effect on this bacterium and consequently, L. monocytogenes is regarded as ?-lactam tolerant. It is widely accepted that the phenomenon of bacterial tolerance to ?-lactams is due to the lack of adequate autolysin activity, but the mechanisms of L. monocytogenes tolerance to this class of antibiotics are poorly characterized. A ferritin-like protein (Fri) was recently identified as a mediator of ?-lactam tolerance in L. monocytogenes, but its function in this process remains unknown. The present study was undertaken to improve our understanding of L. monocytogenes tolerance to ?-lactams and to characterize the role of Fri in this phenomenon. A comparative physiological analysis of wild-type L. monocytogenes and a fri deletion mutant provided evidence of a multilevel mechanism controlling autolysin activity in cells grown under ?-lactam pressure, which leads to a reduction in the level and/or activity of cell wall-associated autolysins. This is accompanied by increases in the amount of teichoic acids, cell wall thickness and cell envelope integrity of L. monocytogenes grown in the presence of penicillin G, and provides the basis for the innate ?-lactam tolerance of this bacterium. Furthermore, this study revealed the inability of the L. monocytogenes ? fri mutant to deplete autolysins from the cell wall, to adjust the content of teichoic acids and to maintain their D-alanylation at the correct level when treated with penicillin G, thus providing further evidence that Fri is involved in the control of L. monocytogenes cell envelope structure and stability under ?-lactam pressure.
Project description:The objective of this study was to identify the phylogenetic analysis and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes contaminating chicken meat in Surabaya. 60 chicken meat samples were collected from supermarkets, mobile vendors, and traditional markets in Surabaya. A selective medium is used for isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes by chopping 25 grams of the chicken meat and to put it into the sterilized Erlenmeyer flasks. Some methods were used for the identification procedures, such as biochemical and morphological tests, antibiotic resistance test, PCR, and sequencing; also a phylogenetic analysis was conducted by a neighbor-joining analysis using Genetix Mac ver 8.0 with hlyA genes of Listeria monocytogenes recorded in GenBank, such as Lineage I (KC808543), Lineage II (AY229462, AY229346, AY229499, and AY229404), Lineage III (KJ504139, HQ686043, KJ504116, and DQ988349), and Lineage IV (EU840690, EF030606). The result shows that the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in Surabaya contaminating the chicken meat samples from the supermarkets was 10% (2/20), from the mobile vendors was 0/20 (0%), and from the traditional markets was 5% (1/20). It was seen from the band at 456?bp fragment. Furthermore, three isolates found in Surabaya were included in the new lineages which were resistant to old-generation antibiotics such as sulfamethonazole-trimetophrim (SXT) and amoxyllin sulbactam (MAS), but they were still sensitive to new-generation antibiotics such as cefotaxime (CTX) and meropenem (MEM).
Project description:The Listerial flora and Listeria monocytogenes bio-load associated with 411 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold at several locations in southern Nigeria was evaluated using phenotypic procedures which included serial dilution and pour plate techniques. Selected L. monocytogenes strains phenotypically identified from the RTE foods were further identified using virulence gene markers and 16srRNA amplification procedures. All the 90 L. monocytogenes strains cultured from the RTE foods were subjected to antibiogram analysis using disc diffusion. Some of the antibiotics employed included; Ceftazidine, cefuroxime, gentamicin, ofloxacin, augumentin, tetracycline and erythromycin. L. monocytogenes L. ivanovii, L. grayi, L.welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. innocua were detected in the RTE foods. Haemolysin (hlyA) gene, Internalin gene (inlA) and invasive gene (iap) were detected in all L. monocytogenes isolates. L. monocytogenes LMEW70 with accession number KY053295 was 93% similar to L. monocytogenes L1846. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, cloxacillin, augumentin and ceftazidime.
Project description:Rod-shaped bacteria have two modes of peptidoglycan synthesis: lateral synthesis and synthesis at the cell division site. These two processes are controlled by two macromolecular protein complexes, the elongasome and divisome. Recently, it has been shown that the Bacillus subtilis RodA protein, which forms part of the elongasome, has peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase activity. The cell division-specific RodA homolog FtsW fulfils a similar role at the divisome. The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes carries genes that encode up to six FtsW/RodA homologs; however, their functions have not yet been investigated. Analysis of deletion and depletion strains led to the identification of the essential cell division-specific FtsW protein, FtsW1. Interestingly, L. monocytogenes carries a gene that encodes a second FtsW protein, FtsW2, which can compensate for the lack of FtsW1, when expressed from an inducible promoter. L. monocytogenes also possesses three RodA homologs, RodA1, RodA2, and RodA3, and their combined absence is lethal. Cells of a rodA1 rodA3 double mutant are shorter and have increased antibiotic and lysozyme sensitivity, probably due to a weakened cell wall. Results from promoter activity assays revealed that expression of rodA3 and ftsW2 is induced in the presence of antibiotics targeting penicillin binding proteins. Consistent with this, a rodA3 mutant was more susceptible to the ?-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. Interestingly, overexpression of RodA3 also led to increased cefuroxime sensitivity. Our study highlights that L. monocytogenes genes encode a multitude of functional FtsW and RodA enzymes to produce its rigid cell wall and that their expression needs to be tightly regulated to maintain growth, cell division, and antibiotic resistance.IMPORTANCE The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is usually treated with high doses of ?-lactam antibiotics, often combined with gentamicin. However, these antibiotics only act bacteriostatically on L. monocytogenes, and the immune system is needed to clear the infection. Therefore, individuals with a compromised immune system are at risk to develop a severe form of Listeria infection, which can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. The development of new strategies to treat Listeria infections is necessary. Here we show that the expression of some of the FtsW and RodA enzymes of L. monocytogenes is induced by the presence of ?-lactam antibiotics, and the combined absence of these enzymes makes bacteria more susceptible to this class of antibiotics. The development of antimicrobial agents that inhibit the activity or production of FtsW and RodA enzymes might therefore help to improve the treatment of Listeria infections and thereby lead to a reduction in mortality.
Project description:Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is an essential and ubiquitous second messenger among bacteria. c-di-AMP regulates many cellular pathways through direct binding to several molecular targets in bacterial cells. c-di-AMP depletion is well known to destabilize the bacterial cell wall, resulting in increased bacteriolysis and enhanced susceptibility to cell wall targeting antibiotics. Using the human pathogen <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> as a model, we found that c-di-AMP accumulation also impaired cell envelope integrity. An <i>L. monocytogenes</i> mutant deleted for c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases (<i>pdeA pgpH</i> mutant) exhibited a 4-fold increase in c-di-AMP levels and several cell wall defects. For instance, the <i>pdeA pgpH</i> mutant was defective for the synthesis of peptidoglycan muropeptides and was susceptible to cell wall-targeting antimicrobials. Among different muropeptide precursors, we found that the <i>pdeA pgpH</i> strain was particularly impaired in the synthesis of d-Ala-d-Ala, which is required to complete the pentapeptide stem associated with UDP-<i>N</i>-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc). This was consistent with an increased sensitivity to d-cycloserine, which inhibits the d-alanine branch of peptidoglycan synthesis. Finally, upon examining d-Ala:d-Ala ligase (Ddl), which catalyzes the conversion of d-Ala to d-Ala-d-Ala, we found that its activity was activated by K<sup>+</sup> Based on previous reports that c-di-AMP inhibits K<sup>+</sup> uptake, we propose that c-di-AMP accumulation impairs peptidoglycan synthesis, partially through the deprivation of cytoplasmic K<sup>+</sup> levels, which are required for cell wall-synthetic enzymes.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> The bacterial second messenger c-di-AMP is produced by a large number of bacteria and conditionally essential to many species. Conversely, c-di-AMP accumulation is also toxic to bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, but its mechanisms are largely undefined. We found that in <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i>, elevated c-di-AMP levels diminished muropeptide synthesis and increased susceptibility to cell wall-targeting antimicrobials. Cell wall defects might be an important mechanism for attenuated virulence in bacteria with high c-di-AMP levels.
Project description:In the present study, a total of 50 raw camel meat samples were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. The isolates were characterized via morphological and culture analyses; identification of isolates was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the listeriolysin O gene. The API Listeria system was used for further chemical identification and verification of the strains. L. monocytogenes was identified in eight raw camel meat samples, which was the highest incidence (16%) of contamination, followed by L. seeligeri 3(6%), L. innocua and L. welshimeri 2 (2% each), and L. grayi 1 (1%). According to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis, isolated strains that were positive for the listeriolysin O gene were >99% similar to the published database sequences for L. monocytogenes strain LM850658 (sequence ID: CP009242.1). We studied the antibiotic resistance profile of the L. monocytogenes strains with common antibiotics used to treat human listeriosis and demonstrated that almost all strains tested were susceptible to the antibiotics.
Project description:<i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> serotype 7 lacks glycosidic constituents in wall teichoic acids. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of <i>L. monocytogenes</i> serotype 7 strain FSL R9-0915 and an analysis of genes known to affect <i>L. monocytogenes</i> antigenicity. This strain is used as a control strain in <i>Listeria</i> phage host range analyses.
Project description:Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan chain of the bacterial cell wall, are the major molecular target of bacterial antibiotics. Here, we present the crystal structures of the bifunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT)/transpeptidase (TP) PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes in the apo-form and covalently linked to two ?-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and carbenicillin. The orientation of the TP domain with respect to the GT domain is distinct from that observed in the previously reported structures of bifunctional PBPs, suggesting interdomain flexibility. In this structure, the active site of the GT domain is occluded by the close apposition of the linker domain, which supports the hypothesis that interdomain flexibility is related to the regulation of GT activity. The acylated structures reveal the mode of action of ?-lactam antibiotics toward the class A PBP4 from the human pathogen L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin and carbenicillin can access the active site and be acylated without requiring a structural rearrangement. In addition, the active site of the TP domain in the apo-form is occupied by the tartrate molecule via extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the catalytically important residues; thus, derivatives of the tartrate molecule may be useful in the search for new antibiotics to inhibit PBPs.