Chaperone control of the activity and specificity of the histone H3 acetyltransferase Rtt109.
ABSTRACT: Acetylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H3 on K56 by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Rtt109 is important for repairing replication-associated lesions. Rtt109 purifies from yeast in complex with the histone chaperone Vps75, which stabilizes the HAT in vivo. A whole-genome screen to identify genes whose deletions have synthetic genetic interactions with rtt109Delta suggests Rtt109 has functions in addition to DNA repair. We show that in addition to its known H3-K56 acetylation activity, Rtt109 is also an H3-K9 HAT, and we show that Rtt109 and Gcn5 are the only H3-K9 HATs in vivo. Rtt109's H3-K9 acetylation activity in vitro is enhanced strongly by Vps75. Another histone chaperone, Asf1, and Vps75 are both required for acetylation of lysine 9 on H3 (H3-K9ac) in vivo by Rtt109, whereas H3-K56ac in vivo requires only Asf1. Asf1 also physically interacts with the nuclear Hat1/Hat2/Hif1 complex that acetylates H4-K5 and H4-K12. We suggest Asf1 is capable of assembling into chromatin H3-H4 dimers diacetylated on both H4-K5/12 and H3-K9/56.
Project description:Rtt109 is a fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that associates with either Vps75 or Asf1 to acetylate histone H3. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that site-specific acetylation of H3 by Rtt109 is dictated by the binding chaperone where Rtt109-Asf1 acetylates K56, while Rtt109-Vps75 acetylates K9 and K27. To gain further insights into the roles of Vps75 and Asf1 in directing site-specific acetylation of H3, we used quantitative proteomics to profile the global and site-specific changes in H3 and H4 during in vitro acetylation assays with Rtt109 and its chaperones. Our analyses showed that Rtt109-Vps75 preferentially acetylates H3 K9 and K23, the former residue being the major acetylation site. At high enzyme-to-substrate ratio, Rtt109 also acetylated K14, K18, K27 and to a lower extent K56 of histone H3. Importantly, this study revealed that in contrast to Rtt109-Vps75, Rtt109-Asf1 displayed a far greater site-specificity, with K56 being the primary site of acetylation. For the first time, we also report the acetylation of histone H4 K12 by Rtt109-Vps75, whereas Rtt109-Asf1 showed no detectable activity toward H4. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications.
Project description:Histone acetylation and nucleosome remodeling regulate DNA damage repair, replication and transcription. Rtt109, a recently discovered histone acetyltransferase (HAT) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functions with the histone chaperone Asf1 to acetylate lysine K56 on histone H3 (H3K56), a modification associated with newly synthesized histones. In vitro analysis of Rtt109 revealed that Vps75, a Nap1 family histone chaperone, could also stimulate Rtt109-dependent acetylation of H3K56. However, the molecular function of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex remains elusive. Here we have probed the molecular functions of Vps75 and the Rtt109-Vps75 complex through biochemical, structural and genetic means. We find that Vps75 stimulates the kcat of histone acetylation by approximately 100-fold relative to Rtt109 alone and enhances acetylation of K9 in the H3 histone tail. Consistent with the in vitro evidence, cells lacking Vps75 showed a substantial reduction (60%) in H3K9 acetylation during S phase. X-ray structural, biochemical and genetic analyses of Vps75 indicate a unique, structurally dynamic Nap1-like fold that suggests a potential mechanism of Vps75-dependent activation of Rttl09. Together, these data provide evidence for a multifunctional HAT-chaperone complex that acetylates histone H3 and deposits H3-H4 onto DNA, linking histone modification and nucleosome assembly.
Project description:Yeast Rtt109 promotes nucleosome assembly and genome stability by acetylating K9, K27, and K56 of histone H3 through interaction with either of two distinct histone chaperones, Vps75 or Asf1. We report the crystal structure of an Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 complex revealing an elongated Vps75 homodimer bound to two globular Rtt109 molecules to form a symmetrical holoenzyme with a ?12 Å diameter central hole. Vps75 and Rtt109 residues that mediate complex formation in the crystals are also important for Rtt109-Vps75 interaction and H3K9/K27 acetylation both in vitro and in yeast cells. The same Rtt109 residues do not participate in Asf1-mediated Rtt109 acetylation in vitro or H3K56 acetylation in yeast cells, demonstrating that Asf1 and Vps75 dictate Rtt109 substrate specificity through distinct mechanisms. These studies also suggest that Vps75 binding stimulates Rtt109 catalytic activity by appropriately presenting the H3-H4 substrate within the central cavity of the holoenzyme to promote H3K9/K27 acetylation of new histones before deposition.
Project description:Rtt109 (Regulator of Ty1 Transposition 109) is a fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase required for modification of histone H3 K9, K27 and K56. These acetylations are associated with nascent histone H3 and play an integral role in replication-coupled and repair-coupled nucleosome assembly. Rtt109 is unique among acetyltransferases as it is activated by a histone chaperone; either Vps75 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 75) or Asf1 (Anti-silencing Function 1). Recent biochemical, structural and genetic studies have shed light on the intricacies of this activation. It is now clear that Rtt109-Asf1 acetylates K56, while Rtt109-Vps75 acetylates K9 and K27. This reinforces that Asf1 and Vps75 activate Rtt109 via distinct molecular mechanisms. Structures of Rtt109-Vps75 further imply that Vps75 positions histone H3 in the Rtt109 active site. These structures however raise questions regarding the stoichiometry of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex. This has ramifications for determining the physiological Rtt109 substrate.
Project description:Acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56 occurs during mitotic and meiotic S phase in fungal species. This acetylation blocks a direct electrostatic interaction between histone H3 and nucleosomal DNA, and the absence of this modification is associated with extreme sensitivity to genotoxic agents. We show here that H3-K56 acetylation is catalyzed when Rtt109, a protein that lacks significant homology to known acetyltransferases, forms an active complex with either of two histone binding proteins, Asf1 or Vps75. Rtt109 binds to both these cofactors, but not to histones alone, forming enzyme complexes with kinetic parameters similar to those of known histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Therefore, H3-K56 acetylation is catalyzed by a previously unknown mechanism that requires a complex of two proteins: Rtt109 and a histone chaperone. Additionally, these complexes are functionally distinct, with the Rtt109/Asf1 complex, but not the Rtt109/Vps75 complex, being critical for resistance to genotoxic agents.
Project description:Rtt109 is a fungal histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that catalyzes histone H3 acetylation functionally associated with chromatin assembly. Rtt109-mediated H3 acetylation involves two histone chaperones, Asf1 and Vps75. In vivo, Rtt109 requires both chaperones for histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) but only Asf1 for full H3K56ac. In vitro, Rtt109-Vps75 catalyzes both H3K9ac and H3K56ac, whereas Rtt109-Asf1 catalyzes only H3K56ac. In this study, we extend the in vitro chaperone-associated substrate specificity of Rtt109 by showing that it acetylates vertebrate linker histone in the presence of Vps75 but not Asf1. In addition, we demonstrate that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a short basic sequence at the carboxyl terminus of Rtt109 (Rtt109C) is required for H3K9ac in vivo. Furthermore, through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that Rtt109C is required for optimal H3K56ac by the HAT in the presence of full-length Asf1. When Rtt109C is absent, Vps75 becomes important for H3K56ac by Rtt109 in vivo. In addition, we show that lysine 290 (K290) in Rtt109 is required in vivo for Vps75 to enhance the activity of the HAT. This is the first in vivo evidence for a role for Vps75 in H3K56ac. Taken together, our results contribute to a better understanding of chaperone control of Rtt109-mediated H3 acetylation.
Project description:Histones, the principal protein components of chromatin, contain long disordered sequences, which are extensively post-translationally modified. Although histone chaperones are known to control both the activity and specificity of histone-modifying enzymes, the mechanisms promoting modification of highly disordered substrates, such as lysine-acetylation within the N-terminal tail of histone H3, are not understood. Here, to understand how histone chaperones Asf1 and Vps75 together promote H3 K9-acetylation, we establish the solution structural model of the acetyltransferase Rtt109 in complex with Asf1 and Vps75 and the histone dimer H3:H4. We show that Vps75 promotes K9-acetylation by engaging the H3 N-terminal tail in fuzzy electrostatic interactions with its disordered C-terminal domain, thereby confining the H3 tail to a wide central cavity faced by the Rtt109 active site. These fuzzy interactions between disordered domains achieve localization of lysine residues in the H3 tail to the catalytic site with minimal loss of entropy, and may represent a common mechanism of enzymatic reactions involving highly disordered substrates.
Project description:The promoter activity of yeast genes can depend on lysine 56 (K56) acetylation of histone H3. This modification of H3 is performed by lysine acetylase Rtt109 acting in concert with histone chaperone Asf1. We have examined the contributions of Rtt109, Asf1, and H3 K56 acetylation to nutrient regulation of a well-studied metabolic gene, ARG1. As expected, Rtt109, Asf1, and H3 K56 acetylation are required for maximal transcription of ARG1 under inducing conditions. However, Rtt109 and Asf1 also inhibit ARG1 under repressing conditions. This inhibition requires Asf1 binding to H3-H4 and Rtt109 KAT activity, but not tail acetylation of H3-H4 or K56 acetylation of H3. These observations suggest the existence of a unique mechanism of transcriptional regulation by Rtt109. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation and genetic interaction studies support a model in which promoter-targeted Rtt109 represses ARG1 by silencing a pathway of transcriptional activation that depends on ASF1. Collectively, our results show that ARG1 transcription intensity at its induced and repressed set points is controlled by different mechanisms of functional interplay between Rtt109 and Asf1.
Project description:Vps75 is a histone chaperone that has been historically characterized as homodimer by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we present a crystal structure containing two related tetrameric forms of Vps75 within the crystal lattice. We show Vps75 associates with histones in multiple oligomers. In the presence of equimolar H3-H4 and Vps75, the major species is a reconfigured Vps75 tetramer bound to a histone H3-H4 tetramer. However, in the presence of excess histones, a Vps75 dimer bound to a histone H3-H4 tetramer predominates. We show the Vps75-H3-H4 interaction is compatible with the histone chaperone Asf1 and deduce a structural model of the Vps75-Asf1-H3-H4 (VAH) co-chaperone complex using the Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) technique and cross-linking MS/MS distance restraints. The model provides a molecular basis for the involvement of both Vps75 and Asf1 in Rtt109 catalysed histone H3 K9 acetylation. In the absence of Asf1 this model can be used to generate a complex consisting of a reconfigured Vps75 tetramer bound to a H3-H4 tetramer. This provides a structural explanation for many of the complexes detected biochemically and illustrates the ability of Vps75 to interact with dimeric or tetrameric H3-H4 using the same interaction surface.
Project description:The ability of histone chaperone Anti-silencing factor 1 (Asf1) to direct acetylation of lysine 56 of histone H3 (H3K56ac) represents an important regulatory step in genome replication and DNA repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Asf1 interacts functionally with a second chaperone, Vps75, and the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) Rtt109. Both Asf1 and Vps75 can increase the specificity of histone acetylation by Rtt109, but neither alter selectivity. However, changes in acetylation selectivity have been observed in histones extracted from cells, which contain a plethora of post-translational modifications. In the present study, we use a series of singly acetylated histones to test the hypothesis that histone pre-acetylation and histone chaperones function together to drive preferential acetylation of H3K56. We show that pre-acetylated H3K14ac/H4 functions with Asf1 to drive specific acetylation of H3K56 by Rtt109-Vps75. Additionally, we identified an exosite containing an acidic patch in Asf1 and show that mutations to this region alter Asf1-mediated crosstalk that changes Rtt109-Vps75 selectivity. Our proposed mechanism suggests that Gcn5 acetylates H3K14, recruiting remodeler complexes, allowing for the Asf1-H3K14ac/H4 complex to be acetylated at H3K56 by Rtt109-Vps75. This mechanism explains the conflicting biochemical data and the genetic links between Rtt109, Vps75, Gcn5 and Asf1 in the acetylation of H3K56.