Mimotopes and proteome analyses using human genomic and cDNA epitope phage display.
ABSTRACT: In the post-genomic era, validation of candidate gene targets frequently requires proteinbased strategies. Phage display is a powerful tool to define protein-protein interactions by generating peptide binders against target antigens. Epitope phage display libraries have the potential to enrich coding exon sequences from human genomic loci. We evaluated genomic and cDNA phage display strategies to identify genes in the 5q31 Interleukin gene cluster and to enrich cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase genes from a breast cancer cDNA library. A genomic display library containing 2 x 106 clones with exon-sized inserts was selected with antibodies specific for human Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13. The library was enriched significantly after two selection rounds and DNA sequencing revealed unique clones. One clone matched a cognate IL-4 epitope; however, the majority of clone insert sequences corresponded to E. coli genomic DNA. These bacterial sequences act as 'mimotopes' (mimetic sequences of the true epitope), correspond to open reading frames, generate displayed peptides, and compete for binding during phage selection. The specificity of these mimotopes for IL-4 was confirmed by competition ELISA. Other E. coli mimotopes were generated using additional antibodies. Mimotopes for a receptor tyrosine kinase gene were also selected using a breast cancer SKBR-3 cDNA phage display library, screened against an anti-erbB2 monoclonal antibody. Identification of mimotopes in genomic and cDNA phage libraries is essential for phage display-based protein validation assays and two-hybrid phage approaches that examine protein-protein interactions. The predominance of E. coli mimotopes suggests that the E. coli genome may be useful to generate peptide diversity biased towards protein coding sequences.
Project description:Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody showing high-affinity binding to both soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and membrane bound IL-6R (mIL-6R), thereby preventing pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6. However, therapeutic antibodies still have practical limitations. To overcome these limitations, we generated Tocilizumab specific epitope mimics by using the phage display technology and tested whether the peptide mimics could induce similar humoral responses in mice immunized with the peptides.Seven phage mimics were obtained by using phage display peptide library. Four phage mimics (YHTTDKLFYMMR, YSAYEFEYILSS, KTMSAEEFDNWL and LTSHTYRSQADT) were shown to mimic Tocilizumab epitope using immunoassays. The mimotopes were conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins and used to intraperitoneally immunize BALB/c mice. Sera from the mimotopes immunized mice not only showed specific binding to recombinant IL-6R, but can also IL-6R expressed in Hela, U-937, Jurkat cell lines and in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA (FLS-RA). Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with mimotopes-KLH conjugate could reduce the level of phosphorylated- signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT3), STAT3, phosphorylated- extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 and Erk1/2 in HeLa and Jurkat cells. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay showed that antibodies induced by mimotopes-KLH conjugate could elicit specific lysis in Hela and U-937 cells.From phage display library, we successfully isolated four Tocilizumab mimotopes which induced specific humoral and cellular reponses in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Antigen-binding fragments (Fab fragments) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were produced by phage display technology. SEB epitopes were first identified by phage display approach using the commercial anti-SEB monoclonal antibody ab53981 as the target. Heptamer and dodecamer mimotope peptides recognized by ab53981 were screened from Ph.D-7 or Ph.D-12 random peptide phage libraries expressed in Escherichia coli. The isolated 7-mer and 12-mer mimotopes were shown to share a sequence homologous to ?PDELHK¹?S in the amino acid sequence of SEB. The N-terminal 15-mer peptide of SEB was determined to be an epitope of ab53981. After immunization of mice with maltose-binding protein-tagged N-terminal 15-mer peptide, a phage display Fab library was constructed using cDNA prepared from the mRNAs of spleen cells. Three phage clones displaying the Fab molecule which recognized SEB were isolated through three rounds of panning. Only one of them produced a soluble Fab fragment from the transformed cells, and the fragment fused with a histidine tag sequence was produced in E. coli cells and converted into scFv. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the dissociation constants of these proteins with SEB were (4.1 ± 1.1) × 10?? M and (8.4 ± 2.3) × 10?¹? M, respectively. The produced molecule was applied to the determination of SEB by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis.
Project description:Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. Much has been learned about the structure and function of PPV in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein VP1, which is an important antigen of PPV. In this study, the monoclonal antibody C4 against VP1 of PPV was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. The selected phage clones were identified by ELISA and then sequencing. The amino acid sequences detected by phage display were analyzed, and a mimic immuno-dominant epitope was identified. The epitope of VP1 is located in the N-terminal and contains the role amino acid sequence R-K-R. Immunization of mice indicated that the phage-displayed peptide induces antibodies against PPV. This study shows that peptide mimotopes have potential as alternatives to the complex antigens currently used for diagnosis of PPV infection or for development of vaccines.
Project description:A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone.
Project description:Specific antibody reactivities are routinely used as biomarkers, but the antibody repertoire reactivity (igome) profiles are still neglected. Here, we propose rationally designed peptide arrays as efficient probes for these system level biomarkers. Most IgM antibodies are characterized by few somatic mutations, polyspecificity, and physiological autoreactivity with housekeeping function. Previously, probing this repertoire with a set of immunodominant self-proteins provided a coarse analysis of the respective repertoire profiles. In contrast, here, we describe the generation of a peptide mimotope library that reflects the common IgM repertoire of 10,000 healthy donors. In addition, an appropriately sized subset of this quasi-complete mimotope library was further designed as a potential diagnostic tool. A 7-mer random peptide phage display library was panned on pooled human IgM. Next-generation sequencing of the selected phage yielded 224,087 sequences, which clustered in 790 sequence clusters. A set of 594 mimotopes, representative of the most significant sequence clusters, was shown to probe symmetrically the space of IgM reactivities in patients' sera. This set of mimotopes can be easily scaled including a greater proportion of the mimotope library. The trade-off between the array size and the resolution can be explored while preserving the symmetric sampling of the mimotope sequence and reactivity spaces. BLAST search of the non-redundant protein database with the mimotopes sequences yielded significantly more immunoglobulin J region hits than random peptides, indicating a considerable idiotypic connectivity of the targeted igome. The proof of principle predictors for random diagnoses was represented by profiles of mimotopes. The number of potential reactivity profiles that can be extracted from this library is estimated at more than 1070. Thus, a quasi-complete IgM mimotope library and a scalable representative subset thereof are found to address very efficiently the dynamic diversity of the human public IgM repertoire, providing informationally dense and structurally interpretable IgM reactivity profiles.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Urease B is an important virulence factor that is required for Helicobacter pylori to colonise the gastric mucosa. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that inhibit urease B enzymatic activity will be useful as vaccines for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection. Here, we produced murine mAbs against urease B that neutralize the enzyme's activity. We mapped their epitopes by phage display libraries and investigated the immunogenicity of the selected mimotopes in vivo. RESULTS: The urease B gene was obtained (GenBank accession No. DQ141576) and the recombinant pGEX-4T-1/UreaseB protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a 92-kDa recombinant fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Five mAbs U001-U005 were produced by a hybridoma-based technique with urease B-GST as an immunogen. Only U001 could inhibit urease B enzymatic activity. Immunoscreening via phage display libraries revealed two different mimotopes of urease B protein; EXXXHDM from ph.D.12-library and EXXXHSM from ph.D.C7C that matched the urease B proteins at 347-353 aa. The antiserum induced by selected phage clones clearly recognised the urease B protein and inhibited its enzymatic activity, which indicated that the phagotope-induced immune responses were antigen specific. CONCLUSIONS: The present work demonstrated that phage-displayed mimotopes were accessible to the mouse immune system and triggered a humoral response. The urease B mimotope could provide a novel and promising approach for the development of a vaccine for the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection.
Project description:In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome.Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined.Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope.The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity.
Project description:Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23-30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92-102), VPP (131-133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Phage display is widely used in basic research such as the exploration of protein-protein interaction sites and networks, and applied research such as the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics. It has also become a promising method for epitope mapping. Research on new algorithms that assist and automate phage display based epitope mapping has attracted many groups. Most of the existing tools have not been implemented as an online service until now however, making it less convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate them. RESULTS: We present MIMOX, a free web tool that helps to map the native epitope of an antibody based on one or more user supplied mimotopes and the antigen structure. MIMOX was coded in Perl using modules from the Bioperl project. It has two sections. In the first section, MIMOX provides a simple interface for ClustalW to align a set of mimotopes. It also provides a simple statistical method to derive the consensus sequence and embeds JalView as a Java applet to view and manage the alignment. In the second section, MIMOX can map a single mimotope or a consensus sequence of a set of mimotopes, on to the corresponding antigen structure and search for all of the clusters of residues that could represent the native epitope. NACCESS is used to evaluate the surface accessibility of the candidate clusters; and Jmol is embedded to view them interactively in their 3D context. Initial case studies show that MIMOX can reproduce mappings from existing tools such as FINDMAP and 3DEX, as well as providing novel, rational results. CONCLUSION: A web-based tool called MIMOX has been developed for phage display based epitope mapping. As a publicly available online service in this area, it is convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate, complementing other existing programs. MIMOX is freely available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~hjian/mimox.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in several epithelial tumors. Anti-EGFR humanized monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, in combination with chemotherapy have improved the prognosis for patients with wild-type RAS tumors. To identify mimotopes of EGFR and develop mimotope-based EGFR vaccines, we screened a phage display peptide library with panitumumab. Two EGFR mimotopes P19 and P26, which could be recognized by panitumumab specifically, were isolated. To enhance the immune responses, we generated recombinant proteins of P19 or P26 fused to a heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and evaluated the efficacy of Hsc70-P19 and Hsc70-P26 as vaccines in vivo. Immunization with Hsc70-P19 or Hsc70-P26 fusion protein stimulated the immune system to produce specific antibodies against peptides as well as EGFR. Moreover, antibodies elicited against mimotopes could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and inhibit the proliferation of EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells. Treatment with Hsc70-P19 and Hsc70-P26 significantly reduced tumor growth in BALB/c transplantable lung cancer models. Although there was no sequence homology between the phage-derived peptides and EGFR by alignments, both peptides mimic the conformational structure of EGFR binding to panitumumab. In conclusion, the mimotopes we identified from phage display peptide library could be promising candidate vaccines for active anti-EGFR immunotherapy against cancers.