Anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, in rat models of epilepsy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sodium channel is a primary target for treating central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, was evaluated in different animal models of epilepsy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed on freely moving rats made epileptic by administration of either pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine. BmK IT2 (0.05-0.5 microg in 2 microl) was microinjected into the CA1 area and its effects on PTZ-induced widespread, seizure-like behaviour and cortex epileptiform EEG, as well as on pilocarpine-induced seizure-like behaviour and c-Fos expression were studied. KEY RESULTS: Intrahippocampal application of BmK IT2 dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviour, and reduced the numbers and duration of the high amplitude and frequency discharges (HAFDs) of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. Similarly, in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model, BmK IT2 significantly prolonged the latency to onset of the SE, reduced the severity of SE and suppressed hippocampal c-Fos expression during SE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: BmK IT2 showed anticonvulsant activity as it inhibited the widespread seizures induced by PTZ and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. This activity might be due to the modulation of sodium channels in the hippocampus. Hence, BmK IT2 could be used as a novel tool to explore the molecular and pathological mechanisms of epilepsy with regard to the involvement of sodium channels.
Project description:To clarify the different regional brain electroencephalogram (EEG) activities and biochemical responses in seizure and epilepsy models, we assessed the EEG and c-Fos immunolabeling characteristics in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model. The regional brain activities were evaluated by EEG and c-Fos immunolabeling. ZnT3 immunostaining was performed to observe hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) within 7 days after the induction of SE in the lithium-pilocarpine model. The EEG recordings showed distinctive features of activation in different brain areas. With the aggravation of the behavioral manifestations of the seizures, the frequency and amplitude of the discharges on EEG gradually increased. SE was eventually induced and sustained. The labeling of c-Fos was enhanced in the cortex and hippocampal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG); however, compared to the PTZ-induced seizure model, c-Fos staining could only be observed in the striatum and thalamus in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. In each brain region, prominent c-Fos labeling was observed 2 h and 4 h after the induction of SE or seizures and diminished at 24 h. During the lithium-pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy phase after SE induction, MFS was observed 7 days after SE and was accompanied by the dynamic evolution of epileptic EEG activities. These findings validated the lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE model as an epilepsy model with a specific spatial-temporal profile of neural activation. The EEG characteristics and c-Fos expression patterns differ from those presented in a previous study using a PTZ-induced seizure model. Hippocampal mossy fiber spouting might be associated with spontaneous seizures during the chronic phase and can be detected at least within 1 week by ZnT3 staining after stimulation.
Project description:Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa have diverse pharmacological targets extending beyond cannabinoid receptors and several exert notable anticonvulsant effects. For the first time, we investigated the anticonvulsant profile of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in vitro and in in vivo seizure models.The effect of CBDV (1-100 ?M) on epileptiform local field potentials (LFPs) induced in rat hippocampal brain slices by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application or Mg(2+) -free conditions was assessed by in vitro multi-electrode array recordings. Additionally, the anticonvulsant profile of CBDV (50-200 mg·kg(-1) ) in vivo was investigated in four rodent seizure models: maximal electroshock (mES) and audiogenic seizures in mice, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. The effects of CBDV in combination with commonly used antiepileptic drugs on rat seizures were investigated. Finally, the motor side effect profile of CBDV was investigated using static beam and grip strength assays.CBDV significantly attenuated status epilepticus-like epileptiform LFPs induced by 4-AP and Mg(2+) -free conditions. CBDV had significant anticonvulsant effects on the mES (?100 mg·kg(-1) ), audiogenic (?50 mg·kg(-1) ) and PTZ-induced seizures (?100 mg·kg(-1) ). CBDV (200 mg·kg(-1) ) alone had no effect against pilocarpine-induced seizures, but significantly attenuated these seizures when administered with valproate or phenobarbital at this dose. CBDV had no effect on motor function.These results indicate that CBDV is an effective anticonvulsant in a broad range of seizure models. Also it did not significantly affect normal motor function and, therefore, merits further investigation as a novel anti-epileptic in chronic epilepsy models.This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model.<h4>Methods</h4>Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo).<h4>Results</h4>Two subgroups with different PTZ-induced seizure susceptibility in rats exposed to VPA were found: a high susceptibility (VPA+) (28/42, seizure severity 5) and a low susceptibility (VPA-) (14/42, seizure severity 2). The VPA+ subgroup exhibited an increased duration of the generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS; 45 ± 2.7 min), a higher number of rats showed several GTCS (14/28) and developed status epilepticus (SE) after PTZ injection (19/27) compared with control animals (36.6 ± 1.9 min; 10/39; 15/39, respectively). No differences in seizure severity, latency or duration of SE induced by Li-Pilo were detected between VPA and control animals.<h4>Discussion</h4>Prenatal VPA modifies the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures in developing rats, which may be linked to an alteration in the GABAergic transmission. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity between autism and epilepsy.
Project description:Melissa officinalis L. is used in traditional European and Iranian folk medicines to treat a plethora of neurological diseases including epilepsy. We utilized the in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy to probe the anticonvulsant potentials of essential oil from M. officinalis (MO) to gain insight into the scientific basis for its applications in traditional medicine for the management of convulsive disorders. MO was evaluated for effects on maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizures in mice, on 4–aminopyridine (4-AP)-brain slice model of epilepsy and sustained repetitive firing of current clamped neurons; and its ameliorative effects were examined on seizure severity, anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in PTZ-kindled rats. MO reversibly blocked spontaneous ictal-like discharges in the 4-AP-brain slice model of epilepsy and secondary spikes from sustained repetitive firing, suggesting anticonvulsant effects and voltage-gated sodium channel blockade. MO protected mice from PTZ– and MES–induced seizures and mortality, and ameliorated seizure severity, fear-avoidance, depressive-like behavior, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in PTZ–kindled rats. The findings warrant further study for the potential use of MO and/or its constituent(s) as adjunctive therapy for epileptic patients.
Project description:Ribosome biogenesis, including the RNA polymerase 1 (Pol1)-mediated transcription of rRNA, is regulated by the pro-epileptogenic mTOR pathway. Therefore, hippocampal Pol1 activity was examined in mouse models of epilepsy including kainic acid- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) as well as a single seizure in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Elevated 47S pre-rRNA levels were present acutely after induction of SE suggesting activation of Pol1. Conversely, after a single seizure, 47S pre-rRNA was transiently downregulated with increased levels of unprocessed 18S rRNA precursors in the cornu Ammonis (CA) region. At least in the dentate gyrus (DG), the pilocarpine SE-mediated transient activation of Pol1 did not translate into long-term changes of pre-rRNA levels or total ribosome content. Unaltered hippocampal ribosome content was also found after a 20-day PTZ kindling paradigm with increasing pro-convulsive effects of low dose PTZ that was injected every other day. However, after selectively deleting the essential Pol1 co-activator, transcription initiation factor-1A (Tif1a/Rrn3) from excitatory neurons, PTZ kindling was impaired while DG total ribosome content was moderately reduced and no major neurodegeneration was observed throughout the hippocampus. Therefore, Pol1 activity of excitatory neurons is required for PTZ kindling. As seizures affect ribosome biogenesis without long-term effects on the total ribosome content, such a requirement may be associated with a need to produce specialized ribosomes that promote pro-epileptic plasticity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>BmK IT2 is regarded as a receptor site-4 modulator of sodium channels with depressant insect toxicity. It also displays anti-nociceptive and anti-convulsant activities in rat models. In this study, the potency and efficacy of BmK IT2 were for the first time assessed and compared among four sodium channel isoforms expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Combined with molecular approach, the receptor site of BmK IT2 was further localized.<h4>Principal findings</h4>2 µM BmK IT2 strongly shifted the activation of DmNa(v)1, the sodium channel from Drosophila, to more hyperpolarized potentials; whereas it hardly affected the gating properties of rNa(v)1.2, rNa(v)1.3 and mNa(v)1.6, three mammalian central neuronal sodium channel subtypes. (1) Mutations of Glu(896), Leu(899), Gly(904) in extracellular loop Domain II S3-S4 of DmNa(v)1 abolished the functional action of BmK IT2. (2) BmK IT2-preference for DmNa(v)1 could be conferred by Domain III. Analysis of subsequent DmNa(v)1 mutants highlighted the residues in Domain III pore loop, esp. Ile(1529) was critical for recognition and binding of BmK IT2.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>In this study, BmK IT2 displayed total insect-selectivity. Two binding regions, comprising domains II and III of DmNa(v)1, play separated but indispensable roles in the interaction with BmK IT2. The insensitivity of Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.3 and Na(v)1.6 to BmK IT2 suggests other isoforms or mechanism might be involved in the suppressive activity of BmK IT2 in rat pathological models.
Project description:PURPOSE:sec-Butyl-propylacetamide (SPD) is a one-carbon homolog of valnoctamide (VCD), a central nervous system (CNS)-active amide derivative of valproic acid (VPA) currently in phase II clinical trials. The study reported herein evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of SPD in a battery of rodent seizure and epilepsy models and assessed its efficacy in rat and guinea pig models of status epilepticus (SE) and neuroprotection in an organotypic hippocampal slice model of excitotoxic cell death. METHODS:The anticonvulsant activity of SPD was evaluated in several rodent seizure and epilepsy models, including maximal electroshock (MES), 6-Hz psychomotor; subcutaneous (s.c.) metrazol-, s.c. picrotoxin, s.c. bicuculline, and audiogenic, corneal, and hippocampal kindled seizures following intraperitoneal administration. Results obtained with SPD are discussed in relationship to those obtained with VPA and VCD. SPD was also evaluated for its ability to block benzodiazepine-resistant SE induced by pilocarpine (rats) and soman (rats and guinea pigs) following intraperitoneal administration. SPD was tested for its ability to block excitotoxic cell death induced by the glutamate agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA) using organotypic hippocampal slices and SE-induced hippocampal cell death using FluoroJade B staining. The cognitive function of SPD-treated rats that were protected against pilocarpine-induced convulsive SE was examined 10-14 days post-SE using the Morris water maze (MWM). The relationship between the pharmacokinetic profile of SPD and its efficacy against soman-induced SE was evaluated in two parallel studies following SPD (60 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in the soman SE rat model. KEY FINDINGS:SPD was highly effective and displayed a wide protective index (PI = median neurotoxic dose/median effective dose [TD(50)/ED(50)]) in the standardized seizure and epilepsy models employed. The wide PI values of SPD demonstrate that it is effective at doses well below those that produce behavioral impairment. Unlike VCD, SPD also displayed anticonvulsant activity in the rat pilocarpine model of SE. Thirty minutes after the induction of SE, the calculated rat ED(50) for SPD against convulsive SE in this model was 84 mg/kg. SPD was not neuroprotective in the organotypic hippocampal slice preparation; however, it did display hippocampal neuroprotection in both SE models and cognitive sparing in the MWM, which was associated with its antiseizure effect against pilocarpine-induced SE. When administered 20 and 40 min after SE onset, SPD (100-174 mg/kg) produced long-lasting efficacy (e.g., 4-8 h) against soman-induced convulsive and electrographic SE in both rats and guinea pigs. SPD ED(50) values in guinea pigs were 67 and 92 mg/kg when administered at SE onset or 40 min after SE onset, respectively. Assuming linear pharmacokinetics (PK), the PK-PD (pharmacodynamic) results (rats) suggests that effective SPD plasma levels ranged between 8 and 40 mg/L (20 min after the onset of soman-induced seizures) and 12-50 mg/L (40 min after the onset of soman-induced seizures). The time to peak (t(max)) pharmacodynamic effect (PD-t(max)) occurred after the PK-t(max), suggesting that SPD undergoes slow distribution to extraplasmatic sites, which is likely responsible for antiseizure activity of SPD. SIGNIFICANCE:The results demonstrate that SPD is a broad-spectrum antiseizure compound that blocks SE induced by pilocarpine and soman and affords in vivo neuroprotection that is associated with cognitive sparing. Its activity against SE is superior to that of diazepam in terms of rapid onset, potency, and its effect on animal mortality and functional improvement.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Epileptic seizures are well-known neurological complications following stroke, occurring in 3% of patients. However, the intrinsic correlation of seizures with stroke remains largely unknown. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gas transmitter that may mediate cerebral ischemic injury. But the role of H2 S in seizures has not been understood yet. We examined the effect of H2 S on seizure-like events (SLEs) and underlying mechanisms.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and pilocarpine-induced rat epileptic seizure models were tested. Low-Mg(2+) /high-K(+) - and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced epileptic seizure models were examined using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. It was found that NaHS aggravated both PTZ- and pilocarpine-induced SLEs in rats, while both low-Mg(2+) /high-K(+) - and 4-AP-induced SLEs were also exacerbated by NaHS in brain slices, which may be due to its regulation on the voltage-gated sodium channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by blocking voltage-gated sodium channel, NMDAR, and AMPAR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest a pathological role of increased H2 S level in SLEs in vivo and in vitro. Enzymes that control H2 S biosynthesis could be interesting targets for antiepileptic strategies in poststroke epilepsy treatment.
Project description:Unregulated neuro-inflammation mediates seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our aim was to determine the effect of CD40-CD40L activation in experimental seizures. CD40 deficient mice (CD40KO) and control mice (wild type, WT) received pentenyltetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine to evaluate seizures and status epilepticus (SE) respectively. In mice, anti-CD40L antibody was administered intranasally before PTZ. Brain samples from human TLE and post-seizure mice were processed to determine CD40-CD40L expression using histological and molecular techniques. CD40 expression was higher in hippocampus from human TLE and in cortical neurons and hippocampal neural terminals after experimental seizures. CD40-CD40L levels increased after seizures in the hippocampus and in the cortex. After SE, CD40L/CD40 levels increased in cortex and showed an upward trend in the hippocampus. CD40KO mice demonstrated reduction in seizure severity and in latency compared to WT mice. Anti-CD40L antibody limited seizure susceptibility and seizure severity. CD40L-CD40 interaction can serve as a target for an immuno-therapy for TLE.
Project description:Phthalimide-based derivatives have anticonvulsant activity like as phenytoin by inhibition of sodium channel. In our previously research we mentioned about some phthalimide derivatives as potent anticonvulsant agents.Fourteen analogs of 2-substituted phthalimide pharmacophore were synthesized and then were evaluated for the anticonvulsant activities in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) models.The in vivo screening results showed that all the analogs have the ability to protect against the maximal electroshock and PTZ. The compounds 3 and 9 elevated clonic seizure thresholds at 30 min which were more active than the standard medicine phenytoin. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 11, 13 and 14 with 100% protection were the most potent ones in tonic seizure. The most potent compound in the both PTZ and MES models was compound 3. Using a model of the open pore of sodium channel, all of the compounds were docked. Results of docking showed that the ligands interacted mainly with residues II-S6 of NaV1.2 by making hydrogen bonds and have additional hydrophobic interactions with other domains in the channel's inner pore.Some of these compounds are more potent than phenytoin simultaneously in the clonic and tonic seizures.