The role of rapid lipogenesis in insulin secretion: Insulin secretagogues acutely alter lipid composition of INS-1 832/13 cells.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic beta cell mitochondria convert insulin secretagogues into products that support insulin exocytosis. We explored the idea that lipids are some of these products formed from acyl group transfer out of mitochondria to the cytosol, the site of lipid synthesis. There are two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the enzyme that forms malonyl-CoA from which C(2) units for lipid synthesis are formed. We found that ACC1, the isoform seen in lipogenic tissues, is the only isoform present in human and rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 832/13 cells. Inhibitors of ACC and fatty acid synthase inhibited insulin release in islets and INS-1 cells. Carbon from glucose and pyruvate were rapidly incorporated into many lipid classes in INS-1 cells. Glucose and other insulin secretagogues acutely increased many lipids with C14-C24 chains including individual cholesterol esters, phospholipids and fatty acids. Many phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylserines were increased and many phosphatidylinositols and several phosphatidylethanolamines were decreased. The results suggest that lipid remodeling and rapid lipogenesis from secretagogue carbon support insulin secretion.
Project description:Pancreatic beta-cells couple the oxidation of glucose to the secretion of insulin. Apart from the canonical K(ATP)-dependent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), there are important K(ATP)-independent mechanisms involving both anaplerosis and mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP). How mtGTP that is trapped within the mitochondrial matrix regulates the cytosolic calcium increases that drive GSIS remains a mystery. Here we have investigated whether the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) is the GTPase linking hydrolysis of mtGTP made by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS-GTP) to an anaplerotic pathway producing phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Although cytosolic PEPCK (PEPCK-C) is absent, PEPCK-M message and protein were detected in INS-1 832/13 cells, rat islets, and mouse islets. PEPCK enzymatic activity is half that of primary hepatocytes and is localized exclusively to the mitochondria. Novel (13)C-labeling strategies in INS-1 832/13 cells and islets measured substantial contribution of PEPCK-M to the synthesis of PEP. As high as 30% of PEP in INS-1 832/13 cells and 41% of PEP in rat islets came from PEPCK-M. The contribution of PEPCK-M to overall PEP synthesis more than tripled with glucose stimulation. Silencing the PEPCK-M gene completely inhibited GSIS underscoring its central role in mitochondrial metabolism-mediated insulin secretion. Given that mtGTP synthesized by SCS-GTP is an indicator of TCA flux that is crucial for GSIS, PEPCK-M is a strong candidate to link mtGTP synthesis with insulin release through anaplerotic PEP cycling.
Project description:The tSNARE (the target-membrane soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor, where NSF is N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is implicated in regulated insulin secretion. In pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, SNAP-25 is phosphorylated at Ser(187), which lies in a region that is important for its function. The aims of the present study were to determine whether SNAP-25 is phosphorylated at Ser(187) in insulin-secreting cells and, if so, whether this is important for regulated insulin secretion. The major findings are: (i) SNAP-25 is rapidly and reversibly phosphorylated on Ser(187) in both rat insulinoma INS-1 cells and rat islets in response to the phorbol ester, PMA; (ii) less than 35% of SNAP-25 in INS-1 cells is phosphorylated in response to PMA, and phosphorylation is limited to plasma-membrane-associated SNAP-25; (iii) both SNAP-25 isoforms (a and b) are phosphorylated, with 1.8-fold greater phosphorylation for SNAP-25b in response to PMA; (iv) in rat islets, Ser(187) phosphorylation is stimulated by glucose or carbachol, albeit to a lesser extent than by PMA, but not by cAMP; (v) insulin secretion from botulinum neurotoxin E-treated hamster insulinoma tumour (HIT) cells, transfected with toxin-resistant Ser(187)-->Ala or Ser(187)-->Asp mutant SNAP-25, was similar to that of wild-type HIT cells. Furthermore, in rat islets no correlation was found between the extent of SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser(187) in response to secretagogues and stimulation of insulin release; (vi) use of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors suggests that glucose stimulates SNAP-25 phosphorylation via conventional and non-conventional PKC isoforms. In summary, although SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser(187) occurs in insulin-secreting cells and is mediated by PKC, it does not appear to play a major role in regulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) convert fatty acids to fatty acyl-CoAs to regulate various physiologic processes. We characterized the ACSL isoforms in a cell line of homogeneous rat beta cells (INS-1 832/13 cells) and human pancreatic islets. ACSL4 and ACSL3 proteins were present in the beta cells and human and rat pancreatic islets and concentrated in insulin secretory granules and less in mitochondria and negligible in other intracellular organelles. ACSL1 and ACSL6 proteins were not seen in INS-1 832/13 cells or pancreatic islets. ACSL5 protein was seen only in INS-1 832/13 cells. With shRNA-mediated gene silencing we developed stable ACSL knockdown cell lines from INS-1 832/13 cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was inhibited ?50% with ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown and unaffected in cell lines with knockdown of ACSL5, ACLS6 and ACSL1. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated gene silencing of ACSL4 and ACSL3 in human pancreatic islets inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release. ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown cells showed inhibition of ACSL enzyme activity more with arachidonate than with palmitate as a substrate, consistent with their preference for unsaturated fatty acids as substrates. ACSL4 knockdown changed the patterns of fatty acids in phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylethanolamines. The results show the involvement of ACLS4 and ACLS3 in insulin secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: RalA and RalB are multifuntional GTPases involved in a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation and membrane trafficking. Here we investigated the mechanisms leading to activation of Ral proteins in pancreatic beta-cells and analyzed the impact on different steps of the insulin-secretory process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that RalA is the predominant isoform expressed in pancreatic islets and insulin-secreting cell lines. Silencing of this GTPase in INS-1E cells by RNA interference led to a decrease in secretagogue-induced insulin release. Real-time measurements by fluorescence resonance energy transfer revealed that RalA activation in response to secretagogues occurs within 3-5 min and reaches a plateau after 10-15 min. The activation of the GTPase is triggered by increases in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP and is prevented by the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker Nifedipine and by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Defective insulin release in cells lacking RalA is associated with a decrease in the secretory granules docked at the plasma membrane detected by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy and with a strong impairment in Phospholipase D1 activation in response to secretagogues. RalA was found to be activated by RalGDS and to be severely hampered upon silencing of this GDP/GTP exchange factor. Accordingly, INS-1E cells lacking RalGDS displayed a reduction in hormone secretion induced by secretagogues and in the number of insulin-containing granules docked at the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data indicate that RalA activation elicited by the exchange factor RalGDS in response to a rise in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP controls hormone release from pancreatic beta-cell by coordinating the execution of different events in the secretory pathway.
Project description:Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease characterized by reduced pancreatic islets ?-cell mass and impaired insulin release from these cells. Non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), play a role in the progression of T2DM. Decreased serum lncRNA GAS5 levels were reported to be associated with T2DM. However, the role of GAS5 in regulating islet cell functions remain unknown. In this study, we found that the serum levels of GAS5 were significantly lower in patients with T2DM compared with healthy control subjects, and the low serum GAS5 levels were associated with high levels of HbAlc and fasting glucose in patients with T2DM. In addition, we found that serum GAS5 levels were negatively correlated with the serum levels of miR-29a-3p, miR-96-3p, and miR-208a-3p in patients with T2DM. Consequently, using INS-1 832/13 rat ?-cell line, we found that overexpression of GAS5 by lentivirus infection increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content compared with negative control, whereas knockdown of GAS5 expression reduced both them. Moreover, GAS5 interacted with miR-29a-3p, miR-96-3p, and miR-208a-3p in INS-1 832/13 cells, as judged by pull-down assay and dual luciferase reporter assay. GAS5 overexpression caused the decrease in expression of miR-29a-3p, miR-96-3p, and miR-208a-3p in INS-1 832/13 cells and conversely caused the increase in expression of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate, and phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1. Thus, these results reveal a novel mechanism whereby GAS5 is involved in maintaining insulin secretion and may represent a novel therapeutic target for T2DM.
Project description:Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of coenzyme-A from acetoacetyl-CoA to succinate to form acetoacetate and succinyl-CoA. mRNAs of SCOT and ATP citrate lyase were decreased 55% and 58% and enzyme activities were decreased >70% in pancreatic islets of the GK rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. INS-1 832/13 cells were transfected with shRNAs targeting SCOT mRNA to generate cell lines with reduced SCOT activity. Two cell lines with >70% knockdown of SCOT activity showed >70% reduction in glucose- or methyl succinate-plus-beta-hydroxybutyrate-stimulated insulin release. Less inhibition of insulin release was observed with two cell lines with less knockdown of SCOT. Previous studies showed knockdown of ATP citrate lyase in INS-1 832/13 cells does not lower insulin release. The results further support work that suggests mitochondrial pathways involving SCOT which supply acetoacetate for export to the cytosol are important for insulin secretion.
Project description:Connexin36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between insulin-secreting beta-cells in the Langerhans islets, contributes to the proper control of insulin secretion and beta-cell survival. Hypercholesterolemia and pro-atherogenic low density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in the context of Type 2 diabetes. We investigated the impact of LDL-cholesterol on Cx36 levels in beta-cells. As compared to WT mice, the Cx36 content was reduced in islets from hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. Prolonged exposure to human native (nLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) particles decreased the expression of Cx36 in insulin secreting cell-lines and isolated rodent islets. Cx36 down-regulation was associated with overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER-1) and the selective disruption of ICER-1 prevented the effects of oxLDL on Cx36 expression. Oil red O staining and Plin1 expression levels suggested that oxLDL were less stored as neutral lipid droplets than nLDL in INS-1E cells. The lipid beta-oxidation inhibitor etomoxir enhanced oxLDL-induced apoptosis whereas the ceramide synthesis inhibitor myriocin partially protected INS-1E cells, suggesting that oxLDL toxicity was due to impaired metabolism of the lipids. ICER-1 and Cx36 expressions were closely correlated with oxLDL toxicity. Cx36 knock-down in INS-1E cells or knock-out in primary islets sensitized beta-cells to oxLDL-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of Cx36 partially protected INS-1E cells against apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the reduction of Cx36 content in beta-cells by oxLDL particles is mediated by ICER-1 and contributes to oxLDL-induced beta-cell apoptosis.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is potentiated by fatty acids (FA). The initial step in the metabolism of intracellular FA is the conversion to acyl-CoA by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsls). Because the predominantly expressed Acsl isoforms in INS 832/13 cells are Acsl4 and -5, we characterized the role of these Acsls in beta-cell function by using siRNA to knock down Acsl4 or Acsl5. Compared with control cells, an 80% suppression of Acsl4 decreased GSIS and FA-potentiated GSIS by 32 and 54%, respectively. Knockdown of Acsl5 did not alter GSIS. Acsl4 knockdown did not alter FA oxidation or long chain acyl-CoA levels. With Acsl4 knockdown, incubation with 17 mm glucose increased media epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and reduced cell membrane levels of EETs. Further, exogenous EETs reduced GSIS in INS 832/13 cells, and in Acsl4 knockdown cells, an EET receptor antagonist partially rescued GSIS. These results strongly suggest that Acsl4 activates EETs to form EET-CoAs that are incorporated into glycerophospholipids, thereby sequestering EETs. Exposing INS 832/13 cells to arachidonate or linoleate reduced Acsl4 mRNA and protein expression and reduced GSIS. These data indicate that Acsl4 modulates GSIS by regulating the levels of unesterified EETs and that arachidonate controls the expression of its activator Acsl4.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for ?-oxidation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CACT in ?-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma ?-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that ?-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine-mediated regulation of IS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucose increases the expression of glycolytic enzymes and other hypoxia-response genes in pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we tested whether this effect results from the activation of Hypoxia-Inducible-factors (HIF) 1 and 2 in a hypoxia-dependent manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Isolated rat islets and insulin-secreting INS-1E cells were stimulated with nutrients at various pO? values or treated with the HIF activator CoCl?. HIF-target gene mRNA levels and HIF subunit protein levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. The formation of pimonidazole-protein adducts was used as an indicator of hypoxia. In INS-1E and islet beta-cells, glucose concentration-dependently stimulated formation of pimonidazole-protein adducts, HIF1 and HIF2 nuclear expression and HIF-target gene mRNA levels to a lesser extent than CoCl? or a four-fold reduction in pO?. Islets also showed signs of HIF activation in diabetic Lepr(db/db) but not non-diabetic Lepr(db/+) mice. In vitro, these glucose effects were reproduced by nutrient secretagogues that bypass glycolysis, and were inhibited by a three-fold increase in pO? or by inhibitors of Ca²? influx and insulin secretion. In INS-1E cells, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Hif1? and Hif2?, alone or in combination, indicated that the stimulation of glycolytic enzyme mRNA levels depended on both HIF isoforms while the vasodilating peptide adrenomedullin was a HIF2-specific target gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Glucose-induced O? consumption creates an intracellular hypoxia that activates HIF1 and HIF2 in rat beta-cells, and this glucose effect contributes, together with the activation of other transcription factors, to the glucose stimulation of expression of some glycolytic enzymes and other hypoxia response genes.