ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional genomics has particular promise in silkworm biology for identifying genes involved in a variety of biological functions that include: synthesis and secretion of silk, sex determination pathways, insect-pathogen interactions, chorionogenesis, molecular clocks. Wild silkmoths have hardly been the subject of detailed scientific investigations, owing largely to non-availability of molecular and genetic data on these species. As a first step, in the present study we generated large scale expressed sequence tags (EST) in three economically important species of wild silkmoths. In order to make these resources available for the use of global scientific community, an EST database called 'WildSilkbase' was developed. DESCRIPTION: WildSilkbase is a catalogue of ESTs generated from several tissues at different developmental stages of 3 economically important saturniid silkmoths, an Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama, an Indian tropical tasar silkmoth, A. mylitta and eri silkmoth, Samia cynthia ricini. Currently the database is provided with 57,113 ESTs which are clustered and assembled into 4,019 contigs and 10,019 singletons. Data can be browsed and downloaded using a standard web browser. Users can search the database either by BLAST query, keywords or Gene Ontology query. There are options to carry out searches for species, tissue and developmental stage specific ESTs in BLAST page. Other features of the WildSilkbase include cSNP discovery, GO viewer, homologue finder, SSR finder and links to all other related databases. The WildSilkbase is freely available from http://www.cdfd.org.in/wildsilkbase/. CONCLUSION: A total of 14,038 putative unigenes was identified in 3 species of wild silkmoths. These genes provide important resources to gain insight into the functional and evolutionary study of wild silkmoths. We believe that WildSilkbase will be extremely useful for all those researchers working in the areas of comparative genomics, functional genomics and molecular evolution in general, and gene discovery, gene organization, transposable elements and genome variability of insect species in particular.
Project description:The crop expressed sequence tag database, CR-EST (http://pgrc.ipk-gatersleben.de/cr-est/), is a publicly available online resource providing access to sequence, classification, clustering and annotation data of crop EST projects. CR-EST currently holds more than 200,000 sequences derived from 41 cDNA libraries of four species: barley, wheat, pea and potato. The barley section comprises approximately one-third of all publicly available ESTs. CR-EST deploys an automatic EST preparation pipeline that includes the identification of chimeric clones in order to transparently display the data quality. Sequences are clustered in species-specific projects to currently generate a non-redundant set of approximately 22,600 consensus sequences and approximately 17,200 singletons, which form the basis of the provided set of unigenes. A web application allows the user to compute BLAST alignments of query sequences against the CR-EST database, query data from Gene Ontology and metabolic pathway annotations and query sequence similarities from stored BLAST results. CR-EST also features interactive JAVA-based tools, allowing the visualization of open reading frames and the explorative analysis of Gene Ontology mappings applied to ESTs.
Project description:Silk has numerous unique properties that make it a staple of textile manufacturing for several thousand years. However, wider applications of silk in modern have been stalled due to limitations of traditional silk produced by Bombyx mori. While silk is commonly produced by B. mori, several wild non-mulberry silkmoths--especially members of family Saturniidae--produce silk with superior properties that may be useful for wider applications. Further utilization of such silks is hampered by the non-domestication status or limited culturing population of wild silkworms. To date there is insufficient basic genomic or transcriptomic data on these organisms or their silk production.We sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of silk glands of six Saturniidae wild silkmoth species through next-generation sequencing technology, identifying 37758 ~ 51734 silkmoth unigenes, at least 36.3% of which are annotated with an e-value less than 10(-5). Sequence analyses of these unigenes identified a batch of genes specific to Saturniidae that are enriched in growth and development. Analyses of silk proteins including fibroin and sericin indicate intra-genus conservation and inter-genus diversification of silk protein features among the wild silkmoths, e.g., isoelectric points, hydrophilicity profile and amino acid composition in motifs of silk H-fibroin. Interestingly, we identified p25 in two of the silkmoths, which were previously predicted to be absent in Saturniidae. There are rapid evolutionary changes in sericin proteins, which might account for the highly heterogeneity of sericin in Saturniidae silkmoths. Within the six sikmoths, both colored-cocoon silkmoth specific transcripts and differentially expressed genes between the colored-cocoon and non-colored-cocoon silkmoths are significantly enriched in catalytic activity, especially transferase activity, suggesting potentially viable targets for future gene mining or genetic manipulation.Our results characterize novel and potentially valuable gene resources of saturniid silkmoths that may facilitate future genetic improvement and modification of mulberry silkworms. Our results suggest that the disparate features of silk--coloration, retention, strength, etc. --are likely not only due to silk proteins, but also to the environment of silk assembly, and more specifically, that stable silk coloration exhibited by some Saturniidae silkmoths may be attributable to active catalytic progress in pigmentation.
Project description:Functional genomics has proven to be an efficient tool in identifying genes involved in various biological functions. However the availability of commercially important seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum functional resources is still limited. EuDBase is the first seaweed online repository that provides integrated access to ESTs of Eucheuma denticulatum generated from samples collected from Kudat and Semporna in Sabah, Malaysia. The database stored 10,031 ESTs that are clustered and assembled into 2,275 unique transcripts (UT) and 955 singletons. Raw data were automatically processed using ESTFrontier, an in-house automated EST analysis pipeline. Data was collected in MySQL database. Web interface is implemented using PHP and it allows browsing and querying EuDBase through search engine. Data is searchable via BLAST hit, domain search, Gene Ontology or KEGG Pathway. A user-friendly interface allows the identification of sequences either using a simple text query or similarity search. The development of EuDBase is initiated to store, manage and analyze the E. denticulatum ESTs and to provide accumulative digital resources for the use of global scientific community. EuDBase is freely available from http://www.inbiosis.ukm.my/eudbase/.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Single-pass, partial sequencing of complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries generates thousands of chromatograms that are processed into high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and then assembled into contigs representative of putative genes. Usually, to be of value, ESTs and contigs must be associated with meaningful annotations, and made available to end-users. RESULTS: A web application, Expressed Sequence Tag Information Management and Annotation (ESTIMA), has been created to meet the EST annotation and data management requirements of multiple high-throughput EST sequencing projects. It is anchored on individual ESTs and organized around different properties of ESTs including chromatograms, base-calling quality scores, structure of assembled transcripts, and multiple sources of comparison to infer functional annotation, Gene Ontology associations, and cDNA library information. ESTIMA consists of a relational database schema and a set of interactive query interfaces. These are integrated with a suite of web-based tools that allow a user to query and retrieve information. Further, query results are interconnected among the various EST properties. ESTIMA has several unique features. Users may run their own EST processing pipeline, search against preferred reference genomes, and use any clustering and assembly algorithm. The ESTIMA database schema is very flexible and accepts output from any EST processing and assembly pipeline. ESTIMA has been used for the management of EST projects of many species, including honeybee (Apis mellifera), cattle (Bos taurus), songbird (Taeniopygia guttata), corn rootworm (Diabrotica vergifera), catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus), and apple (Malus x domestica). The entire resource may be downloaded and used as is, or readily adapted to fit the unique needs of other cDNA sequencing projects. CONCLUSIONS: The scripts used to create the ESTIMA interface are freely available to academic users in an archived format from http://titan.biotec.uiuc.edu/ESTIMA/. The entity-relationship (E-R) diagrams and the programs used to generate the Oracle database tables are also available. We have also provided detailed installation instructions and a tutorial at the same website. Presently the chromatograms, EST databases and their annotations have been made available for cattle and honeybee brain EST projects. Non-academic users need to contact the W.M. Keck Center for Functional and Comparative Genomics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, for licensing information.
Project description:An increasing number of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes are being found to have natural antisense transcripts (NATs). There is also growing evidence to suggest that antisense transcription could play a key role in many human diseases. Consequently, there have been several recent attempts to set up computational procedures aimed at identifying novel NATs. Our group has developed the AntiHunter program for the identification of expressed sequence tag (EST) antisense transcripts from BLAST output. In order to perform an analysis, the program requires a genomic sequence plus an associated list of transcript names and coordinates of the genomic region. After masking the repeated regions, the program carries out a BLASTN search of this sequence in the selected EST database, reporting via email the EST entries that reveal an antisense transcript according to the user-supplied list. Here, we present the newly developed version 2.0 of the AntiHunter tool. Several improvements have been added to this version of the program in order to increase its ability to detect a larger number of antisense ESTs. As a result, AntiHunter can now detect, on average, >45% more antisense ESTs with little or no increase in the percentage of the false positives. We also raised the maximum query size to 3 Mb (previously 1 Mb). Moreover, we found that a reasonable trade-off between the program search sensitivity and the maximum allowed size of the input-query sequence could be obtained by querying the database with the MEGABLAST program, rather than by using the BLAST one. We now offer this new opportunity to users, i.e. if choosing the MEGABLAST option, users can input a query sequence up to 30 Mb long, thus considerably improving the possibility to analyze longer query regions. The AntiHunter tool is freely available at http://bioinfo.crs4.it/AH2.0.
Project description:A total of 28,432 unique contigs (25,371 in consensus contigs and 3,061 as singletons) were assembled from all 268,786 cotton ESTs currently available. Several in silico approaches [comparative genomics, Blast, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and pathway enrichment by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)] were employed to investigate global functions of the cotton transcriptome. Cotton EST contigs were clustered into 5,461 groups with a maximum cluster size of 196 members. A total of 27,956 indel mutants and 149,616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from consensus contigs. Interestingly, many contigs with significantly high frequencies of indels or SNPs encode transcription factors and protein kinases. In a comparison with six model plant species, cotton ESTs show the highest overall similarity to grape. A total of 87 cotton miRNAs were identified; 59 of these have not been reported previously from experimental or bioinformatics investigations. We also predicted 3,260 genes as miRNAs targets, which are associated with multiple biological functions, including stress response, metabolism, hormone signal transduction and fiber development. We identified 151 and 4,214 EST-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from contigs and raw ESTs respectively. To make these data widely available, and to facilitate access to EST-related genetic information, we integrated our results into a comprehensive, fully downloadable web-based cotton EST database (www.leonxie.com).
Project description:Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is an ideal model insect for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying sex pheromone-induced innate behavior. Although transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are well established in the silkmoth, genetic tools useful for investigating brain function at the neural circuit level have been lacking.In the present study, we established silkmoth strains in which we could visualize neural projections (UAS-mCD8GFP) and cell nucleus positions (UAS-GFP.nls), and manipulate neural excitability by thermal stimulation (UAS-dTrpA1). In these strains, neural projections and nucleus position were reliably labeled with green fluorescent protein in a GAL4-dependent manner. Further, the behavior of silkworm larvae and adults could be controlled by GAL4-dependent misexpression of dTrpA1. Ubiquitous dTrpA1 misexpression led both silkmoth larvae and adults to exhibit seizure-like phenotypes in a heat stimulation-dependent manner. Furthermore, dTrpA1 misexpression in the sex pheromone receptor neurons of male silkmoths allowed us to control male sexual behavior by changing the temperature. Thermally stimulated male silkmoths exhibited full sexual behavior, including wing-flapping, orientation, and attempted copulation, and precisely approached a thermal source in a manner similar to male silkmoths stimulated with the sex pheromone.These findings indicate that a thermogenetic approach using dTrpA1 is feasible in Lepidopteran insects and thermogenetic analysis of innate behavior is applicable in the silkmoth. These tools are essential for elucidating the relationships between neural circuits and function using neurogenetic methods.
Project description:Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are randomly sequenced cDNA clones. Currently, nearly 3 million human and 2 million mouse ESTs provide valuable resources that enable researchers to investigate the products of gene expression. The EST databases have proven to be useful tools for detecting homologous genes, for exon mapping, revealing differential splicing, etc. With the increasing availability of large amounts of poorly characterised eukaryotic (notably human) genomic sequence, ESTs have now become a vital tool for gene identification, sometimes yielding the only unambiguous evidence for the existence of a gene expression product. However, BLAST-based Web servers available to the general user have not kept pace with these developments and do not provide appropriate tools for querying EST databases with large highly spliced genes, often spanning 50 000-100 000 bases or more. Here we describe Gene2EST (http://woody.embl-heidelberg.de/gene2est/), a server that brings together a set of tools enabling efficient retrieval of ESTs matching large DNA queries and their subsequent analysis. RepeatMasker is used to mask dispersed repetitive sequences (such as Alu elements) in the query, BLAST2 for searching EST databases and Artemis for graphical display of the findings. Gene2EST combines these components into a Web resource targeted at the researcher who wishes to study one or a few genes to a high level of detail.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The ESTree db http://www.itb.cnr.it/estree/ represents a collection of Prunus persica expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) and is intended as a resource for peach functional genomics. A total of 6,155 successful EST sequences were obtained from four in-house prepared cDNA libraries from Prunus persica mesocarps at different developmental stages. Another 12,475 peach EST sequences were downloaded from public databases and added to the ESTree db. An automated pipeline was prepared to process EST sequences using public software integrated by in-house developed Perl scripts and data were collected in a MySQL database. A php-based web interface was developed to query the database. RESULTS: The ESTree db version as of April 2005 encompasses 18,630 sequences representing eight libraries. Contig assembly was performed with CAP3. Putative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was performed with the AutoSNP program and a search engine was implemented to retrieve results. All the sequences and all the contig consensus sequences were annotated both with blastx against the GenBank nr db and with GOblet against the viridiplantae section of the Gene Ontology db. Links to NiceZyme (Expasy) and to the KEGG metabolic pathways were provided. A local BLAST utility is available. A text search utility allows querying and browsing the database. Statistics were provided on Gene Ontology occurrences to assign sequences to Gene Ontology categories. CONCLUSION: The resulting database is a comprehensive resource of data and links related to peach EST sequences. The Sequence Report and Contig Report pages work as the web interface core structures, giving quick access to data related to each sequence/contig.
Project description:Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ranks fifth among the world oil crops and is widely grown in India and neighbouring countries. Due to its large and unknown genome size, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are still scanty as compared to other model crops like Arabidopsis, rice, cotton and soybean. Because of its favourable cultivation in semi-arid regions, study on abiotic stress responsive genes and its regulation in peanut is very much important. Therefore, we aim to identify and annotate the abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs. Expression data of drought stress responsive corresponding genes and EST sequences were screened from dot blot experiments shown as heat maps and supplementary tables, respectively as reported by Govind et al. (2009). Some of the screened genes having no information about their ESTs in above mentioned supplementary tables were retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to find a group of utmost similar ESTs for each selected gene. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1,78,490 whole EST sequences) using stand alone BLAST. For the prediction as well as annotation of abiotic stress responsive selected genes, various tools (like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST-Trimmer, DNA Baser, WISE2 and I-TASSER) were used. Here we report the predicted result of Contigs, domain as well as 3D structure for HSP 17.3KDa protein, DnaJ protein and Type 2 Metallothionein protein.