Auranofin promotes retinoic acid- or dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated cell differentiation of promyelocytic leukaemia cells by increasing histone acetylation.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular mechanism for the effect of auranofin on the induction of cell differentiation, the cellular events associated with differentiation were analysed in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) cells.The APL blasts from leukaemia patients and NB4 cells were cotreated with auroanofin and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) at suboptimal concentration. The HL-60 cells were treated with auroanofin and a subeffective dose of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 vit D3) in combination. The effect of auroanofin was investigated on histone acetylation at the promoter of differentiation-associated genes and expression of cell cycle regulators.Treatment with auroanofin and ATRA cooperatively induced granulocytic differentiation of fresh APL blasts isolated from patients and NB4 cells. The combined treatment also increased reorganization of nuclear PML bodies and histone acetylation at the promoter of the RARbeta2 gene. Auroanofin also promoted monocytic differentiation of the HL-60 cells triggered by subeffective concentration of 1,25(OH)2 vit D3. The combined treatment of auroanofin and 1,25(OH)2 vit D3 stimulated histone acetylation at p21 promoters and increased the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Consistent with this, the expressions of p21, p27 and PTEN were increased and the levels of cyclin A, Cdk2 and Cdk4 were decreased. Furthermore, the hypophosphorylated form of pRb was markedly increased in cotreated cells.These findings indicate that auroanofin in combination with low doses of either ATRA or 1,25(OH)2 vit D3 promotes APL cell differentiation by enhancing histone acetylation and the expression of differentiation-associated genes.
Project description:Differentiation therapy with all-<i>trans</i>-retinoic acid (ATRA) improves the treatment outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the molecular mechanism by which ATRA induces granulocytic differentiation remains unclear. We previously reported that the inhibition of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) SIRT2 induces granulocytic differentiation in leukemia cells, suggesting the involvement of protein acetylation in ATRA-induced leukemia cell differentiation. Herein, we show that p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor (PCAF), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is a prerequisite for ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in leukemia cells. We found that PCAF expression was markedly increased in leukemia cell lines (NB4 and HL-60) and primary APL cells during ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation. Consistent with these results, the expression of PCAF was markedly up-regulated in the bone marrow cells of APL patients who received ATRA-containing chemotherapy. The knockdown of PCAF inhibited ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in leukemia cell lines and primary APL cells. Conversely, the overexpression of PCAF induced the expression of the granulocytic differentiation marker CD11b at the mRNA level. Acetylome analysis identified the acetylated proteins after ATRA treatment, and we found that histone H3, a known PCAF acetylation substrate, was preferentially acetylated by the ATRA treatment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that PCAF is required for the acetylation of histone H3 on the promoter of ATRA target genes, such as <i>CCL2</i> and <i>FGR</i>, and for the expression of these genes in ATRA-treated leukemia cells. These results strongly support our hypothesis that PCAF is induced and activated by ATRA, and the subsequent acetylation of PCAF substrates promotes granulocytic differentiation in leukemia cells. Targeting PCAF and its downstream acetylation targets could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome all subtypes of AML.
Project description:Cytochrome P450scc metabolizes vitamin D3 to 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) and 20,23(OH)(2)D3, as well as 1-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20(OH)(2)D3). It also cleaves the side chain of 7-dehydrocholesterol producing 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP), which can be transformed to 20(OH)7DHP. UVB induces transformation of the steroidal 5,7-dienes to pregnacalciferol (pD) and a lumisterol-like compounds (pL).To define the biological significance of these P450scc-initiated pathways, we tested the effects of their 5,7-diene precursors and secosteroidal products on leukemia cell differentiation and proliferation in comparison to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)(2)D3). These secosteroids inhibited proliferation and induced erythroid differentiation of K562 human chronic myeloid and MEL mouse leukemia cells with 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)(2)D3 being either equipotent or slightly less potent than 1,25(OH)(2)D3, while 1,20(OH)(2)D3, pD and pL compounds were slightly or moderately less potent. The compounds also inhibited proliferation and induced monocytic differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic and U937 promonocytic human leukemia cells. Among them 1,25(OH)(2)D3 was the most potent, 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)(2)D3 and 1,20(OH)(2)D3 were less active, and pD and pL compounds were the least potent. Since it had been previously proven that secosteroids without the side chain (pD) have no effect on systemic calcium levels we performed additional testing in rats and found that 20(OH)D3 had no calcemic activity at concentration as high as 1 microg/kg, whereas, 1,20(OH)(2)D3 was slightly to moderately calcemic and 1,25(OH)(2)D3 had strong calcemic activity.We identified novel secosteroids that are excellent candidates for anti-leukemia therapy with 20(OH)D3 deserving special attention because of its relatively high potency and lack of calcemic activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The role of vitamin D (VD) in innate and adaptive immune responses to tuberculosis is still unclear. Our research was aimed to uncover the effect of VD on Th17 cells and elucidate potential molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS:VDR-deficient and wild-type mice were used to obtain CD4 T cells. Th17 cells were induced and activated by Bacillus Calmette Guerin. Flow cytometry was used to analyse the apoptosis rate and degree of differentiation of Th17 cells in the treatment of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . The interaction between P65 and Rorc was determined by immunofluorescence assay, luciferase reporter assay, EMSA-Super-shelf assay and ChIP assay. Co-IP assay was carried out to test the interaction between VDR and NF-?B family proteins. qRT-PCR and Western blot were also performed to detect the levels of P65, ROR?t and IL-17. RESULTS:The Th17 cells differentiation was suppressed by 1,25(OH)2 D3 in vitro. We confirmed that Rorc was a downstream gene of the transcription factor P65. VDR interacts with P105/P50, P100/P52 and P65 NF-?B family proteins. 1,25(OH)2 D3 inhibited the expression of ROR?t/IL-17 by suppressing p65 transcription factor translocating to nucleus. In vivo experiments, the expression of IL-17 and RANKL was suppressed by 1,25(OH)2 D3 by VD receptor. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2 D3 suppressed the inflammatory infiltrates and inhibited the expression of P65, ROR?t and IL-17 in the spleen tissues of model mice. CONCLUSIONS:Together, 1,25(OH)2 D3 suppressed the differentiation of Th17 cells via regulating the NF-?B activity.
Project description:20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20S-(OH)D3), an in vitro product of vitamin D3 metabolism by the cytochrome P450scc, was recently isolated, identified and shown to possess antiproliferative activity without inducing hypercalcemia. The enzymatic production of 20S-(OH)D3 is tedious, expensive, and cannot meet the requirements for extensive chemical and biological studies. Here we report for the first time the chemical synthesis of 20S-(OH)D3 which exhibited biological properties characteristic of the P450scc-generated compound. Specifically, it was hydroxylated to 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by P450scc and was converted to 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by CYP27B1. It inhibited proliferation of human epidermal keratinocytes with lower potency than 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in normal epidermal human keratinocytes, but with equal potency in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. It also stimulated VDR gene expression with similar potency to 1,25(OH)2D3, and stimulated involucrin (a marker of differentiation) and CYP24 gene expression, showing a lower potency for the latter gene than 1,25(OH)2D3. Testing performed with hamster melanoma cells demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and colony forming capabilities similar or more pronounced than those of 1,25(OH)2D3. Thus, we have developed a chemical method for the synthesis of 20S-(OH)D3, which will allow the preparation of a series of 20S-(OH)D3 analogs to study structure-activity relationships to further optimize this class of compound for therapeutic use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Differentiation syndrome (DS) is the main life-threatening adverse event that occurs in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Cytokine imbalances have been reported to play role during the developing of acute promyelocytic leukemia differentiation syndrome (APL-DS). However, the relationship between the plasma cytokine levels and their prognostic value for the prediction of DS developing in patients with APL during the treatment with ATRA and anthracyclines has not been previously reported. METHODS:In this study, we followed an APL cohort (n?=?17) over 7 days of ATRA therapy in DS (n?=?6) and non-DS groups (n?=?11). Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-? were measured in the peripheral blood plasma from 17 patients with APL and 11 healthy adult controls by using the cytometric bead array method. RESULTS:In non-DS patients, IL-8 plasma levels were significantly reduced in the seventh day of ATRA treatment (34.16; 6.99 to 147.11?pg?mL-?1 in D0 vs. 10.9; 0 to 26.81?pg?mL-?1 in D7; p?=?0.02) whereas their levels did not discriminate between DS and non-DS development during the entire induction period (all p?>?0.05 in D0, D3, and D7). No significant differences were found in IL-6 levels between groups (p?>?0.05 in D0-D7). Other cytokines tested were all undetectable in patients with APL or healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that the modulation of IL-8 following ATRA treatment may occur regardless of the development of DS and, therefore, does not appear to be a predictive biomarker to monitor the APL-DS.
Project description:To determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) can exert an anti-osteoporosis role through anti-aging mechanisms, we analyzed the bone phenotype of mice with 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency due to deletion of the enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1?-hydroxylase, while on a rescue diet. 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency accelerated age-related bone loss by activating the p16/p19 senescence signaling pathway, inhibiting osteoblastic bone formation, and stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption, osteocyte senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Supplementation of exogenous 1,25(OH)2 D3 corrected the osteoporotic phenotype caused by 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency or natural aging by inhibiting the p16/p19 pathway. The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and ectopic bone formation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice with genetically induced deficiency of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were significantly reduced by mechanisms including increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cellular senescence. We also demonstrated that p16 deletion largely rescued the osteoporotic phenotype caused by 1,25(OH)2 D3 deficiency, whereas 1,25(OH)2 D3 could up-regulate the enzyme Ezh2 via VDR-mediated transcription thereby enriching H3K27me3 and repressing p16/p19 transcription. Finally, we demonstrated that treatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3 improved the osteogenic defects of human BM-MSCs caused by repeated passages by stimulating their proliferation and inhibiting their senescence via the VDR-Ezh2-p16 axis. The results of this study therefore indicate that 1,25(OH)2 D3 plays a role in preventing age-related osteoporosis by up-regulating Ezh2 via VDR-mediated transcription, increasing H3K27me3 and repressing p16 transcription, thus promoting the proliferation and osteogenesis of BM-MSCs and inhibiting their senescence, while also stimulating osteoblastic bone formation, and inhibiting osteocyte senescence, SASP, and osteoclastic bone resorption.
Project description:20(S)-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) is an endogenous metabolite produced by the action of CYP11A1 on the side chain of vitamin D3 (D3). 20(OH)D3 can be further hydroxylated by CYP11A1, CYP27A1, CYP24A1 and/or CYP27B1 to several hydroxyderivatives. CYP11A1 also hydroxylates D3 to 22-monohydroxyvitamin D3 (22(OH)D3), which is detectable in the epidermis. 20-Hydroxy-7-dehydrocholesterol (20(OH)-7DHC) has been detected in the human epidermis and can be phototransformed into 20(OH)D3 following the absorption of ultraviolet B (UVB) energy by the B-ring. 20(OH)D3 and its hydroxyderivatives have anti-inflammatory, pro-differentiation and anti-proliferative effects, comparable to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Since cytochromes P450 with 20- or 25-hydroxylase activity are found in insects participating in ecdysone synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), we tested whether D3-hydroxyderivatives are present in honey, implying their production in bees. Honey was collected during summer in the Birmingham area of Alabama or purchased commercially and extracted and analyzed using LC-MS. We detected a clear peak of m/z = 423.324 [M + Na]+ for 20(OH)D3 corresponding to a concentration in honey of 256 ng/g. We also detected peaks of m/z = 383.331 [M + H - H2O]+ for 20(OH)-7DHC and 25(OH)D3 with retention times corresponding to the standards. We further detected species with m/z = 407.329 [M + Na]+ corresponding to the RT of 7DHC, D3 and lumisterol3 (L3). Similarly, peaks with m/z = 399.326 [M + H - H2O]+ were detected at the RT of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 1,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20(OH)2D3). Species corresponding to 20-monohydroxylumisterol3 (20(OH)L3), 22-monohydroxyvitamin D3 (22(OH)D3), 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (20,23(OH)2D3), 20,24/25/26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (20,24/25/26(OH)2D3) and 1,20,23/24/25/26-trihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20,23/24/25/26(OH)3D3) were not detectable above the background. In conclusion, the presence of 7DHC and D3 and of species corresponding to 20(OH)-7DHC, 20(OH)D3, 1,20(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in honey implies their production in bees, although the precise biochemistry and photochemistry of these processes remain to be defined.
Project description:EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) are the standard of care treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Although initially effective, EGFR TKIs are not curative. Disease inevitably relapses due to acquired drug resistance. We hypothesized that vitamin D metabolites could be used with EGFR TKIs to prevent therapeutic failure. To test this idea, we investigated the link between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with EGFR-mutant LUAD that received EGFR TKIs (erlotinib n = 20 and afatinib n = 1). Patients who were 25(OH)D3-sufficient experienced significantly longer benefit from EGFR TKI therapy (mean 14.5 months) than those with 25(OH)D3 insufficiency (mean 10.6 months, p = 0.026). In contrast, 25(OH)D3 had no prognostic value in patients with KRAS-mutant LUAD that received cytotoxic chemotherapy. To gain mechanistic insights, we tested 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) activity in vitro. 1,25(OH)2D3 promoted epithelial differentiation and restored EGFR TKI sensitivity in models of EGFR TKI resistance that were associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). 1,25(OH)2D3 was ineffective in a non-EMT model of resistance. We conclude that vitamin D sufficiency portends increased PFS among EGFR-mutant LUAD patients that receive EGFR TKIs, and that vitamin D signaling maintains drug efficacy in this specific patient subset by opposing EMT.
Project description:Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is related to diabetes complications. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between diabetes complications and cardiovascular risk factors with vitamin D3 and its metabolites: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3); and 25-hydroxy-3epi-vitamin D3 (3epi25(OH)D3). Methods: 750 Qatari subjects, 460 (61.3%) with and 290 (38.7%) without T2DM, who were not taking vitamin D3 supplements, participated in this cross-sectional, observational study. Plasma concentrations of vitamin D3 and its metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: T2DM subjects had lower concentrations of all vitamin D3 metabolites (p?<?0.001) except 3epi25(OH)D3 (p?<?0.071). Males had higher concentrations of all vitamin D3 metabolites (p?<?0.001). In the T2DM subjects, lower 25(OH)D3 was associated with retinopathy (p?<?0.03) and dyslipidemia (p?<?0.04), but not neuropathy or vascular complications; lower 1,25(OH)2D3 was associated with hypertension (p?<?0.009), dyslipidemia (p?<?0.003) and retinopathy (p?<?0.006), and coronary artery disease (p?<?0.012), but not neuropathy; lower 24,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were associated with dyslipidemia alone (p?<?0.019); 3epi25(OH)D3 associated with diabetic neuropathy alone (p?<?0.029). In nondiabetics, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were associated with dyslipidemia (p?<?0.001, p?<?0.001, p?<?0.015, respectively) and lower 1,25(OH)2D3 was associated with hypertension (p?<?0.001). Spearman’s correlation showed 1,25(OH)2D3 to be negatively correlated to age and diabetes duration. Conclusions: Different diabetes complications were associated with differing vitamin D parameters, with diabetic retinopathy related to lower 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, hypertension significantly associated with lower 1,25(OH)2D3, while dyslipidemia was associated with lower 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3. While 25(OH)D metabolites were lower in females, there was not an exaggeration in complications.