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Purinergic mechanisms in the control of gastrointestinal motility.


ABSTRACT: For many years, ATP and adenosine have been implicated in movement regulation of the gastrointestinal tract. They act through three major receptor subtypes: adenosine or P1 receptors, P2X receptors and P2Y receptors. Each of these major receptor types can be subdivided into several different classes and is widely distributed amongst various neurons, muscle types, glia and interstitial cells that regulate intestinal functions. Several key roles for the different receptors and their endogenous ligands have been identified in physiological and pharmacological studies. For example, adenosine acting at A(1) receptors appears to inhibit intestinal motility in various pathological conditions. Similarly, ATP acting at P2Y receptors is an important component of inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, acting as a cotransmitter with nitric oxide. ATP acting at P2X and P2Y(1) receptors is important for synaptic transmission in simple descending excitatory and inhibitory reflex pathways. Some P2Y receptor subtypes prefer uridine nucleotides over purine nucleotides. Thus, roles for UTP and UDP as enteric transmitters in place of ATP cannot be excluded. ATP also appears to be important for sensory transduction, especially in chemosensitive pathways that initiate local inhibitory reflexes. Despite this evidence, data are lacking about the roles of either adenosine or ATP in more complex motility patterns such as segmentation or the interdigestive migrating motor complex. Clarification of roles for purinergic transmission in these common, but understudied, motility patterns will depend on the use of subtype-specific antagonists that in some cases have not yet been developed.

SUBMITTER: Bornstein JC 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2486340 | BioStudies | 2008-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): 10.1007/s11302-007-9081-z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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