Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells.
ABSTRACT: Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys(118), suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys(118) contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments.
Project description:Ras is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states to regulate a diverse array of cellular processes, including cell growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. The guanine nucleotide-bound state of Ras is tightly maintained by regulatory factors to promote regulated growth control. A class of regulatory molecules that lead to Ras activation are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Ras GEFs bind to Ras and facilitate GDP release, followed by GTP incorporation and Ras activation. Nitric oxide (NO) has also been shown to promote guanine nucleotide exchange (GNE) on Ras and increase cellular Ras-GTP levels, but the process by which NO-mediated GNE occurs is not clear. We initiated NMR structural and biochemical studies to elucidate how nitrosylation of Ras might lead to enhanced GNE. Surprisingly, our studies show that stable S-nitrosylation of Ras at Cys-118, does not affect the structure of Ras, its association with the Ras-binding domain of Raf (a downstream effector of Ras), or GNE rates relative to non-nitrosylated Ras. We have found, however, that the actual chemical process of nitrosylation, rather than the end-product of Ras S-nitrosylation, accounts for the enhanced GNE that we have observed and that has been previously observed by others.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is primarily localized on the Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane caveolae in endothelial cells. Previously, we demonstrated that protein S-nitrosylation occurs preferentially where eNOS is localized. Thus, in endothelial cells, Golgi proteins are likely to be targets for S-nitrosylation. The aim of this study was to identify S-nitrosylated Golgi proteins and attribute their S-nitrosylation to eNOS-derived nitric oxide in endothelial cells.Golgi membranes were isolated from rat livers. S-nitrosylated Golgi proteins were determined by a modified biotin-switch assay coupled with mass spectrometry that allows the identification of the S-nitrosylated cysteine residue. The biotin switch assay followed by Western blot or immunoprecipitation using an S-nitrosocysteine antibody was also employed to validate S-nitrosylated proteins in endothelial cell lysates.Seventy-eight potential S-nitrosylated proteins and their target cysteine residues for S-nitrosylation were identified; 9 of them were Golgi-resident or Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated proteins. Among these 9 proteins, S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) was verified in endothelial cells. Furthermore, S-nitrosylation of these proteins was found at the basal levels and increased in response to eNOS stimulation by the calcium ionophore A23187. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation showed that EMMPRIN and GOLPH3 are co-localized with eNOS at the Golgi apparatus in endothelial cells. S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN was notably increased in the aorta of cirrhotic rats.Our data suggest that the selective S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN and GOLPH3 at the Golgi apparatus in endothelial cells results from the physical proximity to eNOS-derived nitric oxide.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly diffusible and short-lived physiological messenger. Despite its diffusible nature, NO modifies thiol groups of specific cysteine residues in target proteins and alters protein function via S-nitrosylation. Although intracellular S-nitrosylation is a specific posttranslational modification, the defined localization of an NO source (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with protein S-nitrosylation has never been directly demonstrated. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) is localized mainly on the Golgi apparatus and in plasma membrane caveolae. Here, we show by using eNOS targeted to either the Golgi or the nucleus that S-nitrosylation is concentrated at the primary site of eNOS localization. Furthermore, localization of eNOS on the Golgi enhances overall Golgi protein S-nitrosylation, the specific S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and reduces the speed of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a reversible manner. These data indicate that local NOS action generates organelle-specific protein S-nitrosylation reactions that can regulate intracellular transport processes.
Project description:Tumour cells become addicted to the expression of initiating oncogenes like Ras, such that loss of oncogene expression in established tumours leads to tumour regression. HRas, NRas or KRas are mutated to remain in the active GTP-bound oncogenic state in many cancers. Although Ras activates several proteins to initiate human tumour growth, only PI3K, through activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as AKT), must remain activated by oncogenic Ras to maintain this growth. Here we show that blocking phosphorylation of the AKT substrate, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or NOS3), inhibits tumour initiation and maintenance. Moreover, eNOS enhances the nitrosylation and activation of endogenous wild-type Ras proteins, which are required throughout tumorigenesis. We suggest that activation of the PI3K-AKT-eNOS-(wild-type) Ras pathway by oncogenic Ras in cancer cells is required to initiate and maintain tumour growth.
Project description:Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) belongs to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) superfamily. Aberrant upregulation and activation of ERK cascades may often lead to tumor cell development. However, how ERK is involved in tumor progression is yet to be defined. In current study, we described that ERK undergoes S-nitrosylation by nitric oxide (NO). ERK S-nitrosylation inhibits its phosphorylation and triggers apoptotic program as verified by massive apoptosis in fluorescence staining. The proapoptotic effect of NO induced S-nitrosylation is reversed by NO scavenger Haemoglobin (HB). Furthermore, an S-nitrosylation dead ERK mutant C183A also demolishes the proapoptotic potential of NO and favors cell survival. Therefore, Cys(183) might be a potential S-nitrosylation site in ERK. In addition, S-nitrosylation is a general phenomenon that regulates ERK activity. These findings identify a novel link between NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and ERK regulation, which provide critical insights into the control of apoptosis and tumor development.
Project description:Mice expressing a germline mutation in the phospholipase C-?1-binding site of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) show progressive lymphoproliferation and ultimately die at 4-6 mo age. The hyperactivated T cells in these mice show defective TCR-induced calcium flux but enhanced Ras/ERK activation, which is critical for disease progression. Despite the loss of LAT-dependent phospholipase C-?1 binding and activation, genetic analysis revealed RasGRP1, and not Sos1 or Sos2, to be the major Ras guanine exchange factor responsible for ERK activation and the lymphoproliferative phenotype in these mice. Analysis of isolated CD4(+) T cells from LAT-Y136F mice showed altered proximal TCR-dependent kinase signaling, which activated a Zap70- and LAT-independent pathway. Moreover, LAT-Y136F T cells showed ERK activation that was dependent on Lck and/or Fyn, protein kinase C-?, and RasGRP1. These data demonstrate a novel route to Ras activation in vivo in a pathological setting.
Project description:RasGRP1, a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, critically mediates T cell development and function and controls immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. In this study, we describe a unique mechanism of mobilization and activation of RasGRP1 in response to SDF-1, a chemokine that signals via the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4. Depletion of RasGRP1 impaired SDF-1-stimulated human T cell migration, expression of the activation marker CD69, and activation of the ERK MAPK pathway, indicating that RasGRP1 mediates SDF-1 functions. SDF-1 treatment caused RasGRP1 to localize to the plasma membrane to activate K-Ras and to the Golgi to activate N-Ras. These events were required for cellular migration and for ERK activation that mediates downstream transcriptional events in response to SDF-1. SDF-1-dependent localization of RasGRP1 did not require its diacylglycerol-binding domain, even though diacyglycerol was previously shown to mediate localization of RasGRP1 in response to Ag stimulation. This domain was, however, required for activity of RasGRP1 after its localization. Intriguingly, SDF-1 treatment of T cells induced the formation of a novel molecular signaling complex containing RasGRP1, G?i2, and ZAP-70. Moreover, SDF-1-mediated signaling by both Gi proteins and ZAP-70 was required for RasGRP1 mobilization. In addition, RasGRP1 mobilization and activation in response to SDF-1 was dependent on TCR expression, suggesting that CXCR4 heterodimerizes with the TCR to couple to ZAP-70 and mobilize RasGRP1. These results increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate SDF-1 effects on T cells and reveal a novel mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation. Other G protein-coupled receptors may similarly contribute to regulation of RasGRP1.
Project description:Ras plays a pivotal role in many cellular activities, and its subcellular compartmentalization provides spatial and temporal selectivity. Here we report a mode of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by two highly homologous proteins PAQR10 and PAQR11 of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors family. PAQR10 and PAQR11 are exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 stimulates basal and EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and increases the expression of ERK target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 markedly elevates Golgi localization of HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. PAQR10 and PAQR11 can also interact with HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. The increased Ras protein at the Golgi apparatus by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 is in an active state. Consistently, knockdown of PAQR10 and PAQR11 reduces EGF-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and Ras activation at the Golgi apparatus. Intriguingly, PAQR10 and PAQR11 are able to interact with RasGRP1, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein of Ras, and increase Golgi localization of RasGRP1. The C1 domain of RasGRP1 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of RasGRP1 with PAQR10/PAQR11. The simulation of ERK phosphorylation by overexpressed PAQR10/PAQR11 is abrogated by downregulation of RasGRP1. Furthermore, differentiation of PC12 cells is significantly enhanced by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11. Collectively, this study uncovers a new paradigm of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by PAQR10 and PAQR11.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling intermediate during glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). NO signaling is in part accomplished through cysteine S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification by which NO regulates protein function and signaling. In our investigation of the protein targets and functional impact of S-nitrosylation in the CNS under physiological conditions, we identified 269 S-nitrosocysteine residues in 136 proteins in the wild-type mouse brain. The number of sites was significantly reduced in the brains of mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS(-/-)) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)). In particular, nNOS(-/-) animals showed decreased S-nitrosylation of proteins that participate in the glutamate/glutamine cycle, a metabolic process by which synaptic glutamate is recycled or oxidized to provide energy. (15)N-glutamine-based metabolomic profiling and enzymatic activity assays indicated that brain extracts from nNOS(-/-) mice converted less glutamate to glutamine and oxidized more glutamate than those from mice of the other genotypes. GLT1 [also known as EAAT2 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2)], a glutamate transporter in astrocytes, was S-nitrosylated at Cys(373) and Cys(561) in wild-type and eNOS(-/-) mice, but not in nNOS(-/-) mice. A form of rat GLT1 that could not be S-nitrosylated at the equivalent sites had increased glutamate uptake compared to wild-type GLT1 in cells exposed to an S-nitrosylating agent. Thus, NO modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission through the selective, nNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of proteins that govern glutamate transport and metabolism.
Project description:The non-essential amino acid L-glutamine (Gln) displays potent anti-inflammatory activity by deactivating p38 mitogen activating protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> via induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent way. In this study, the mechanism of Gln-mediated ERK-dependency in MKP-1 induction was investigated. Gln increased ERK phosphorylation and activity, and phosphorylations of Ras, c-Raf, and MEK, located in the upstream pathway of ERK, in response to lipopolysaccharide<i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Gln-induced dose-dependent transient increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>) in MHS macrophage cells. Ionomycin increased [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> and activation of Ras ? ERK pathway, and MKP-1 induction, in the presence, but not in the absence, of LPS. The Gln-induced pathways involving Ca<sup>2+</sup>? MKP-1 induction were abrogated by a calcium blocker. Besides Gln, other amino acids including L-phenylalanine and l-cysteine (Cys) also induced Ca<sup>2+</sup> response, activation of Ras ? ERK, and MKP-1 induction, albeit to a lesser degree. Gln and Cys were comparable in suppression against 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis. Gln-mediated, but not Cys-mediated, suppression was abolished by MKP-1 small interfering RNA. These data indicate that Gln induces MKP-1 by activating Ca<sup>2+</sup>? ERK pathway, which plays a key role in suppression of inflammatory reactions.