S100A6 expression and function in human osteosarcoma.
ABSTRACT: There is a critical need to identify markers that can accurately identify existing or predict future metastatic disease in patients with osteosarcoma since the majority of patients present with undetectable micrometastatic disease. We previously reported S100A6 is overexpressed in human osteosarcoma and increased expression of S100A6 by immunohistochemistry correlated with decreased clinical metastasis. We have established 11 primary cultures from biopsies of patients with osteosarcoma and ten of the 11 primary cultures have increased expression of S100A6 relative to normal human osteoblasts. To further explore possible mechanisms for metastasis suppression previously reported, we used in this report siRNA-mediated knockdown of S100A6 in four commonly used human osteosarcoma lines, then examined their cell adhesion, migration, and invasion properties. Knockdown of S100A6 expression inhibited cell adhesion and promoted cell migration and invasion in these lines. Conversely, S100A6 overexpression enhanced cell adhesion and inhibited cell invasion. Our data demonstrate S100A6 is commonly overexpressed in human osteosarcoma. S100A6 may inhibit osteosarcoma metastasis by promoting cell adhesion and inhibiting cell motility and invasion. Thus, S100A6 may be considered a potential marker for human osteosarcoma with prognostic value for identifying patients without metastases.
Project description:S100A6 has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression status of S100A6 in relation to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and further explored a possible association of its expression with epigenetic regulation. S100A6 expression was remarkably increased in 67.5% of gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched noncancerous tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated a clear correlation between high S100A6 expression and various clinicopathological features, such as depth of wall invasion, positive lymph node involvement, liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node metastasis stage (P < 0.05 in all cases), as well as revealed that S100A6 is an independent prognostic predictor (P = 0.026) significantly related to poor prognosis (P = 0.0004). Further exploration found an inverse relationship between S100A6 expression and the methylation status of the seventh and eighth CpG sites in the promoter/first exon and the second to fifth sites in the second exon/second intron. In addition, the level of histone H3 acetylation was found to be significantly higher in S100A6-expressing cancer cells. After 5-azacytidine or trichostatin A treatment, S100A6 expression was clearly increased in S100A6 low-expressing cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that S100A6 plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer, affecting patient prognosis, and is up-regulated by epigenetic regulation.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary cancer of bone, exhibits a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. This study sought to elucidate the role of S phase kinase-associated protein (Skp2) in osteosarcoma invasion and metastasis and to explore flavokawain A (FKA), a natural chalcone from kava extract, as a potential Skp2 targeting agent for preventing osteosarcoma progression. Skp2 was found to be overexpressed in multiple osteosarcoma cell lines, including 5 standard and 8 primary patient-derived cell lines. Patients whose tumors expressed high levels of Skp2 sustained a significantly worse metastasis-free (p?=?0.0095) and overall survival (p?=?0.0013) than those with low Skp2. Skp2 knockdown markedly reduced in vitro cellular invasion and in vivo lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Similar to Skp2 knockdown, treatment with FKA also reduced Skp2 expression in osteosarcoma cell lines and blocked the invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that Skp2 is a promising therapeutic target in osteosarcoma, and that FKA may be an effective Skp2-targeted therapy to reduce osteosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, shows potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a secreted protein, binds to integrins, modulates invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells. Effect of CTGF in metastasis of human osteosarcoma is unknown. We found overexpression of CTGF increasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and MMP-3 expression as well as promoting cell migration. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis of CTGF-overexpressed osteosarcoma versus control cells probed mechanisms of CTGF-mediated promotion of migration. Among miRNAs regulated by CTGF, miR-519d was most downregulated after CTGF treatment. Co-transfection with miR-519d mimic reversed CTGF-mediated MMPs expression and cell migration. Also, MEK and ERK inhibitors or mutants reduced CTGF-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression. By contrast, knockdown of CTGF diminished lung metastasis in vivo. Clinical samples indicate CTGF expression as linked with clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Taken together, data show CTGF elevating MMPs expression and subsequently promoting tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma, down-regulating miR-519d via MEK and ERK pathways, making CTGF a new molecular therapeutic target in osteosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:CD151, a tetraspanin family protein involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction, is differentially expressed in osteosarcoma cell membranes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of CD151 in osteosarcoma metastasis. We analyzed CD151 expression in patient tissue samples using immunohistochemistry. CD151 expression was also silenced with shRNA in osteosarcoma cells of high metastatic potential, and cell adhesion, migration and invasion were evaluated in vitro and pulmonary metastasis was investigated in vivo. Mediators of cell signaling pathways were also examined following suppression of CD151 expression. Overall survival for patients with low versus high CD151 expression level was 94 vs. 41 months (p=0.0451). CD151 expression in osteosarcoma cells with high metastatic potential was significantly higher than in those with low metastatic potential (p<0.001). shRNA-mediated silencing of CD151 did not influence cell viability or proliferation; however, cell adhesion, migration and invasion were all inhibited (all p<0.001). In mice inoculated with shRNA-transduced osteosarcoma cells, the number and size of lung metastatic lesions were reduced compared to the mice inoculated with control-shRNA transduced cells (p<0.001). In addition, CD151 knockdown significantly reduced Akt, p38, and p65 phosphorylation as well as focal adhesion kinase, integrin ?1, p70s6, and p-mTOR levels. Taken together, CD151 induced osteosarcoma metastasis likely by regulating cell function through adhesion signaling. Further studies are necessary to fully explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of determining CD151 expression in osteosarcoma patients.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone cancer in children and young adults. The prognosis of osteosarcoma is very poor when it is diagnosed with metastasis. Lysosomal‑associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a tumor‑specific protein induced by hypoxia, which stimulates invasion and metastasis of various cancer cells via hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF). A previous study from our group has reported that expression of LAMP3 is significantly increased in lung metastatic osteosarcoma compared with primary osteosarcoma using microarray analysis, suggesting that LAMP3 may be involved in metastatic osteosarcoma. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the role of LAMP3 in osteosarcoma metastasis. Knockdown of LAMP3 decreased the invasion of two osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of LAMP3 increased the expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), cadherin 1, and keratin 19, while it decreased the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type III α 1, twist family bHLH transcription factor 1 and cadherin 2. Concurrent knockdown of SPP1 and LAMP3 attenuated the changes in gene expression profile induced by LAMP3 knockdown alone. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis demonstrated that SPP1 was involved in cell adhesion, focal adhesion, and extracellular matrix‑receptor interaction. In conclusion, the present results suggest that LAMP3 may be involved in the invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma via regulating signaling downstream of SPP1. Thus, LAMP3/SPP1 signaling may serve as a potential target in the future to prevent osteosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:S100A6, a member of the S100 protein family, has been described as relevant for cell cycle entry and progression in endothelial cells. The molecular mechanism conferring S100A6's proliferative actions, however, remained elusive.Originating from the clinically relevant observation of enhanced S100A6 protein expression in proliferating endothelial cells in remodeling coronary and carotid arteries, our study unveiled S100A6 as a suppressor of antiproliferative signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 signaling. Discovery of the molecular liaison was enabled by combining gene expression time series analysis with bioinformatic pathway modeling in S100A6-silenced human endothelial cells stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor A. This unbiased approach led to successful identification and experimental validation of interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 1 and protein inhibitors of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription as key components of the link between S100A6 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1.Given the important role of coordinated endothelial cell cycle activity for integrity and reconstitution of the inner lining of arterial blood vessels in health and disease, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 suppression by S100A6 may represent a promising therapeutic target to facilitate reendothelialization in damaged vessels.
Project description:The S100A6 protein is present in different mammalian cells and tissues including the brain. It binds Ca2+ and Zn2+ and interacts with many target proteins/ligands. The best characterized ligands of S100A6, expressed at high level in the brain, include CacyBP/SIP and Sgt1. Research concerning the functional role of S100A6 and these two ligands indicates that they are involved in various signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal organization, and others. In this review, we focused on the expression/localization of these proteins in the brain and on their possible role in neurodegenerative diseases. Published results demonstrate that S100A6, CacyBP/SIP, and Sgt1 are expressed in various brain structures and in the spinal cord and can be found in different cell types including neurons and astrocytes. When it comes to their possible involvement in nervous system pathology, it is evident that their expression/level and/or subcellular localization is changed when compared to normal conditions. Among diseases in which such changes have been observed are Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), epileptogenesis, Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and others.
Project description:S100A6 (Calcyclin) is a calcium-binding protein that has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of S100A6 during prostate cancer development and progression. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of S100A6 was examined in benign (n=66), premalignant (n=10), malignant (n=66) and metastatic prostate (n=5) tissues arranged in a tissue-microarray or whole sections as well as in prostate cancer cell lines. The S100A6 immunostaining pattern in tissues was compared with that of cytokeratin 5 (a basal cell marker) and 18 (a benign luminal cell marker). In all cases of benign epithelium, intense S100A6 expression was seen in the basal cell layer with absent staining in luminal cells. In all cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma (matched), metastatic lesions and 3/10 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, an absence of S100A6 was seen. Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis of cell lines showed S100A6 expression to be absent in LNCaP, LNCaP-LN3 and LNCaP-Pro5 but present in Du145, PC3, PC-3M and PC-3M-LN4. LNCaP cells treated with 5-Azacytidine, caused re-expression of S100A6 mRNA. Sequencing of bisulphite modified DNA showed CpG methylation within the S100A6 promoter region and exon 1 of LNCaP, LNCaP-LN3 and LNCaP-Pro5 cell lines but not in Du145 cells. Our data suggest that loss of S100A6 protein expression is common in prostate cancer development and may occur at an early stage. The mechanism of loss of expression may involve hypermethylation of CpG sites. The finding of intense S100A6 expression in the basal cells of benign glands but loss of expression in cancer could be useful as a novel diagnostic marker for prostate cancer.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is often resistant to existing therapy. We found elevated S100A6 levels in ccRCC tissues, associated with higher grade pathological features and clinical stages in ccRCC patients. Knockdown of S100A6 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Gene expression profiling suggests a novel function of S100A6 in suppressing apoptosis, as well as a relationship between S100A6 and CXCL14, a pro-inflammatory chemokine. We suggest that the S100A6/CXCL14 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target in ccRCC.
Project description:Osteosarcoma, an aggressive malignant cancer, has a high lung metastasis rate and lacks therapeutic target. Here, we reported that chromobox homolog 4 (CBX4) was overexpressed in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. CBX4 promoted metastasis by transcriptionally up-regulating Runx2 via the recruitment of GCN5 to the Runx2 promoter. The phosphorylation of CBX4 at T437 by casein kinase 1? (CK1?) facilitated its ubiquitination at both K178 and K280 and subsequent degradation by CHIP, and this phosphorylation of CBX4 could be reduced by TNF?. Consistently, CK1? suppressed cell migration and invasion through inhibition of CBX4. There was a reverse correlation between CK1? and CBX4 in osteosarcoma tissues, and CK1? was a valuable marker to predict clinical outcomes in osteosarcoma patients with metastasis. Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) as a selective activator of CK1? could inhibit osteosarcoma metastasis via the CK1?/CBX4 axis. Our findings indicate that targeting the CK1?/CBX4 axis may benefit osteosarcoma patients with metastasis.