Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.
Project description:The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori arginase is an important factor in evasion of the host's immune system and contributes to persistent infection by this bacterium. It is unique in many aspects compared with other arginases: for example, it has optimal activity with Co(2+) as a cofactor rather than Mn(2+) and has strongest activity at acidic pH instead of alkaline pH. In this study, H. pylori arginase was purified and crystallized in complex with Mn(2+) and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.2?Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 94.69, b = 102.24, c = 148.61?Å.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade?I?carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.
Project description:Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) is an enzyme at regulatory point of purine metabolism. In pathogenic organisms which utilise only the purine salvage pathway, AdSS asserts itself as a promising drug target. One of these organisms is Helicobacter pylori, a wide-spread human pathogen involved in the development of many diseases. The rate of H. pylori antibiotic resistance is on the increase, making the quest for new drugs against this pathogen more important than ever. In this context, we describe here the properties of H. pylori AdSS. This enzyme exists in a dimeric active form independently of the presence of its ligands. Its narrow stability range and pH-neutral optimal working conditions reflect the bacterium's high level of adaptation to its living environment. Efficient inhibition of H. pylori AdSS with hadacidin and adenylosuccinate gives hope of finding novel drugs that aim at eradicating this dangerous pathogen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:and aim: Although ghrelin, a novel growth hormone releasing peptide localised mainly in the gastric fundus, is reported not only to accelerate food passage and gastrointestinal motility but also to affect appetite and weight control, regulation of gastric ghrelin secretion under the conditions of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate plasma and gastric ghrelin levels in Mongolian gerbils with H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa. METHODS:Gerbils orally inoculated with H pylori were examined after inoculation. To examine preproghrelin mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa, cDNA encoding the gerbil preproghrelin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologue was isolated and a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system was established. RESULTS:In gerbils showing H pylori colonisation (H pylori group), expression of preproghrelin mRNA and total ghrelin levels were significantly decreased 17 and 23 weeks later (p<0.01). Although the number of ghrelin immunoreactive cells decreased as the stomach weight increased, the gastric contents of total and active ghrelin in this group were the same as those in controls. Gastric myeloperoxidase activity showed a positive correlation with plasma ghrelin levels. On the other hand, at 17 weeks, plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in the H pylori group (p<0.05), suggesting a compensatory increase in secretion of the peptide at this time point. CONCLUSION:The present experimental study demonstrated that gastric and plasma ghrelin dynamics are altered in response to H pylori infection.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine macrophage proteomic changes induced by Helicobacter pylori. Macrophages utilized were the RAW 264.7 murine cell line. Macrophages were treated with H. pylori for 24 hours. The experimental design was a 4-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). In addition to uninfected control and H. pylori infected, the additional two conditions included an inhibitor of deoxyhypusine synthase (N1-guanyl-1,7-diamine-heptane, 1-(7-ammonioheptyl)guanidinium sulfate; GC7) an enzyme involved in the hypusination translation pathway, and the inhibitor plus H. pylori.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis of AGS cells infected with Helicobacter pylori P12 Overall design: Cultured AGS cells infected with wildtype H. pylori P12 for 2,5 h. 3 biological replicates (non-infected vs. infected)
Project description:Helicobacter pylori genome is rich in restriction - modification (R-M) systems. Around 4 % of the genome codes for components of R-M systems. hpyAVIBM, which codes for a putative phase-variable C5 - cytosine methyltransferase (MTase) from H. pylori lacks a cognate restriction enzyme. Overall design: To analysis the effect of deleting hpyAVIBM on the Helicobacter pylori transcriptome, microarray analysis was done with the wild type strains and corresponding hpyAVIBM deletion strains.
Project description:Sequences of three gene fragments (flaA, flaB, and vacA) from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Germany, Canada, and South Africa were analyzed for diversity and for linkage equilibrium by using the Homoplasy Test and compatibility matrices. Horizontal genetic exchange in H. pylori is so frequent that different loci and polymorphisms within each locus are all at linkage equilibrium. These results indicate that H. pylori is panmictic. Comparisons with sequences from Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Drosophila melanogaster showed that recombination in H. pylori was much more frequent than in other species. In contrast, when multiple family members infected with H. pylori were investigated, some strains were indistinguishable at all three loci. Thus, H. pylori is clonal over short time periods after natural transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Helicobacter species associated with human infection include Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter heilmannii and Helicobacter felis among others. In this study we determined the prevalence of H. pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori organisms H. felis and H. heilmannii and analyzed the association between coinfection with these organisms and gastric pathology in patients presenting with dyspepsia. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with dyspepsia on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for rapid urease test, histology and PCR examination for Helicobacter genus specific 16S rDNA, H. pylori phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) and urease B (ureB) gene of H. heilmannii and H. felis. Sequencing of PCR products of H. heilmannii and H. felis was done. RESULTS: Two hundred-fifty patients with dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 39 ± 12 years with males 162(65%). Twenty-six percent (66 out of 250) were exposed to cats or dogs. PCR for Helicobacter genus specific 16S rDNA was positive in 167/250 (67%), H. pylori glmM in 142/250 (57%), H. heilmannii in 17/250 (6%) and H. felis in 10/250 (4%), respectively. All the H. heilmannii and H. felis PCR positive patients were also positive for H. pylori PCR amplification. The occurrence of coinfection of H. pylori and H. heilmannii was 17(6%) and with H. felis was 10(4%), respectively. Only one out of 66 exposed to pets were positive for H. heilmannii and two for H. felis. Histopathology was carried out in 160(64%) of 250 cases. Chronic active inflammation was observed in 53(56%) (p = 0.001) of the patients with H. pylori infection alone as compared to 3(37%) (p = 0.73) coinfected with H. heilmannii and H. pylori and 3(60%) coinfected with H. felis and H. pylori (p = 0.66). Intestinal metaplasia was observed in 3(3%)(p = 1.0) of the patients with H. pylori infection alone as compared to 2(25%) (p = 0.02) coinfected with H. heilmannii and H. pylori and 1(20%) coinfected with H. felis and H. pylori (p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. heilmannii and H. felis was low in our patients with dyspepsia. Exposure to pets did not increase the risk of H. heilmannii or H. felis infection. The coinfection of H. pylori with H. heilmannii was seen associated with intestinal metaplasia, however this need further confirmation.