Cloning and functional characterization of mouse IkappaBepsilon.
ABSTRACT: The biological activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is mainly controlled by the IkappaB proteins IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, which restrict NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm and enter the nucleus where they terminate NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. In this paper we describe the cloning and functional characterization of mouse IkappaBepsilon. Mouse IkappaBepsilon contains 6 ankyrin repeats required for its interaction with the Rel proteins and is expressed in different cell types where we found that it is up-regulated by NF-kappaB inducers, as is the case for IkappaBalpha and human IkappaBepsilon. IkappaBepsilon functions as a bona fide IkappaB protein by restricting Rel proteins in the cytoplasm and inhibiting their in vitro DNA binding activity. Surprisingly, IkappaBepsilon did not inhibit transcription of genes regulated by the p50/p65 heterodimer efficiently, such as the human interferon-beta gene. However, IkappaBepsilon was a strong inhibitor of interleukin-8 expression, a gene known to be regulated by p65 homodimers. In addition, IkappaBepsilon appears to function predominantly in the cytoplasm to sequester p65 homodimers, in contrast with the other two members of the family, IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, which also function in the nucleus to terminate NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation.
Project description:The activation of pro-inflammatory gene programs by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is primarily regulated through cytoplasmic sequestration of NF-kappaB by the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) family of proteins. IkappaBbeta, a major isoform of IkappaB, can sequester NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm, although its biological role remains unclear. Although cells lacking IkappaBbeta have been reported, in vivo studies have been limited and suggested redundancy between IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta. Like IkappaBalpha, IkappaBbeta is also inducibly degraded; however, upon stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it is degraded slowly and re-synthesized as a hypophosphorylated form that can be detected in the nucleus. The crystal structure of IkappaBbeta bound to p65 suggested this complex might bind DNA. In vitro, hypophosphorylated IkappaBbeta can bind DNA with p65 and c-Rel, and the DNA-bound NF-kappaB:IkappaBbeta complexes are resistant to IkappaBalpha, suggesting hypophosphorylated, nuclear IkappaBbeta may prolong the expression of certain genes. Here we report that in vivo IkappaBbeta serves both to inhibit and facilitate the inflammatory response. IkappaBbeta degradation releases NF-kappaB dimers which upregulate pro-inflammatory target genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Surprisingly, absence of IkappaBbeta results in a dramatic reduction of TNF-alpha in response to LPS even though activation of NF-kappaB is normal. The inhibition of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression correlates with the absence of nuclear, hypophosphorylated-IkappaBbeta bound to p65:c-Rel heterodimers at a specific kappaB site on the TNF-alpha promoter. Therefore IkappaBbeta acts through p65:c-Rel dimers to maintain prolonged expression of TNF-alpha. As a result, IkappaBbeta(-/-) mice are resistant to LPS-induced septic shock and collagen-induced arthritis. Blocking IkappaBbeta might be a promising new strategy for selectively inhibiting the chronic phase of TNF-alpha production during the inflammatory response.
Project description:Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) was previously shown to enhance transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated primary human endothelial cells. Here we show that this LT-mediated increase in NF-kappaB activation is associated with the enhanced degradation of the inhibitory proteins IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta but not IkappaBepsilon. Moreover, this was accompanied by enhanced activation of the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK), which is responsible for targeting IkappaB proteins for degradation. Importantly, LT enhancement of IkappaBalpha degradation was completely blocked by a selective IKKbeta inhibitor, whereas IkappaBbeta degradation was attenuated, suggesting a mechanistic link. Consistent with the above data, LT-cotreated cells show elevated phosphorylation of two IKK substrates, IkappaBalpha and p65, both of which were blocked by incubation with the IKKbeta inhibitor. Consistent with NF-kappaB activation, LT increased transcription of the NF-kappaB regulated gene CD40. Conversely, LT inhibited transcription of another NF-kappaB-regulated gene, CCL2. This inhibition was linked to the LT-mediated suppression of another CCL2-regulating transcription factor, AP-1 (activator protein-1). These data suggest that LT-mediated enhancement of NF-kappaB is IKK-dependent, but importantly, the net effect of LT on the transcription of proinflammatory genes is driven by the cumulative effect of LT on the particular set of transcription factors that regulate a given promoter. Together, these findings provide new mechanistic insight on how LT may disrupt the host response to anthrax.
Project description:1. The effect of two derivatives of salicylate, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (HTB) and 2-acetoxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (triflusal), on the expression of several proteins displaying pro-inflammatory activities the regulation of which is associated to the transcription factor NF-kappaB, was assayed in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1. 2. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activated NF-kappaB as judged from both the appearance of kappaB-binding activity in the nuclear extracts, the degradation of IkappaB proteins in the cell lysates, and the activation of IkappaB kinases using an immunocomplex kinase assay with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-IkappaB proteins as substrates. 3. HTB up to 3 mM did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NK-kappaB/Rel proteins as judged from electrophoretic mobility-shift assays; however, HTB inhibited the degradation of IkappaBbeta without significantly affecting the degradation of both IkappaBalpha and IkappaBepsilon. 4. In keeping with their inhibitory effect on IkappaBbeta degradation in the cell lysates, both HTB and triflusal inhibited the phosphorylation of GST-IkappaBbeta elicited by TNF-alpha, without affecting the phosphorylation of GST-IkappaBalpha. 5. The effect of both HTB and triflusal on kappaB-dependent trans-activation was studied by assaying the expression of both cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). HTB and triflusal inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression of COX-2 and VCAM-1 mRNA and the induction of COX-2 protein at therapeutically relevant concentrations. 6. These findings show the complexity of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the activation of NF-kappaB in the different cell types and extend the anti-inflammatory effects of HTB and triflusal to neural cells.
Project description:Inducible activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is classically mediated by proteasomal degradation of its associated inhibitors, IkappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaBalpha) and IkappaBbeta. However, certain B-lymphocytes maintain constitutively nuclear NF-kappaB activity (a p50-c-Rel heterodimer) which is resistant to inhibition by proteasome inhibitors. This activity in the WEHI-231 B-cell line is associated with continual and preferential degradation of IkappaBalpha, which is also unaffected by proteasome inhibitors. Pharmacological studies indicated that there was a correlation between inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation and constitutive p50-c-Rel activity. Domain analysis of IkappaBalpha by deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that an N-terminal 36-amino-acid sequence of IkappaBalpha represented an instability determinant for constitutive degradation. Moreover, domain grafting studies indicated that this sequence was sufficient to cause IkappaBbeta, but not chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, to be rapidly degraded in WEHI-231 B-cells. However, this sequence was insufficient to target IkappaBbeta to the non-proteasome degradation pathway, suggesting that there was an additional cis-element(s) in IkappaBalpha that was required for complete targeting. Nevertheless, the NF-kappaB pool associated with IkappaBbeta now became constitutively active by virtue of IkappaBbeta instability in these cells. These findings further support the notion that IkappaB instability governs the maintenance of constitutive p50-c-Rel activity in certain B-cells via a unique degradation pathway.
Project description:Despite certain structural and biochemical similarities, differences exist in the function of the NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) inhibitory proteins IkappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaBalpha) and IkappaBbeta. The functional disparity arises in part from variance at the level of gene regulation, and in particular from the substantial induction of IkappaBalpha, but not IkappaBbeta, gene expression post-NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we probe the differential effects of IL (interleukin)-1beta on induction of IkappaBalpha and perform the first characterization of the human IkappaBbeta promoter. A consensus NF-kappaB-binding site, capable of binding NF-kappaB both in vitro and in vivo, is found in the IkappaBbeta gene 5' flanking region. However, the IkappaBbeta promoter was not substantially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha, that are known to cause strong activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, in contrast with IkappaBalpha, NF-kappaB activation did not increase expression of endogenous IkappaBbeta as assessed by analysis of mRNA and protein levels. Unlike kappaB-responsive promoters, IkappaBbeta promoter-bound p65 inefficiently recruits RNA polymerase II, which stalls at the promoter. We present evidence that this stalling is likely due to the absence of transcription factor IIH engagement, a prerequisite for RNA polymerase II phosphorylation and transcriptional initiation. Differences in the conformation of promoter-bound NF-kappaB may underlie the variation in the ability to engage the basal transcriptional apparatus at the IkappaBbeta and kappaB-responsive promoters. This accounts for the differential expression of IkappaB family members in response to NF-kappaB activation and furthers our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcription factor activity and IkappaBbeta gene regulation.
Project description:Constitutive NF-kappaB activity has emerged as an important cell survival component of physiological and pathological processes, including B-cell development. In B cells, constitutive NF-kappaB activity includes p50/c-Rel and p52/RelB heterodimers, both of which are critical for proper B-cell development. We previously reported that WEHI-231 B cells maintain constitutive p50/c-Rel activity via selective degradation of IkappaBalpha that is mediated by a proteasome inhibitor-resistant, now termed PIR, pathway. Here, we examined the mechanisms of PIR degradation by comparing it to the canonical pathway that involves IkappaB kinase-dependent phosphorylation and beta-TrCP-dependent ubiquitylation of the N-terminal signal response domain of IkappaBalpha. We found a distinct consensus sequence within this domain of IkappaBalpha for PIR degradation. Chimeric analyses of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta further revealed that the ankyrin repeats of IkappaBalpha, but not IkappaBbeta, contained information necessary for PIR degradation, thereby explaining IkappaBalpha selectivity for the PIR pathway. Moreover, we found that PIR degradation of IkappaBalpha and constitutive p50/c-Rel activity in primary murine B cells were maintained in a manner different from B-cell-activating-factor-dependent p52/RelB regulation. Thus, our findings suggest that nonconventional PIR degradation of IkappaBalpha may play a physiological role in the development of B cells in vivo.
Project description:NF-kappaB signaling is known to be critically regulated by the NF-kappaB-inducible inhibitor protein IkappaBalpha. The resulting negative feedback has been shown to produce a propensity for oscillations in NF-kappaB activity. We report integrated experimental and computational studies that demonstrate that another IkappaB isoform, IkappaBepsilon, also provides negative feedback on NF-kappaB activity, but with distinct functional consequences. Upon stimulation, NF-kappaB-induced transcription of IkappaBepsilon is delayed, relative to that of IkappaBalpha, rendering the two negative feedback loops to be in antiphase. As a result, IkappaBepsilon has a role in dampening IkappaBalpha-mediated oscillations during long-lasting NF-kappaB activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate the requirement of both of these distinct negative feedback regulators for the termination of NF-kappaB activity and NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in response to transient stimulation. Our findings extend the capabilities of a computational model of IkappaB-NF-kappaB signaling and reveal a novel regulatory module of two antiphase negative feedback loops that allows for the fine-tuning of the dynamics of a mammalian signaling pathway.
Project description:Atherosclerotic lesions form at distinct sites in the arterial tree, suggesting that hemodynamic forces influence the initiation of atherogenesis. If NF-kappaB plays a role in atherogenesis, then the activation of this signal transduction pathway in arterial endothelium should show topographic variation. The expression of NF-kappaB/IkappaB components and NF-kappaB activation was evaluated by specific antibody staining, en face confocal microscopy, and image analysis of endothelium in regions of mouse proximal aorta with high and low probability (HP and LP) for atherosclerotic lesion development. In control C57BL/6 mice, expression levels of p65, IkappaBalpha, and IkappaBbeta were 5- to 18-fold higher in the HP region, yet NF-kappaB was activated in a minority of endothelial cells. This suggested that NF-kappaB signal transduction was primed for activation in HP regions on encountering an activation stimulus. Lipopolysaccharide treatment or feeding low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice an atherogenic diet resulted in NF-kappaB activation and up-regulated expression of NF-kappaB-inducible genes predominantly in HP region endothelium. Preferential regional activation of endothelial NF-kappaB by systemic stimuli, including hypercholesterolemia, may contribute to the localization of atherosclerotic lesions at sites with high steady-state expression levels of NF-kappaB/IkappaB components.
Project description:The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family is a set of transcription factors with key roles in the induction of the inflammatory response and may be the link between inflammation and cancer development. This pathway has been shown to influence ovarian epithelial tissue repair. Inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaB) prevent NF-kappaB activation by sequestering NF-kappaB proteins in the cytoplasm until IkappaB proteins are phosphorylated and degraded.We used a case-control study to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NFKBIA and NFKBIB (the genes encoding IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, respectively) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. We queried 19 tagSNPs and putative-functional SNPs among 930 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,037 controls from two studies.The minor allele for one synonymous SNP in NFKBIA, rs1957106, was associated with decreased risk (p = 0.03).Considering the number of single-SNP tests performed and null gene-level results, we conclude that NFKBIA and NFKBIB are not likely to harbor ovarian cancer risk alleles. Due to its biological significance in ovarian cancer, additional genes encoding NF-kappaB subunits, activating and inhibiting molecules, and signaling molecules warrant interrogation.
Project description:IkappaB proteins associate with the transcription factor NF-kappaB via their ankyrin repeat domain. Bcl-3 is an unusual IkappaB protein because it is primarily nucleoplasmic and can lead to enhanced NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, unlike the prototypical IkappaB protein IkappaBalpha, which inhibits NF-kappaB activity by retaining it in the cytoplasm. Here we report the 1.9 A crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain of human Bcl-3 and compare it with that of IkappaBalpha bound to NF-kappaB. The two structures are highly similar over the central ankyrin repeats but differ in the N-terminal repeat and at the C-terminus, where Bcl-3 contains a seventh repeat in place of the acidic PEST region of IkappaBalpha. Differences between the two structures suggest why Bcl-3 differs from IkappaBalpha in selectivity towards various NF-kappaB species, why Bcl-3 but not IkappaBalpha can associate with its NF-kappaB partner bound to DNA, and why two molecules of Bcl-3 but only one of IkappaBalpha can bind to its NF-kappaB partner. Comparison of the two structures thus provides an insight into the functional diversity of IkappaB proteins.