CC chemokine receptor 2 is protective against noise-induced hair cell death: studies in CX3CR1(+/GFP) mice.
ABSTRACT: Acoustic trauma was recently shown to induce an inflammatory response in the ear characterized by rapid entry of macrophages in the spiral ligament. The current study seeks to elucidate the mechanisms involved in summoning macrophages to the cochlear lateral wall and the role macrophages play in noise-induced injury or repair. CCL2 and its primary receptor, CCR2, are the most widely validated effectors of monocyte chemotaxis in vivo. CCL2-/- and CCR2-/- mice have been used extensively in studies of monocyte activation in neuronal injury. However, the function of CCL2 and CCR2 in the cochlea has not been studied. The present study examines the role of CCL2 and CCR2 in acoustic injury. CCL2-/- and CCR2-/- mice on a CX3CR1(+/GFP) background were exposed to octave band noise (8-16 kHz) for 2 h to determine the effect of CCL2 and CCR2 on monocyte migration into the cochlea, threshold shift, and cell survival. We found that threshold shift was unchanged in the two knockout mouse strains when compared to the background strain (CX3CR1(+/GFP)). Surprisingly, we found that monocyte migration was also unchanged, despite the absence of CCL2 or CCR2. However, there was a dramatic increase in noise-induced hair cell death in the CCR2-/- strain. This observation suggests that CCR2, independent of CCL2, plays a protective role in the cochlea after noise, and neither ligand nor receptor is necessary for monocyte migration. Possible mechanisms of neuroprotection by CCR2 are discussed.
Project description:Chemokines and their receptors such as CCR2 and CX3CR1 mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration into injured tissue. To further define mechanisms of monocyte trafficking during kidney injury we identified two groups of F4/80-positive cells (F4/80(low) and F4/80(high)) in the normal mouse kidney that phenotypically correspond to macrophages and dendritic cells, respectively. Following ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion, there was a large influx of F4/80(low) inflamed monocytes, but not dendritic cells, into the kidney. These monocytes produced TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1alpha and IL-12. Ischemic injury induced in CCR2(-/-) mice or in CCR2(+/+) mice, made chimeric with CCR2(-/-) bone marrow, resulted in lower plasma creatinine levels and their kidneys had fewer infiltrated F4/80(low) macrophages compared to control mice. CX3CR1 expression contributed to monocyte recruitment into inflamed kidneys, as ischemic injury in CX3CR1(-/-) mice was reduced, with fewer F4/80(low) macrophages than controls. Monocytes transferred from CCR2(+/+) or CX3CR1(+/-) mice migrated into reperfused kidneys better than monocytes from either CCR2(-/-) or CX3CR1(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of monocytes from CCR2(+/+) mice, but not CCR2(-/-) mice, reversed the protective effect in CCR2(-/-) mice following ischemia-reperfusion. Egress of CD11b(+)Ly6C(high) monocytes from blood into inflamed kidneys was CCR2- and CX3CR1-dependent. Our study shows that inflamed monocyte migration, through CCR2- and CX3CR1-dependent mechanisms, plays a critical role in kidney injury following ischemia reperfusion.
Project description:Monocytes/macrophages are critical in systemic and local inflammation in giant cell arteritis (GCA) and possibly in clinically overlapping polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Therefore, we aimed to understand the contribution of monocyte subsets and the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 and CCR2-CCL2 migratory pathways, to the pathology of GCA. Peripheral blood monocytes were enumerated in samples from newly-diagnosed, untreated GCA and PMR patients and after prednisone-induced remission. The distribution of classical (CD14brightCD16neg) and the more pro-inflammatory, intermediate (CD14brightCD16+) and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+) monocyte subsets was analysed by flow cytometry. The phenotype of macrophages in temporal artery biopsies (TABs) from GCA patients was studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. A clear monocytosis was seen in newly diagnosed GCA and PMR patients caused by elevated numbers of classical monocytes. Prednisone treatment suppressed numbers of non-classical monocytes. Both chemokine CX3CL1 and CCL2 were highly expressed in the TAB. Most macrophages in the TAB of GCA patients expressed non-classical monocyte markers CD16 and CX3CR1 whereas co-localisation of CD16 with classical monocyte marker CCR2 was infrequent. In conclusion, we report an altered distribution of monocyte subsets in both GCA and PMR patients. The majority of macrophages in TABs of GCA patients were CD68?+?CD16?+?CX3CR1?+?CCR2- and thereby resembled the phenotype of non-classical monocytes.
Project description:Atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the subretinal accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). Their role in promoting or inhibiting retinal degeneration is unknown. We here show that atrophic AMD is associated with increased intraocular CCL2 levels and subretinal CCR2(+) inflammatory monocyte infiltration in patients. Using age- and light-induced subretinal inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration in Cx3cr1 knockout mice, we show that subretinal Cx3cr1 deficient MPs overexpress CCL2 and that both the genetic deletion of CCL2 or CCR2 and the pharmacological inhibition of CCR2 prevent inflammatory monocyte recruitment, MP accumulation and photoreceptor degeneration in vivo. Our study shows that contrary to CCR2 and CCL2, CX3CR1 is constitutively expressed in the retina where it represses the expression of CCL2 and the recruitment of neurotoxic inflammatory CCR2(+) monocytes. CCL2/CCR2 inhibition might represent a powerful tool for controlling inflammation and neurodegeneration in AMD.
Project description:A dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine (VCR) is neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed at present. Chemokine-mediated immune cell/neuron communication in preclinical VCR-induced pain forms an intriguing basis for the development of analgesics. In a murine VCR model, CX3CR1 receptor-mediated signalling in monocytes/macrophages in the sciatic nerve orchestrates the development of mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia). CX3CR1-deficient mice however still develop allodynia, albeit delayed; thus, additional underlying mechanisms emerge as VCR accumulates. Whilst both patrolling and inflammatory monocytes express CX3CR1, only inflammatory monocytes express CCR2 receptors. We therefore assessed the role of CCR2 in monocytes in later stages of VCR-induced allodynia.Mechanically evoked hypersensitivity was assessed in VCR-treated CCR2- or CX3CR1-deficient mice. In CX3CR1-deficient mice, the CCR2 antagonist, RS-102895, was also administered. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were employed to determine monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the sciatic nerve as well as neuronal activation in lumbar DRG, whilst flow cytometry was used to characterise monocytes in CX3CR1-deficient mice. In addition, THP-1 cells were used to assess CX3CR1-CCR2 receptor interactions in vitro, with Western blot analysis and ELISA being used to assess expression of CCR2 and proinflammatory cytokines.We show that CCR2 signalling plays a mechanistic role in allodynia that develops in CX3CR1-deficient mice with increasing VCR exposure. Indeed, the CCR2 antagonist, RS-102895, proves ineffective in mice possessing functional CX3CR1 receptors but reduces VCR-induced allodynia in CX3CR1-deficient mice, in which CCR2+ monocytes are elevated by VCR. We suggest that a novel interaction between CX3CR1 and CCR2 receptors in monocytes accounts for the therapeutic effect of RS-102895 in CX3CR1-deficient mice. Indeed, we observe that CCR2, along with its ligand, CCL2, is elevated in the sciatic nerve in CX3CR1-deficient mice, whilst in THP-1 cells (human monocytes), downregulating CX3CR1 upregulates CCR2 expression via p38 MAP kinase signalling. We also show that the CX3CR1-CCR2 interaction in vitro regulates the release of pronociceptive cytokines TNF-? and IL1?.Our data suggests that CCL2/CCR2 signalling plays a crucial role in VCR-induced allodynia in CX3CR1-deficient mice, which arises as a result of an interaction between CX3CR1 and CCR2 in monocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, which is a key driver of premature atherosclerosis. We characterized immune cell behavior in metabolic syndrome, its consequences, and the potential involvement of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and CCL2/CCR2 chemokine axes. METHODS:Whole blood from 18 patients with metabolic syndrome and 21 age-matched controls was analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the leukocyte immunophenotypes, activation, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and CX3CR1 expression. ELISA determined the plasma marker levels. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-stimulated arterial endothelium and the role of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and CCL2/CCR2 axes was investigated with the parallel-plate flow chamber. RESULTS:When compared with the controls, the metabolic syndrome patients presented greater percentages of eosinophils, CD3+ T lymphocytes, Mon2/Mon3 monocytes, platelet-eosinophil and -lymphocyte aggregates, activated platelets, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and CD8+ T cells, but lower percentages of Mon1 monocytes. Patients had increased circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8) and TNFα levels and decreased IL-4. CX3CR1 up-regulation in platelet-Mon1 monocyte aggregates in metabolic syndrome patients led to increased CX3CR1/CCR2-dependent platelet-Mon1 monocyte adhesion to dysfunctional arterial endothelium. CONCLUSION:We provide evidence of generalized immune activation in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, CX3CL1/CX3CR1 or CCL2/CCR2 axes are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disorders in metabolic syndrome patients, as their blockade impairs the augmented arterial platelet-Mon1 monocyte aggregate adhesiveness, which is a key event in atherogenesis.
Project description:A hallmark of acute hepatic injury is the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) or T cells, towards areas of inflammation. The recruitment of leukocytes from their reservoirs bone marrow or spleen into the liver is directed by chemokines such as CCL2 (for monocytes) and CCL5 (for lymphocytes). We herein elucidated the impact of chemokine receptor inhibition by the dual CCR2 and CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc (CVC) on the composition of myeloid and lymphoid immune cell populations in acute liver injury. CVC treatment effectively inhibited the migration of bone marrow monocytes and splenic lymphocytes (NK, CD4 T-cells) towards CCL2 or CCL5 in vitro. When liver injury was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice, followed by repetitive oral application of CVC, flow cytometric and unbiased t-SNE analysis of intrahepatic leukocytes demonstrated that dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibition in vivo significantly decreased numbers of monocyte derived macrophages in acutely injured livers. CVC also reduced numbers of Kupffer cells (KC) or monocyte derived macrophages with a KC-like phenotype, respectively, after injury. In contrast to the inhibitory effects in vitro, CVC had no impact on the composition of hepatic lymphoid cell populations in vivo. Effective inhibition of monocyte recruitment was associated with reduced inflammatory macrophage markers and moderately ameliorated hepatic necroses at 36h after CCl4. In conclusion, dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibition primarily translates into reduced monocyte recruitment in acute liver injury in vivo, suggesting that this strategy will be effective in reducing inflammatory macrophages in conditions of liver disease.
Project description:Ozone-induced lung injury is associated with an accumulation of activated macrophages in the lung. Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates the migration of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages to sites of tissue injury. It is also required for monocyte egress from the bone marrow. In the present studies, we analyzed the role of CCR2 in inflammatory cell trafficking to the lung in response to ozone. Treatment of mice with ozone (0.8?ppm, 3?h) resulted in increases in proinflammatory CCR2+ macrophages in the lung at 24?h, as well as proinflammatory CD11b?+?Ly6CHi and iNOS+?macrophages at 24 and 48?h. Mannose receptor+?anti-inflammatory macrophages were also observed in the lung 24 and 48?h post-ozone. Loss of CCR2 was associated with reduced numbers of proinflammatory macrophages in the lung and decreased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1? and TNF?. Decreases in anti-inflammatory CD11b?+?Ly6CLo macrophages were also observed in lungs of CCR2-/- mice treated with ozone, whereas mannose receptor+?macrophage accumulation was delayed; conversely, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 were upregulated. Changes in lung macrophage subpopulations and inflammatory gene expression in CCR2-/- mice were correlated with reduced ozone toxicity and oxidative stress, as measured by decreases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein content and reduced lung expression of heme-oxygenase-1, 4-hydroxynonenal and cytochrome b5. These data demonstrate that CCR2 plays a role in both pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in the lung following ozone exposure. The fact that ozone-induced lung injury and oxidative stress are reduced in CCR2-/- mice suggests more prominent effects on proinflammatory macrophages.
Project description:Muscle injury triggers inflammation in which infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes are crucial for tissue regeneration. The interaction of the CCL2/CCR2 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine axis that guides phagocyte infiltration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CX3CR1 deficiency promotes muscle repair and rescues Ccl2-/- mice from impaired muscle regeneration as a result of altered macrophage function, not infiltration. Transcriptomic analysis of muscle mononuclear phagocytes reveals that Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is up-regulated in mice with efficient regeneration. ApoE treatment enhances phagocytosis by mononuclear phagocytes in vitro, and restores phagocytic activity and muscle regeneration in Ccl2-/- mice. Because CX3CR1 deficiency may compensate for defective CCL2-dependant monocyte recruitment by modulating ApoE-dependent macrophage phagocytic activity, targeting CX3CR1 expressed by macrophages might be a powerful therapeutic approach to improve muscle regeneration. Overall design: Mgl1lo, Mgl1Hi, Ly 6c Hi and F4/80 lo mononuclear phagocyte subsets were isolated from muscles 4 days post Notexin injection; Mgl1lo and Mgl1Hi mononuclear phagocyte subsets were isolated from untreated muscles of 4 mice strains: C57Bl/6 (WT), Cx3cr1-/-, Ccl2-/-,Cx3cr1-/-Ccl2-/- (pool of 3 mice per strain and per condition).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The recruitment of mononuclear cells has important implications for tissue inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced CCR1 and CCR5 expression and decreased CCR2 expression during in vitro monocyte to macrophage differentiation. To date, no study examined the in vivo differences in chemokine receptor expression between human peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. METHODS:We examined the expression of these receptors in human peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages using microarray analysis, reverse-transcriptase PCR, flow cytometry and migration analyses. RESULTS:In contrast to peripheral blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages did not express the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, and did not migrate toward CCL2. In contrast, monocytes and freshly isolated resident alveolar macrophages both migrated towards CCL3. However, up to 6-fold more monocytes migrated toward equivalent concentrations of CCL3 than did alveolar macrophages from the same donor. While peripheral blood monocytes expressed the CCL3 receptor, CCR1, alveolar macrophages expressed the alternate CCL3 receptor, CCR5. The addition of anti-CCR5 blocking antibodies completely abrogated CCL3-induced migration in alveolar macrophages, but did not affect the migration of peripheral blood monocytes. CONCLUSION:These data support the specificity of CCL2 to selectively drive monocyte, but not alveolar macrophage recruitment to the lung and CCR5 as the primary macrophage receptor for CCL3.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Macrophages contribute to liver disease, but their role in cholestatic liver injury, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of, and are therapeutic targets for, PSC. METHODS:Immune cell profile, hepatic macrophage number, localization and polarization, fibrosis, and serum markers of liver injury and cholestasis were measured in an acute (intrabiliary injection of the inhibitor of apoptosis antagonist BV6) and chronic (Mdr2-/- mice) mouse model of sclerosing cholangitis (SC). Selected observations were confirmed in liver specimens from patients with PSC. Because of the known role of the CCR2/CCL2 axis in monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis, therapeutic effects of the CCR2/5 antagonist cenicriviroc (CVC), or genetic deletion of CCR2 (Ccr2-/- mice) were determined in BV6-injected mice. RESULTS:We found increased peribiliary pro-inflammatory (M1-like) and alternatively-activated (M2-like) monocyte-derived macrophages in PSC compared to normal livers. In both SC models, genetic profiling of liver immune cells identified a predominance of monocytes/macrophages; immunohistochemistry confirmed peribiliary monocyte-derived macrophage recruitment (M1>M2-polarized), which paralleled injury onset and was reversed upon resolution in acute SC mice. PSC, senescent and BV6-treated human cholangiocytes released monocyte chemoattractants (CCL2, IL-8) and macrophage-activating factors in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition of monocyte recruitment by CVC treatment or CCR2 genetic deletion attenuated macrophage accumulation, liver injury and fibrosis in acute SC. CONCLUSIONS:Peribiliary recruited macrophages are a feature of both PSC and acute and chronic murine SC models. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of peribiliary macrophage recruitment decreases liver injury and fibrosis in mouse SC. These observations suggest monocyte-derived macrophages contribute to the development of SC in mice and in PSC pathogenesis, and support their potential as a therapeutic target. LAY SUMMARY:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an inflammatory liver disease which often progresses to liver failure. The cause of the disease is unclear and therapeutic options are limited. Therefore, we explored the role of white blood cells termed macrophages in PSC given their frequent contribution to other human inflammatory diseases. Our results implicate macrophages in PSC and PSC-like diseases in mice. More importantly, we found that pharmacologic inhibition of macrophage recruitment to the liver reduces PSC-like liver injury in the mouse. These exciting observations highlight potential new strategies to treat PSC.