Differential control of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) products liver-enriched transcriptional activating protein (LAP) and liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein (LIP) and the regulation of gene expression during the response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.
ABSTRACT: The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers a stress response program that protects cells early in the response and can lead to apoptosis during prolonged stress. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), is one of the genes with increased expression during ER stress. Translation of the C/EBPbeta mRNA from different initiation codons leads to the synthesis of two transcriptional activators (LAP-1 and -2) and a transcriptional repressor (LIP). The LIP/LAP ratio is a critical factor in C/EBPbeta-mediated gene transcription. It is shown here that the LIP/LAP ratio decreased by 5-fold during the early phase of ER stress and increased by 20-fold during the late phase, mostly because of changes in LIP levels. The early decrease in LIP required degradation via the proteasome pathway and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor, eIF2alpha. The increased LIP levels during the late phase were due to increased synthesis and increased stability of the protein. It is proposed that regulation of synthesis and degradation rates during ER stress controls the LIP/LAP ratio. The importance of C/EBPbeta in the ER-stress response program was demonstrated using C/EBPbeta-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. It is shown that C/EBPbeta attenuates expression of pro-survival ATF4 target genes in late ER stress and enhances expression of cell death-associated genes downstream of CHOP. The inhibitory effect of LIP on ATF4-induced transcription was demonstrated for the cat-1 amino acid transporter gene. We conclude that regulation of LIP/LAP ratios during ER stress is a novel mechanism for modulating the cellular stress response.
Project description:Disequilibrium between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts is central to many bone diseases. Here, we show that dysregulated expression of translationally controlled isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) differentially affect bone mass. Alternative translation initiation that is controlled by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway generates long transactivating (LAP(*), LAP) and a short repressive (LIP) isoforms from a single C/EBPbeta transcript. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling increases the ratio of LAP over LIP and inhibits osteoclastogenesis in wild type (WT) but not in C/EBPbeta null (c/ebpbeta(-/-)) or in LIP knock-in (L/L) osteoclast precursors. C/EBPbeta mutant mouse strains exhibit increased bone resorption and attenuated expression of MafB, a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of LAP and LIP in monocytes differentially affect the MafB promoter activity, MafB gene expression and dramatically affect osteoclastogenesis. These data show that mTOR regulates osteoclast formation by modulating the C/EBPbeta isoform ratio, which in turn affects osteoclastogenesis by regulating MafB expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: C/EBPbeta is involved in numerous process as carcinogenesis but its role is still not clear due to the existence of an active form (LAP) and an inhibitory form (LIP) of this transcription factor. The main goals of the present research were (i) the identification of genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP i-e the genuine C/EBPbeta molecular signature in the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line (ii) a better understanding of LAP and LIP respective role in hepatic cells survival and proliferation (iii) the search of the C/EBPbeta signature among hepatocellular carcinomas. METHODS: Using Tet-off expression system we engineered Hep3BLAP and Hep3BLIP cells, in which LAP and LIP were over-expressed respectively. Then, using both expression profiling (DNA arrays) and ChIP-on-chip analysis, we identified genes inversely and/or directly regulated by each of the C/EBPbeta isoforms. The expression levels of these genes regulated by LAP/LIP were compared in controls and HCCs patients. RESULTS: We identified 676 genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP and among these, 45 are direct targets. Using functional studies, we displayed the opposite role of LAP and LIP in staurosporine-induced cell death and the implication of LAP in the repression of Hep3B cells proliferation. Finally we identified a subgroup of HCCs with a deregulation of 165 genes belonging to C/EBPbeta signature and coding for proteins involved in chemoresistance and metastasis formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study increases knowledge on LAP and LIP functions and provides first evidence that their molecular signature in the HCCs could predict tumor evolution. Overall design: Total genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP and were labelled Cy3 fluorochrome. Genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP, were immunoprecipited with anti-CEBPbeta antibody and were labelled with Cy5 fluorochrome. Each sample was hybridized on an Agilent two-color microarray G4489A (Human Promoter ChIP-on-Chip Set 244K).
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), initially aimed at coping with the stress, but triggering cell death upon further stress. ER stress induces the C/EBP-beta variant Liver-enriched Activating Protein (LAP), followed by the dominant-negative variant, Liver Inhibitory Protein (LIP). However, the distinct role of LAP and LIP in ER stress is unknown. We found that the kinetics of the ER stress-induced expression of LIP overlapped with that of the cell death in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, inducible over-expression of LIP augmented ER stress-triggered cell death whereas over-expression of LAP attenuated cell death. Similar results were obtained in human 293T cells. Limited vasculature in tumors triggers hypoxia, nutrient shortage and accumulation of toxic metabolites, all of which eliciting continuous ER stress. We found that LAP promoted and LIP inhibited B16 melanoma tumor progression without affecting angiogenesis or accelerating the cell cycle. Rather, LAP attenuated, whereas LIP augmented tumor ER stress. We therefore suggest that C/EBP-beta regulates the transition from the protective to the death-promoting phase of the UPR. We further suggest that the over-expression of LAP observed in many solid tumors promotes tumor progression by attenuating ER stress-triggered tumor cell death [corrected].
Project description:Many types of tumor cell are devoid of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan osteoglycin (Ogn), but its role in tumor biology is poorly studied. Here we show that RNAi of Ogn attenuates stress-triggered cell death, whereas its overexpression increases cell death. We found that the transcription factor C/EBP? regulates the expression of Ogn. C/EBP? is expressed as a full-length, active form (LAP) and as a truncated, dominant-negative form (LIP), and the LIP/LAP ratio is positively correlated with the extent of cell death under stress. For example, we reported that drug-resistant tumor cells lack LIP altogether, and its supplementation abolished their resistance to chemotherapy and to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we further show that elevated LIP/LAP ratio robustly increased Ogn expression and cell death under stress by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 pathway (MAPK/AP-1). Our findings suggest that LIP deficiency renders tumor cell resistant to ER stress by preventing the induction of Ogn.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: C/EBPbeta is involved in numerous process as carcinogenesis but its role is still not clear due to the existence of an active form (LAP) and an inhibitory form (LIP) of this transcription factor. The main goals of the present research were (i) the identification of genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP i-e the genuine C/EBPbeta molecular signature in the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line (ii) a better understanding of LAP and LIP respective role in hepatic cells survival and proliferation (iii) the search of the C/EBPbeta signature among hepatocellular carcinomas. METHODS: Using Tet-off expression system we engineered Hep3BLAP and Hep3BLIP cells, in which LAP and LIP were over-expressed respectively. Then, using both expression profiling (DNA arrays) and ChIP-on-chip analysis, we identified genes inversely and/or directly regulated by each of the C/EBPbeta isoforms. The expression levels of these genes regulated by LAP/LIP were compared in controls and HCCs patients. RESULTS: We identified 676 genes inversely regulated by LAP and LIP and among these, 45 are direct targets. Using functional studies, we displayed the opposite role of LAP and LIP in staurosporine-induced cell death and the implication of LAP in the repression of Hep3B cells proliferation. Finally we identified a subgroup of HCCs with a deregulation of 165 genes belonging to C/EBPbeta signature and coding for proteins involved in chemoresistance and metastasis formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study increases knowledge on LAP and LIP functions and provides first evidence that their molecular signature in the HCCs could predict tumor evolution. Total genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP and were labelled Cy3 fluorochrome. Genomic DNA were extracted from 3 Hep3BLAP expressing LAP, were immunoprecipited with anti-CEBPbeta antibody and were labelled with Cy5 fluorochrome. Each sample was hybridized on an Agilent two-color microarray G4489A (Human Promoter ChIP-on-Chip Set 244K).
Project description:C/EBPbeta (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta) is a transcriptional regulator of the UCP1 (uncoupling protein-1) gene, the specific marker gene of brown adipocytes that is responsible for their thermogenic capacity. To investigate the role of C/EBPbeta in brown fat, we studied the C/EBPbeta-null mice. When placed in the cold, C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice did not maintain body temperature. This cold-sensitive phenotype occurred, although UCP1 and PGC-1alpha (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha) gene expression was unaltered in brown fat of C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. The UCP1 gene promoter was repressed by the truncated inhibitory C/EBPbeta isoform LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein, the truncated inhibitory C/EBPbeta isoform). Since C/EBPbeta-null mice lack both C/EBPbeta isoforms, active LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activatory protein, the active C/EBPbeta isoform) and LIP, the absence of LIP may have a stronger effect than the absence of LAP upon UCP1 gene expression. Gene expression for UCP2 and UCP3 was not impaired in all tissues analysed. In primary brown adipocytes from C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice, induction of gene expression by noradrenaline was preserved. In contrast, the expression of genes related to lipid storage was impaired, as was the amount of triacylglycerol mobilized after acute cold exposure in brown fat from C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. LPL (lipoprotein lipase) activity was also impaired in brown fat, but not in other tissues of C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice. LPL protein levels were also diminished, but this effect was independent of changes in LPL mRNA, suggesting that C/EBPbeta is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of LPL gene expression in brown fat. In summary, defective thermoregulation owing to the lack of C/EBPbeta is associated with the reduced capacity to supply fatty acids as fuels to sustain brown fat thermogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown an antiproliferative effect of the synthetic, 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) on different cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms behind the observed effects are poorly understood. We therefore wanted to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in TTA-induced growth inhibition of the human colon cancer cell line SW620 by gene expression profiling. METHODS: An antiproliferative effect of TTA on SW620 cells in vitro was displayed in real time using the xCELLigence System (Roche). Affymetrix gene expression profiling was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the antiproliferative effect of TTA. Changes in gene expression were verified at protein level by western blotting. RESULTS: TTA reduced SW620 cell growth, measured as baseline cell index, by 35% and 55% after 48 h and 72 h, respectively. We show for the first time that TTA induces an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in cancer cells. Gene expression analysis revealed changes related to ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). This was verified at protein level by phosphorylation of eukaryote translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2?) and downstream up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Transcripts for positive and negative cell cycle regulators were down- and up-regulated, respectively. This, together with a down-regulation of Cyclin D1 at protein level, indicates inhibition of cell cycle progression. TTA also affected transcripts involved in calcium homeostasis. Moreover, mRNA and protein level of the ER stress inducible C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), Tribbles homolog 3 (Drosophila) (TRIB3) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?) were enhanced, and the C/EBP? LIP/LAP ratio was significantly increased. These results indicate prolonged ER stress and a possible link to induction of cell death. CONCLUSION: We find that TTA-induced growth inhibition of SW620 cells seems to be mediated through induction of ER stress and activation of the UPR pathway.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce apoptosis if left unabated. To limit oxidative insults, the ER stress PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum Kinase (PERK) has been reported to phosphorylate and activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Here, we uncover an alternative mechanism for PERK-mediated NRF2 regulation in human cells that does not require direct phosphorylation. We show that the activation of the PERK pathway rapidly stimulates the expression of NRF2 through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). In addition, NRF2 activation is late and largely driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during late protein synthesis recovery, contributing to protecting against cell death. Thus, PERK-mediated NRF2 activation encompasses a PERK-ATF4-dependent control of NRF2 expression that contributes to the NRF2 protective response engaged during ER stress-induced ROS production.
Project description:Although CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) is involved in osteocalcin gene expression in osteoblast in vitro, the physiological importance of and molecular mechanisms governing C/EBPbeta in bone formation remain to be elucidated. In particular, it remains unclear whether C/EBPbeta acts as a homodimer or a heterodimer with other proteins during osteoblast differentiation. Here, deletion of the C/EBPbeta gene from mice resulted in delayed bone formation with concurrent suppression of chondrocyte maturation and osteoblast differentiation. The expression of type X collagen as well as chondrocyte hypertrophy were suppressed in mutant bone, providing new insight into the possible roles of C/EBPbeta in chondrocyte maturation. In osteoblasts, luciferase reporter, gel shift, DNAP, and ChIP assays demonstrated that C/EBPbeta heterodimerized with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), another basic leucine zipper transcription factor crucial for osteoblast maturation. This complex interacted and transactivated osteocalcin-specific element 1 (OSE1) of the osteocalcin promoter. C/EBPbeta also enhanced the synergistic effect of ATF4 and Runx2 on osteocalcin promoter transactivation by enhancing their interaction. Thus, our results provide evidence that C/EBPbeta is a crucial cofactor in the promotion of osteoblast maturation by Runx2 and ATF4.
Project description:The adaptive response to amino acid limitation in mammalian cells inhibits global protein synthesis and promotes the expression of proteins that protect cells from stress. The arginine/lysine transporter, cat-1, is induced during amino acid starvation by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. It is shown in the present study that the transient induction of cat-1 transcription is regulated by the stress response pathway that involves phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor, eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor-2). This phosphorylation induces expression of the bZIP (basic leucine zipper protein) transcription factors C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-beta and ATF (activating transcription factor) 4, which in turn induces ATF3. Transfection experiments in control and mutant cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that ATF4 activates, whereas ATF3 represses cat-1 transcription, via an AARE (amino acid response element), TGATGAAAC, in the first exon of the cat-1 gene, which functions both in the endogenous and in a heterologous promoter. ATF4 and C/EBPbeta activated transcription when expressed in transfected cells and they bound as heterodimers to the AARE in vitro. The induction of transcription by ATF4 was inhibited by ATF3, which also bound to the AARE as a heterodimer with C/EBPbeta. These results suggest that the transient increase in cat-1 transcription is due to transcriptional activation caused by ATF4 followed by transcriptional repression by ATF3 via a feedback mechanism.