Mechanistic inferences from the binding of ligands to LpxC, a metal-dependent deacetylase.
ABSTRACT: The metal-dependent deacetylase LpxC catalyzes the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, LpxC is an attractive target for the development of inhibitors that may serve as potential new antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here, we report the 2.7 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with the substrate analogue inhibitor TU-514 and the 2.0 A resolution structure of LpxC complexed with imidazole. The X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with TU-514 allows for a detailed examination of the coordination geometry of the catalytic zinc ion and other enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the active site. The hydroxamate group of TU-514 forms a bidentate chelate complex with the zinc ion and makes hydrogen bond interactions with conserved active site residues E78, H265, and T191. The inhibitor C-4 hydroxyl group makes direct hydrogen bond interactions with E197 and H58. Finally, the C-3 myristate moiety of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel of the active site. These intermolecular interactions provide a foundation for understanding structural aspects of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-inhibitor affinity. Comparison of the TU-514 complex with cacodylate and imidazole complexes suggests a possible substrate diphosphate binding site and highlights residues that may stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate and its flanking transition states in catalysis. Evidence of a catalytic zinc ion in the native zinc enzyme coordinated by H79, H238, D242, and two water molecules with square pyramidal geometry is also presented. These results suggest that the native state of this metallohydrolase may contain a pentacoordinate zinc ion, which contrasts with the native states of archetypical zinc hydrolases such as thermolysin and carboxypeptidase A.
Project description:LpxC is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a vital component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, the inhibition of LpxC is an attractive strategy for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here, we report the 2.7 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP), and the 3.1 A resolution structure of LpxC complexed with pyrophosphate. The X-ray crystal structure of the LpxC-UDP complex provides the first view of interactions likely to be exploited by the substrate UDP group in the "basic patch" of the active site. The diphosphate group of UDP makes hydrogen bond interactions with strictly conserved residue K239 as well as solvent molecules. The ribose moiety of UDP interacts with partially conserved residue E197. The UDP uracil group hydrogen bonds with both the backbone NH group and the backbone carbonyl group of E160, and with the backbone NH group of K162 through an intervening water molecule. Finally, the alpha-phosphate and uracil groups of UDP interact with R143 and R262 through intervening water molecules. The structure of LpxC complexed with pyrophosphate reveals generally similar intermolecular interactions in the basic patch. Unexpectedly, diphosphate binding in both complexes is accompanied by coordination to an additional zinc ion, resulting in the identification of a new metal-binding site termed the E-site. The structures of the LpxC-UDP and LpxC-pyrophosphate complexes provide new insights with regard to substrate recognition in the basic patch and metal ion coordination in the active site of LpxC.
Project description:The first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by UDP-(3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, a metal-dependent deacetylase also known as LpxC. Because lipid A is essential for bacterial viability, the inhibition of LpxC is an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here we report the 1.79 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeLpxC) complexed with the potent hydroxamate inhibitor CHIR-090. This enzyme is a nearly identical orthologue of LpxC from Yersinia pestis (99.7% sequence identity), the pathogen that causes bubonic plague. Similar to the inhibition of LpxC from Escherichia coli, CHIR-090 inhibits YeLpxC via a two-step slow, tight-binding mechanism with an apparent K(i) of 0.54 ± 0.14 nM followed by conversion of the E·I to E·I* species with a rate constant of 0.11 ± 0.01 min(-1). The structure of the LpxC complex with CHIR-090 shows that the inhibitor hydroxamate group chelates the active site zinc ion, and the "tail" of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel in the active site. This hydrophobic tunnel is framed by a ??? subdomain that exhibits significant conformational flexibility as it accommodates inhibitor binding. CHIR-090 displays a 27 mm zone of inhibition against Y. enterocolitica in a Kirby-Bauer antibiotic assay, which is comparable to its reported activity against other Gram-negative species including E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that the inhibition of LpxC should be explored as a potential therapeutic and/or prophylatic response to infection by weaponized Yersinia species.
Project description:Multi-drug resistant (MDR), pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious health threat, and novel antibiotic targets must be identified to combat MDR infections. One promising target is the zinc-dependent metalloamidase UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), which catalyzes the committed step of lipid A (endotoxin) biosynthesis. LpxC is an essential, single copy gene that is conserved in virtually all Gram-negative bacteria. LpxC structures, revealed by NMR and X-ray crystallography, demonstrate that LpxC adopts a novel 'beta-alpha-alpha-beta sandwich' fold and encapsulates the acyl chain of the substrate with a unique hydrophobic passage. Kinetic analysis revealed that LpxC functions by a general acid-base mechanism, with a glutamate serving as the general base. Many potent LpxC inhibitors have been identified, and most contain a hydroxamate group targeting the catalytic zinc ion. Although early LpxC-inhibitors were either narrow-spectrum antibiotics or broad-spectrum in vitro LpxC inhibitors with limited antibiotic properties, the recently discovered compound CHIR-090 is a powerful antibiotic that controls the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with an efficacy rivaling that of the FDA-approved antibiotic ciprofloxacin. CHIR-090 inhibits a wide range of LpxC enzymes with sub-nanomolar affinity in vitro, and is a two-step, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of Aquifex aeolicus and E. coli LpxC. The success of CHIR-090 suggests that potent LpxC-targeting antibiotics may be developed to control a broad range of Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The metal-dependent deacetylase UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) catalyzes the first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis, the hydrolysis of UDP-3-O-myristoyl-N-acetylglucosamine to form UDP-3-O-myristoylglucosamine and acetate. Consequently, LpxC is a target for the development of antibiotics, nearly all of which coordinate the active site metal ion. Here we examine the ability of Fe(2+) to serve as a cofactor for wild-type Escherichia coli LpxC and a mutant enzyme (EcC63A), in which one of the ligands for the inhibitory metal binding site has been removed. LpxC exhibits higher activity (6-8-fold) with a single bound Fe(2+) as the cofactor compared to Zn(2+)-LpxC; both metalloenzymes have a bell-shaped dependence on pH with similar pK(a) values, indicating that at least two ionizations are important for maximal activity. X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments suggest that the catalytic metal ion bound to Fe(2+)-EcLpxC is five-coordinate, suggesting that catalytic activity may correlate with coordination number. Furthermore, the ligand affinity of Fe(2+)-LpxC compared to the Zn(2+) enzyme is altered by up to 6-fold. In contrast to Zn(2+)-LpxC, the activity of Fe(2+)-LpxC is redox-sensitive, and a time-dependent decrease in activity is observed under aerobic conditions. The LpxC activity of crude E. coli cell lysates is also aerobically sensitive, consistent with the presence of Fe(2+)-LpxC. These data indicate that EcLpxC can use either Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) to activate catalysis in vitro and possibly in vivo, which may allow LpxC to function in E. coli grown under different environmental conditions.
Project description:The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the Gram-negative bacterium serves as a permeability barrier and is composed of lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin. The membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for cell viability. The first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by UDP-(3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), a zinc-dependent deacetylase. Here we report the crystal structure of LpxC from Aquifex aeolicus, which reveals a new alpha+beta fold reflecting primordial gene duplication and fusion, as well as a new zinc-binding motif. The catalytic zinc ion resides at the base of an active-site cleft and adjacent to a hydrophobic tunnel occupied by a fatty acid. This tunnel accounts for the specificity of LpxC toward substrates and inhibitors bearing appropriately positioned 3-O-fatty acid substituents. Notably, simple inhibitors designed to target interactions in the hydrophobic tunnel bind with micromolar affinity, thereby representing a step toward the structure-based design of a potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial drug.
Project description:The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections.
Project description:The crystal structure of recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I was solved by Patterson search methods by using the coordinates of the Escherichia coli enzyme as a model. The human as well as bacterial enzyme were shown to contain an essential zinc ion coordinated to a His side chain and two thiol groups in each active site of the homodecameric enzymes that had escaped detection during earlier studies of the E. coli enzyme. The zinc ion is proposed to generate a hydroxyl nucleophile for attack of imidazole ring carbon atom eight of the substrate, GTP. It may also be involved in the hydrolytic release of formate from the intermediate, 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-triphosphate, and in the consecutive Amadori rearrangement of the ribosyl moiety.
Project description:The pH dependence of the solid-state (67)Zn NMR lineshapes has been measured for both the wild type (WT) and the H265A mutant of Aquifex aeolicus LpxC, each in the absence of substrate (resting state). The (67)Zn NMR spectrum of WT LpxC at pH 6 (prepared at 0 degrees C) contains two overlapping quadrupole lineshapes with C q values of 10 and 12.9 MHz, while the spectrum measured for the sample prepared at a pH near 9 (at 0 degrees C) is dominated by the appearance of a third species with a C q of 14.3 MHz. These findings are consistent with the two p K a values previously observed by the bell-shaped dependence of the LpxC-catalyzed reaction. On the basis of comparison of the experimental results with predictions from quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) modeling, we suggest that p K a1 (low pH) represents the ionization of Glu78 and p K a2 (high pH) reflects the ionization of another active site residue located near the zinc ion, such as His265. These results are also consistent with water being bound to the Zn (2+) ion throughout this pH range. The (67)Zn NMR spectra of the H265A mutant appear to be pH independent, with a C q of 9.55 MHz being sufficient to describe both low- and high-pH data. The QM/MM models of the H265A mutant suggest that over this pH range water is bound to the zinc ion while Glu78 is protonated.
Project description:Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) is highly specific for synthesis of cysteinyl adenylate, yet does not possess the amino acid editing activity characteristic of many other tRNA synthetases. To elucidate how CysRS is able to distinguish cysteine from non-cognate amino acids, crystal structures of the Escherichia coli enzyme were determined in apo and cysteine-bound states. The structures reveal that the substrate cysteine thiolate forms a single direct interaction with a zinc ion bound at the base of the active site cleft, in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry together with four highly conserved protein side chains. Cysteine binding induces movement of the zinc ion towards substrate, as well as flipping of the conserved Trp205 indole ring to pack on the thiol side chain. The imidazole groups of five conserved histidines lie adjacent to the zinc ion, forming a unique arrangement suggestive of functional significance. Thus, amino acid discrimination without editing arises most directly from the favorable zinc-thiolate interaction, which is not possible for non-cognate substrates. Additional selectivity may be generated during the induced-fit conformational changes that help assemble the active site.
Project description:The zinc-dependent enzyme LpxC catalyzes the deacetylation of UDP-3-O-acyl-GlcNAc, the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis. Lipid A is an essential component of the outer membranes of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making LpxC an attractive target for antibiotic design. The inhibition of LpxC by a novel N-aroyl-l-threonine hydroxamic acid (CHIR-090) from a recent patent application (International Patent WO 2004/062601 A2 to Chiron and the University of Washington) is reported here. CHIR-090 possesses remarkable antibiotic activity against both E. coli and P. aeruginosa, comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The biological activity of CHIR-090 is explained by its inhibition of diverse LpxC orthologues at low nanomolar concentrations, including that of Aquifex aeolicus, for which structural information is available. The inhibition of A. aeolicus LpxC by CHIR-090 occurs in two steps. The first step is rapid and reversible, with a K(i) of 1.0-1.7 nM, depending upon the method of assay. The second step involves the conversion of the EI complex with a half-life of about a minute to a tightly bound form. The second step is functionally irreversible but does not result in the covalent modification of the enzyme, as judged by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. CHIR-090 is the first example of a slow, tight-binding inhibitor for LpxC and may be the prototype for a new generation of LpxC inhibitors with therapeutic applicability.