Long-term exposure of mouse pancreatic islets to oleate or palmitate results in reduced glucose-induced somatostatin and oversecretion of glucagon.
ABSTRACT: Long-term exposure to NEFAs leads to inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion. We tested whether the release of somatostatin and glucagon, the two other major islet hormones, is also affected.Mouse pancreatic islets were cultured for 72 h at 4.5 or 15 mmol/l glucose with or without 0.5 mmol/l oleate or palmitate. The release of glucagon and somatostatin during subsequent 1 h incubations at 1 or 20 mmol/l glucose as well as the islet content of the two hormones were determined. Lipid-induced changes in islet cell ultrastructure were assessed by electron microscopy.Culture at 15 mmol/l glucose increased islet glucagon content by approximately 50% relative to that observed following culture at 4.5 mmol/l glucose. Inclusion of oleate or palmitate reduced islet glucagon content by 25% (at 4.5 mmol/l glucose) to 50% (at 15 mmol/l glucose). Long-term exposure to the NEFA increased glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/l glucose by 50% (when islets had been cultured at 15 mmol/l glucose) to 100% (with 4.5 mmol/l glucose in the culture medium) and abolished the inhibitory effect of 20 mmol/l glucose on glucagon secretion. Somatostatin content was unaffected by glucose and lipids, but glucose-induced somatostatin secretion was reduced by approximately 50% following long-term exposure to either of the NEFA, regardless of whether the culture medium contained 4.5 or 15 mmol/l glucose. Ultrastructural evidence of lipid deposition was seen in <10% of non-beta cells but in >80% of the beta cells.Long-term exposure to high glucose and/or NEFA affects the release of somatostatin and glucagon. The effects on glucagon secretion are very pronounced and in type 2 diabetes in vivo may aggravate the hyperglycaemic effects due to lack of insulin.
Project description:We evaluated the role of ATP-sensitive K? (K(ATP)) channels, somatostatin, and Zn²? in the control of glucagon secretion from mouse islets. Switching from 1 to 7 mmol/L glucose inhibited glucagon release. Diazoxide did not reverse the glucagonostatic effect of glucose. Tolbutamide decreased glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/L glucose (G1) but stimulated it at 7 mmol/L glucose (G7). The reduced glucagon secretion produced by high concentrations of tolbutamide or diazoxide, or disruption of K(ATP) channels (Sur1(-/-) mice) at G1 could be inhibited further by G7. Removal of the somatostatin paracrine influence (Sst(-/-) mice or pretreatement with pertussis toxin) strongly increased glucagon release, did not prevent the glucagonostatic effect of G7, and unmasked a marked glucagonotropic effect of tolbutamide. Glucose inhibited glucagon release in the absence of functional K(ATP) channels and somatostatin signaling. Knockout of the Zn²? transporter ZnT8 (ZnT8(-/-) mice) did not prevent the glucagonostatic effect of glucose. In conclusion, glucose can inhibit glucagon release independently of Zn²?, K(ATP) channels, and somatostatin. Closure of K(ATP) channels controls glucagon secretion by two mechanisms, a direct stimulation of ?-cells and an indirect inhibition via somatostatin released from ?-cells. The net effect on glucagon release results from a balance between both effects.
Project description:Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated. Glucagon inhibition is also said to be glucose-dependent, although it is unclear what is meant by this. We hypothesise here that GLP-1 does not inhibit glucagon secretion during hypoglycaemia because the inhibition depends on somatostatin secretion, which in turn is dependent on glucose levels.We used the perfused mouse pancreas model to investigate this hypothesis.We found that, in this model, GLP-1 was able to significantly inhibit glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells at all glucose levels tested: 6.0, 1.5 and 0.5 mmol/l (-27.0%, -37.1%, and -23.6%, respectively), and the decrease in glucagon secretion was invariably accompanied by an increase in somatostatin secretion (+286.8%, +158.7%, and +118.8%, respectively). Specific blockade of somatostatin receptor 2 increased glucagon secretion (+118.8% at 1.5 mmol/l glucose and +162.9% at 6.0 mmol/l glucose) and completely eliminated the inhibitory effect of GLP-1.We have shown here that the glucagon-lowering effect of GLP-1 is entirely mediated through the paracrine actions of somatostatin in the perfused mouse pancreas. However, in this model, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 was preserved at hypoglycaemic levels, leaving unanswered the question of how this is avoided in vivo in individuals treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists.
Project description:Misregulated hormone secretion from the islet of Langerhans is central to the pathophysiology of diabetes. Although insulin plays a key role in glucose regulation, the importance of glucagon is increasingly acknowledged. However, the mechanisms that regulate glucagon secretion from ?-cells are still unclear. We used pseudoislets reconstituted from dispersed islet cells to study ?-cells with and without various indirect effects from other islet cells. Dispersed islet cells secrete aberrant levels of glucagon and insulin at basal and elevated glucose levels. When cultured, murine islet cells reassociate to form pseudoislets, which recover normal glucose-regulated hormone secretion, and human islet cells follow a similar pattern. We created small (?40-µm) pseudoislets using all of the islet cells or only some of the cell types, which allowed us to characterize novel aspects of regulated hormone secretion. The recovery of regulated glucagon secretion from ?-cells in small pseudoislets depends upon the combined action of paracrine factors, such as insulin and somatostatin, and juxtacrine signals between EphA4/7 on ?-cells and ephrins on ?-cells. Although these signals modulate different pathways, both appear to be required for proper inhibition of glucagon secretion in response to glucose. This improved understanding of the modulation of glucagon secretion can provide novel therapeutic routes for the treatment of some individuals with diabetes.
Project description:Hypoglycaemia (low plasma glucose) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of insulin-treated diabetes. In healthy individuals, hypoglycaemia triggers glucagon secretion, which restores normal plasma glucose levels by stimulation of hepatic glucose production. This counterregulatory mechanism is impaired in diabetes. Here we show in mice that therapeutic concentrations of insulin inhibit glucagon secretion by an indirect (paracrine) mechanism mediated by stimulation of intra-islet somatostatin release. Insulin's capacity to inhibit glucagon secretion is lost following genetic ablation of insulin receptors in the somatostatin-secreting ?-cells, when insulin-induced somatostatin secretion is suppressed by dapagliflozin (an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-tranporter-2; SGLT2) or when the action of secreted somatostatin is prevented by somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists. Administration of these compounds in vivo antagonises insulin's hypoglycaemic effect. We extend these data to isolated human islets. We propose that SSTR or SGLT2 antagonists should be considered as adjuncts to insulin in diabetes therapy.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Maintenance of glucose homeostasis requires the precise regulation of hormone secretion from the endocrine pancreas. Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4/GPR120) is a G protein-coupled receptor whose activation in islets of Langerhans promotes insulin and glucagon secretion and inhibits somatostatin secretion. However, the contribution of individual islet cell types (α, β, and δ cells) to the insulinotropic and glucagonotropic effects of GPR120 remains unclear. As gpr120 mRNA is enriched in somatostatin-secreting δ cells, we hypothesized that GPR120 activation stimulates insulin and glucagon secretion via inhibition of somatostatin release.<h4>Methods</h4>Glucose tolerance tests were performed in mice after administration of selective GPR120 agonist Compound A. Insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion were measured in static incubations of isolated mouse islets in response to endogenous (ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and/or pharmacological (Compound A and AZ-13581837) GPR120 agonists. The effect of Compound A on hormone secretion was tested further in islets isolated from mice with global or somatostatin cell-specific knock-out of gpr120. Gpr120 expression was assessed in pancreatic sections by RNA in situ hybridization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and calcium dynamics in response to pharmacological GPR120 agonists were measured specifically in α, β, and δ cells in intact islets using cAMPER and GCaMP6 reporter mice, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Acute exposure to Compound A increased glucose tolerance, circulating insulin, and glucagon levels in vivo. Endogenous and/or pharmacological GPR120 agonists reduced somatostatin secretion in isolated islets and concomitantly demonstrated dose-dependent potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and arginine-stimulated glucagon secretion. Gpr120 was enriched in δ cells. Pharmacological GPR120 agonists reduced cAMP and calcium levels in δ cells but increased these signals in α and β cells. Compound A-mediated inhibition of somatostatin secretion was insensitive to pertussis toxin. The effect of Compound A on hormone secretion was completely absent in islets from mice with either global or somatostatin cell-specific deletion of gpr120 and partially reduced upon blockade of somatostatin receptor signaling by cyclosomatostatin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inhibitory GPR120 signaling in δ cells contributes to both insulin and glucagon secretion in part by mitigating somatostatin release.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed that the type-2 diabetes associated two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel TALK-1 is abundantly expressed in somatostatin-secreting ?-cells. However, a physiological role for TALK-1 in ?-cells remains unknown. We previously determined that in ?-cells, K+ flux through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized TALK-1 channels enhances ER Ca2+ leak, modulating Ca2+ handling and insulin secretion. As glucose amplification of islet somatostatin release relies on Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the ?-cell ER, we investigated whether TALK-1 modulates ?-cell Ca2+ handling and somatostatin secretion. METHODS:To define the functions of islet ?-cell TALK-1 channels, we generated control and TALK-1 channel-deficient (TALK-1 KO) mice expressing fluorescent reporters specifically in ?- and ?-cells to facilitate cell type identification. Using immunofluorescence, patch clamp electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging, and hormone secretion assays, we assessed how TALK-1 channel activity impacts ?- and ?-cell function. RESULTS:TALK-1 channels are expressed in both mouse and human ?-cells, where they modulate glucose-stimulated changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and somatostatin secretion. Measurement of cytosolic Ca2+ levels in response to membrane potential depolarization revealed enhanced CICR in TALK-1 KO ?-cells that could be abolished by depleting ER Ca2+ with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors. Consistent with elevated somatostatin inhibitory tone, we observed significantly reduced glucagon secretion and ?-cell Ca2+ oscillations in TALK-1 KO islets, and found that blockade of ?-cell somatostatin signaling with a somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) antagonist restored glucagon secretion in TALK-1 KO islets. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that TALK-1 reduces ?-cell cytosolic Ca2+ elevations and somatostatin release by limiting ?-cell CICR, modulating the intraislet paracrine signaling mechanisms that control glucagon secretion.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors constitute a new class of glucose-lowering drugs, but they increase glucagon secretion, which may counteract their glucose-lowering effect. Previous studies using static incubation of isolated human islets or the glucagon-secreting cell line ?-TC1 suggested that this results from direct inhibition of alpha cell SGLT1/2-activity. The aim of this study was to test whether the effects of SGLT2 on glucagon secretion demonstrated in vitro could be reproduced in a more physiological setting. METHODS:We explored the effect of SGLT2 activity on glucagon secretion using isolated perfused rat pancreas, a physiological model for glucagon secretion. Furthermore, we investigated Slc5a2 (the gene encoding SGLT2) expression in rat islets as well as in mouse and human islets and in mouse and human alpha, beta and delta cells to test for potential inter-species variations. SGLT2 protein content was also investigated in mouse, rat and human islets. RESULTS:Glucagon output decreased three- to fivefold within minutes of shifting from low (3.5 mmol/l) to high (10 mmol/l) glucose (4.0?±?0.5 pmol/15 min vs 1.3?±?0.3 pmol/15 min, p?<?0.05). The output was unaffected by inhibition of SGLT1/2 with dapagliflozin or phloridzin or by addition of the SGLT1/2 substrate ?-methylglucopyranoside, whether at low or high glucose concentrations (p?=?0.29-0.99). Insulin and somatostatin secretion (potential paracrine regulators) was also unaffected. Slc5a2 expression and SGLT2 protein were marginal or below detection limit in rat, mouse and human islets and in mouse and human alpha, beta and delta cells. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our combined data show that increased plasma glucagon during SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is unlikely to result from direct inhibition of SGLT2 in alpha cells, but instead may occur downstream of their blood glucose-lowering effects.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To document the properties of the voltage-gated ion channels in human pancreatic alpha-cells and their role in glucagon release.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Glucagon release was measured from intact islets. [Ca(2+)](i) was recorded in cells showing spontaneous activity at 1 mmol/l glucose. Membrane currents and potential were measured by whole-cell patch-clamping in isolated alpha-cells identified by immunocytochemistry.<h4>Result</h4>Glucose inhibited glucagon secretion from human islets; maximal inhibition was observed at 6 mmol/l glucose. Glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/l glucose was inhibited by insulin but not by ZnCl(2). Glucose remained inhibitory in the presence of ZnCl(2) and after blockade of type-2 somatostatin receptors. Human alpha-cells are electrically active at 1 mmol/l glucose. Inhibition of K(ATP)-channels with tolbutamide depolarized alpha-cells by 10 mV and reduced the action potential amplitude. Human alpha-cells contain heteropodatoxin-sensitive A-type K(+)-channels, stromatoxin-sensitive delayed rectifying K(+)-channels, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+)-currents, and low-threshold T-type, isradipine-sensitive L-type, and omega-agatoxin-sensitive P/Q-type Ca(2+)-channels. Glucagon secretion at 1 mmol/l glucose was inhibited by 40-70% by tetrodotoxin, heteropodatoxin-2, stromatoxin, omega-agatoxin, and isradipine. The [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations depend principally on Ca(2+)-influx via L-type Ca(2+)-channels. Capacitance measurements revealed a rapid (<50 ms) component of exocytosis. Exocytosis was negligible at voltages below -20 mV and peaked at 0 mV. Blocking P/Q-type Ca(2+)-currents abolished depolarization-evoked exocytosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Human alpha-cells are electrically excitable, and blockade of any ion channel involved in action potential depolarization or repolarization results in inhibition of glucagon secretion. We propose that voltage-dependent inactivation of these channels underlies the inhibition of glucagon secretion by tolbutamide and glucose.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Glucagon is critical for normal glucose homeostasis and aberrant secretion of the hormone aggravates dysregulated glucose control in diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which glucose controls glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the intracellular messenger cAMP in alpha-cell-intrinsic glucose regulation of glucagon release. METHODS:Subplasmalemmal cAMP and Ca2+ concentrations were recorded in isolated and islet-located alpha cells using fluorescent reporters and total internal reflection microscopy. Glucagon secretion from mouse islets was measured using ELISA. RESULTS:Glucose induced Ca2+-independent alterations of the subplasmalemmal cAMP concentration in alpha cells that correlated with changes in glucagon release. Glucose-lowering-induced stimulation of glucagon secretion thus corresponded to an elevation in cAMP that was independent of paracrine signalling from insulin or somatostatin. Imposed cAMP elevations stimulated glucagon secretion and abolished inhibition by glucose elevation, while protein kinase A inhibition mimicked glucose suppression of glucagon release. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Glucose concentrations in the hypoglycaemic range control glucagon secretion by directly modulating the cAMP concentration in alpha cells independently of paracrine influences. These findings define a novel mechanism for glucose regulation of glucagon release that underlies recovery from hypoglycaemia and may be disturbed in diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>The NEFA-responsive G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, in the control of incretin secretion and as a predisposing factor influencing the development of type 2 diabetes by regulation of islet cell apoptosis. However, there is still considerable controversy about the tissue distribution of GPR120 and, in particular, it remains unclear which islet cell types express this molecule. In the present study, we have addressed this issue by constructing a Gpr120-knockout/β-galactosidase (LacZ) knock-in (KO/KI) mouse to examine the distribution and functional role of GPR120 in the endocrine pancreas.<h4>Methods</h4>A KO/KI mouse was generated in which exon 1 of the Gpr120 gene (also known as Ffar4) was replaced in frame by LacZ, thereby allowing for regulated expression of β-galactosidase under the control of the endogenous GPR120 promoter. The distribution of GPR120 was inferred from expression studies detecting β-galactosidase activity and protein production. Islet hormone secretion was measured from isolated mouse islets treated with selective GPR120 agonists.<h4>Results</h4>β-galactosidase activity was detected as a surrogate for GPR120 expression exclusively in a small population of islet endocrine cells located peripherally within the islet mantle. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localisation with somatostatin suggesting that GPR120 is preferentially produced in islet delta cells. In confirmation of this, glucose-induced somatostatin secretion was inhibited by a range of selective GPR120 agonists. This response was lost in GPR120-knockout mice.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>The results imply that GPR120 is selectively present within the delta cells of murine islets and that it regulates somatostatin secretion.