Structure of the human 26S proteasome: subunit radial displacements open the gate into the proteolytic core.
ABSTRACT: The 26S proteasome plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes by the degradation of proteins targeted for breakdown by ubiquitin conjugation. The 26S complex is formed from the 20S core, which contains the proteolytic active sites, and 19S regulatory complexes, which bind to the 20S core to activate it and confer specificity for ubiquitinated protein substrates. We have determined the structure of the human 26S proteasome by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. In our reconstructions the crystallographic structure of each of the subunits of the 20S core can be unambiguously docked by direct recognition of each of their densities. Our results show for the first time that binding of the 19S regulatory particle results in the radial displacement of the adjacent subunits of the 20S core leading to opening of a wide channel into the proteolytic chamber. The analysis of a proteasome complex formed from one 20S core with a single 19S regulatory particle attached serve as control to our observations. We suggest locations for some of the 19S regulatory particle subunits.
Project description:26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid module 1 and module 2 subunits together is inferred from observing defective proteasomes in rpn11-m1, a mutant expressing a truncated form of Rpn11 and displaying mitochondrial phenotypes. An incomplete lid made up of five module 1 subunits attached to base-CP was identified in proteasomes isolated from this mutant. Re-introducing the C-terminal portion of Rpn11 enabled recruitment of missing module 2 subunits. In vitro, module 1 was reconstituted stepwise, initiated by Rpn11-Rpn8 heterodimerization. Upon recruitment of Rpn6, the module 1 intermediate was competent to lock into base-CP and reconstitute an incomplete 26S proteasome. Thus, base-CP can serve as a platform for gradual incorporation of lid, along a proteasome assembly pathway. Identification of proteasome intermediates and reconstitution of minimal functional units should clarify aspects of the inner workings of this machine and how multiple catalytic processes are synchronized within the 26S proteasome holoenzymes.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme composed of a cylindrical catalytic core (20S) and a regulatory particle (19S) that together perform the essential degradation of cellular proteins tagged by ubiquitin. To date, however, substrate trajectory within the complex remains elusive. Here we describe a previously unknown functional unit within the 19S, comprising two subunits, Rpn1 and Rpn2. These toroids physically link the site of substrate recruitment with the site of proteolysis. Rpn2 interfaces with the 20S, whereas Rpn1 sits atop Rpn2, serving as a docking site for a substrate-recruitment factor. The 19S ATPases encircle the Rpn1-Rpn2 stack, covering the remainder of the 20S surface. Both Rpn1-Rpn2 and the ATPases are required for substrate translocation and gating of the proteolytic channel. Similar pairing of units is found in unfoldases and nuclear transporters, exposing common features of these protein nanomachines.
Project description:The central protease of eukaryotes, the 26S proteasome, has a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and an attached 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is further subdivided into lid and base subcomplexes. Little is known about RP assembly. Here, we show that four conserved assembly factors govern biogenesis of the yeast RP base. Nas2 forms a complex with the Rpt4 and Rpt5 ATPases and enhances 26S proteasome formation in vivo and in vitro. Other RP subcomplexes contain Hsm3, which is related to mammalian proteasome subunit S5b. Hsm3 also contributes to base assembly. Larger Hsm3-containing complexes include two additional proteins, Nas6 and Rpn14, which function as assembly chaperones as well. Specific deletion combinations affecting these four factors cause severe perturbations to RP assembly. Our results demonstrate that proteasomal RP biogenesis requires multiple, functionally overlapping chaperones and suggest a model in which subunits form specific subcomplexes that then assemble into the base.
Project description:The eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for most aspects of regulatory and quality-control protein degradation in cells. Its substrates, which are usually modified by polymers of ubiquitin, are ultimately degraded by the 26S proteasome. This 2.6-MDa protein complex is separated into a barrel-shaped proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) of 28 subunits capped on one or both ends by a 19S regulatory particle (RP) comprising at least 19 subunits. The RP coordinates substrate recognition, removal of substrate polyubiquitin chains, and substrate unfolding and translocation into the CP for degradation. Although many atomic structures of the CP have been determined, the RP has resisted high-resolution analysis. Recently, however, a combination of cryo-electron microscopy, biochemical analysis, and crystal structure determination of several RP subunits has yielded a near-atomic-resolution view of much of the complex. Major new insights into chaperone-assisted proteasome assembly have also recently emerged. Here we review these novel findings.
Project description:The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric methods to investigate structural changes in the 26S proteasomes from yeast and mammalian cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Oxidative stress induced the dissociation of the 20S core particle from the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome, which resulted in loss of the activities of the 26S proteasome and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. H?O? triggered the increased association of the proteasome-interacting protein Ecm29 with the purified 19S particle. Deletion of ECM29 in yeast cells prevented the disassembly of the 26S proteasome in response to oxidative stress, and ecm29 mutants were more sensitive to H?O? than were wild-type cells, suggesting that separation of the 19S and 20S particles is important for cellular recovery from oxidative stress. The increased amount of free 20S core particles was required to degrade oxidized proteins. The Ecm29-dependent dissociation of the proteasome was independent of Yap1, a transcription factor that is critical for the oxidative stress response in yeast, and thus functions as a parallel defense pathway against H?O?-induced stress.
Project description:Proteasomes can exist in several different molecular forms in mammalian cells. The core 20S proteasome, containing the proteolytic sites, binds regulatory complexes at the ends of its cylindrical structure. Together with two 19S ATPase regulatory complexes it forms the 26S proteasome, which is involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The 20S proteasome can also bind 11S regulatory complexes (REG, PA28) which play a role in antigen processing, as do the three variable gamma-interferon-inducible catalytic beta-subunits (e.g. LMP7). In the present study, we have investigated the subcellular distribution of the different forms of proteasomes using subunit specific antibodies. Both 20S proteasomes and their 19S regulatory complexes are found in nuclear, cytosolic and microsomal preparations isolated from rat liver. LMP7 was enriched approximately two-fold compared with core alpha-type proteasome subunits in the microsomal preparations. 20S proteasomes were more abundant than 26S proteasomes, both in liver and cultured cell lines. Interestingly, some significant differences were observed in the distribution of different subunits of the 19S regulatory complexes. S12, and to a lesser extent p45, were found to be relatively enriched in nuclear fractions from rat liver, and immunofluorescent labelling of cultured cells with anti-p45 antibodies showed stronger labelling in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. The REG was found to be localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Three- to six-fold increases in the level of REG were observed following gamma-interferon treatment of cultured cells but gamma-interferon had no obvious effect on its subcellular distribution. These results demonstrate that different regulatory complexes and subpopulations of proteasomes have different distributions within mammalian cells and, therefore, that the distribution is more complex than has been reported for yeast proteasomes.
Project description:The eukaryotic 26S proteasome is a large multisubunit complex that degrades the majority of proteins in the cell under normal conditions. The 26S proteasome can be divided into two subcomplexes: the 19S regulatory particle and the 20S core particle. Most substrates are first covalently modified by ubiquitin, which then directs them to the proteasome. The function of the regulatory particle is to recognize, unfold, deubiquitylate, and translocate substrates into the core particle, which contains the proteolytic sites of the proteasome. Given the abundance and subunit complexity of the proteasome, the assembly of this ~2.5MDa complex must be carefully orchestrated to ensure its correct formation. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the understanding of proteasome assembly, structure, and function. Technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy have resulted in a series of atomic cryo-electron microscopy structures of both human and yeast 26S proteasomes. These structures have illuminated new intricacies and dynamics of the proteasome. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of proteasome assembly, particularly in light of recent structural information.
Project description:This study examined the hypothesis that 26S proteasome dysfunction in human end-stage heart failure is associated with decreased docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome. Previous studies have demonstrated that 26S proteasome activity is diminished in human end-stage heart failure associated with oxidation of the 19S regulatory particle Rpt5 subunit. Docking of the 19S regulatory particle to the 20S proteasome requires functional Rpt subunit ATPase activity and phosphorylation of the ?-type subunits.An enriched proteasome fraction was prepared from 7 human nonfailing and 10 failing heart explants. Native gel electrophoresis assessed docking of 19S to 20S proteasome revealing 3 proteasome populations (20S, 26S, and 30S proteasomes). In failing hearts, 30S proteasomes were significantly lower (P=0.048) by 37% suggesting diminished docking. Mass spectrometry-based phosphopeptide analysis demonstrated that the relative ratio of phosphorylated:non phosphorylated ?7 subunit (serine250) of the 20S proteasome was significantly less (P=0.011) by almost 80% in failing hearts. Rpt ATPase activity was determined in the enriched fraction and after immunoprecipitation with an Rpt6 antibody. ATPase activity (?mol PO4/?g protein per hour) of the total fraction was lowered from 291±97 to 194±27 and in the immunoprecipitated fraction from 42±12 to 3±2 (P=0.005) in failing hearts.These studies suggest that diminished 26S activity in failing human hearts may be related to impaired docking of the 19S to the 20S as a result of decreased Rpt subunit ATPase activity and ?7 subunit phosphorylation.
Project description:Proteasomal degradation is altered in many disease phenotypes including cardiac hypertrophy, a prevalent condition leading to heart failure. Our recent investigations identified heterogeneous subpopulations of proteasome complexes in the heart and implicated multiple mechanisms for their regulation.The study aimed at identification of molecular mechanisms changing proteasome function in the hypertrophic heart.Proteasome function, expression, and assembly were analyzed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation. The analysis revealed, for the first time, divergent regulation of proteasome function in cardiac hypertrophy. Proteasome complexes have 3 different proteolytic activities, which are ATP-dependent for 26S complexes (19S assembled with 20S) and ATP-independent for 20S core particles. The 26S activities were enhanced in hypertrophic hearts, partially because of increased expression and assembly of 19S subunits with 20S core complexes. In contrast, caspase- and trypsin-like 20S activities were significantly decreased. Activation of endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) rescued the depressed 20S functions, supporting the notion that PKA signaling is a positive regulator of protein degradation in the heart. Chymotrypsin-like 20S activity was stably maintained during cardiac remodeling, indicating a switch in proteasome subpopulations, which was supported by altered expression and incorporation of inducible ? subunits.Three novel mechanisms for the regulation of proteasome activities were discovered in the development of cardiac hypertrophy: (1) increased incorporation of inducible subunits in 20S proteasomes; (2) enhanced 20S sensitivity to PKA activation; and (3) increased 26S assembly. PKA modulation of proteasome complexes may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for restoration of cardiac function in the diseased myocardium.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.