Dissecting beta-ring assembly pathway of the mammalian 20S proteasome.
ABSTRACT: The 20S proteasome is the catalytic core of the 26S proteasome. It comprises four stacked rings of seven subunits each, alpha(1-7)beta(1-7)beta(1-7)alpha(1-7). Recent studies indicated that proteasome-specific chaperones and beta-subunit appendages assist in the formation of alpha-rings and dimerization of half-proteasomes, but the process involved in the assembly of beta-rings is poorly understood. Here, we clarify the mechanism of beta-ring formation on alpha-rings by characterizing assembly intermediates accumulated in cells depleted of each beta-subunit. Starting from beta2, incorporation of beta-subunits occurs in an orderly manner dependent on the propeptides of beta2 and beta5, and the C-terminal tail of beta2. Unexpectedly, hUmp1, a chaperone functioning at the final assembly step, is incorporated as early as beta2 and is required for the structural integrity of early assembly intermediates. We propose a model in which beta-ring formation is assisted by both intramolecular and extrinsic chaperones, whose roles are partially different between yeast and mammals.
Project description:Proteasomes are responsible for most intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The 20S proteasome comprises a dyad-symmetric stack of four heptameric rings made from 14 distinct subunits. How it assembles is not understood. Most subunits in the central pair of beta-subunit rings are synthesized in precursor form. Normally, the beta5 (Doa3) propeptide is essential for yeast proteasome biogenesis, but overproduction of beta7 (Pre4) bypasses this requirement. Bypass depends on a unique beta7 extension, which contacts the opposing beta ring. The resulting proteasomes appear normal but assemble inefficiently, facilitating identification of assembly intermediates. Assembly occurs stepwise into precursor dimers, and intermediates contain the Ump1 assembly factor and a novel complex, Pba1-Pba2. beta7 incorporation occurs late and is closely linked to the association of two half-proteasomes. We propose that dimerization is normally driven by the beta5 propeptide, an intramolecular chaperone, but beta7 addition overcomes an Ump1-dependent assembly checkpoint and stabilizes the precursor dimer.
Project description:Proteins targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system are degraded by the 26S proteasome. The core of this large protease is the 20S proteasome, a barrel-shaped structure made of a stack of four heptameric rings. Of the 14 different subunits that make up the yeast 20S proteasome, three have proteolytic active sites: Doa3/beta5, Pup1/beta2 and Pre3/beta1. Each of these subunits is synthesized with an N-terminal propeptide that is autocatalytically cleaved during particle assembly. We show here that the propeptides have both common and distinct functions in proteasome biogenesis. Unlike the Doa3 propeptide, which is crucial for proteasome assembly, the Pre3 and Pup1 propeptides are dispensable for cell viability and proteasome formation. However, mutants lacking these propeptide-encoding elements are defective for specific peptidase activities, are more sensitive to environmental stresses and have subtle defects in proteasome assembly. Unexpectedly, a critical function of the propeptide is the protection of the N-terminal catalytic threonine residue against Nalpha-acetylation. For all three propeptide-deleted subunits, activity of the affected catalytic center is fully restored when the Nat1-Ard1 Nalpha-acetyltransferase is mutated. In addition to delineating a novel function for proteasome propeptides, these data provide the first biochemical evidence for the postulated participation of the alpha-amino group in the proteasome catalytic mechanism.
Project description:The aggregation of proteins into amyloid fibrils is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease it is believed that the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) from monomers by intermediates into amyloid fibrils is the toxic disease-causative mechanism. Here, we studied the structure of alpha-syn in its amyloid state by using various biophysical approaches. Quenched hydrogen/deuterium exchange NMR spectroscopy identified five beta-strands within the fibril core comprising residues 35-96 and solid-state NMR data from amyloid fibrils comprising the fibril core residues 30-110 confirmed the presence of beta-sheet secondary structure. The data suggest that beta1-strand interacts with beta2, beta2 with beta3, beta3 with beta4, and beta4 with beta5. High-resolution cryoelectron microscopy revealed the protofilament boundaries of approximately 2 x 3.5 nm. Based on the combination of these data and published structural studies, a fold of alpha-syn in the fibrils is proposed and discussed.
Project description:The 20S core particle of the eukaryotic proteasome is composed of two ?- and two ?-rings, each of which is a hetero-heptamer composed of seven homologous but distinct subunits. Although formation of the eukaryotic proteasome is a highly ordered process assisted by assembly chaperones, ?7, an ?-ring component, has the unique property of self-assembling into a homo-tetradecamer. We used biophysical methods to characterize the oligomeric states of this proteasome subunit and its interaction with ?6, which makes direct contacts with ?7 in the proteasome ?-ring. We determined a crystal structure of the ?7 tetradecamer, which has a double-ring structure. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and mass spectrometric analysis under non-denaturing conditions revealed that ?7 exclusively exists as homo-tetradecamer in solution and that its double-ring structure is disassembled upon the addition of ?6, resulting in a 1:7 hetero-octameric ?6-?7 complex. Our findings suggest that proteasome formation involves the disassembly of non-native oligomers, which are assembly intermediates.
Project description:The mammalian 26S proteasome is a 2500 kDa multi-catalytic complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. We describe the synthesis and properties of a novel series of non-covalent di-peptide inhibitors of the proteasome based [corrected] on a capped tri-peptide that was first identified by high-throughput screening of a library of approx. 350000 compounds for inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in cells. We show that these compounds are entirely selective for the beta5 (chymotrypsin-like) site over the beta1 (caspase-like) and beta2 (trypsin-like) sites of the 20S core particle of the proteasome, and over a panel of less closely related proteases. Compound optimization, guided by X-ray crystallography of the liganded 20S core particle, confirmed their non-covalent binding mode and provided a structural basis for their enhanced in vitro and cellular potencies. We demonstrate that such compounds show low nanomolar IC50 values for the human 20S beta5 site in vitro, and that pharmacological inhibition of this site in cells is sufficient to potently inhibit the degradation of a tetra-ubiquitin-luciferase reporter, activation of NFkappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) in response to TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) and the proliferation of cancer cells. Finally, we identified capped di-peptides that show differential selectivity for the beta5 site of the constitutively expressed proteasome and immunoproteasome in vitro and in B-cell lymphomas. Collectively, these studies describe the synthesis, activity and binding mode of a new series of non-covalent proteasome inhibitors with unprecedented potency and selectivity for the beta5 site, and which can discriminate between the constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome in vitro and in cells.
Project description:Molecular organization in biological systems comprises elaborately programmed processes involving metastable complex formation of biomolecules. This is exemplified by the formation of the proteasome, which is one of the largest and most complicated biological supramolecular complexes. This biomolecular machinery comprises approximately 70 subunits, including structurally homologous, but functionally distinct, ones, thereby exerting versatile proteolytic functions. In eukaryotes, proteasome formation is non-autonomous and is assisted by assembly chaperones, which transiently associate with assembly intermediates, operating as molecular matchmakers and checkpoints for the correct assembly of proteasome subunits. Accumulated data also suggest that eukaryotic proteasome formation involves scrap-and-build mechanisms. However, unlike the eukaryotic proteasome subunits, the archaeal subunits show little structural divergence and spontaneously assemble into functional machinery. Nevertheless, the archaeal genomes encode homologs of eukaryotic proteasome assembly chaperones. Recent structural and functional studies of these proteins have advanced our understanding of the evolution of molecular mechanisms involved in proteasome biogenesis. This knowledge, in turn, provides a guiding principle in designing molecular machineries using protein engineering approaches and de novo synthesis of artificial molecular systems.
Project description:We present a biochemical and crystallographic characterization of active site mutants of the yeast 20S proteasome with the aim to characterize substrate cleavage specificity, subunit intermediate processing, and maturation. beta1(Pre3), beta2(Pup1), and beta5(Pre2) are responsible for the postacidic, tryptic, and chymotryptic activity, respectively. The maturation of active subunits is independent of the presence of other active subunits and occurs by intrasubunit autolysis. The propeptides of beta6(Pre7) and beta7(Pre4) are intermediately processed to their final forms by beta2(Pup1) in the wild-type enzyme and by beta5(Pre2) and beta1(Pre3) in the beta2(Pup1) inactive mutants. A role of the propeptide of beta1(Pre3) is to prevent acetylation and thereby inactivation. A gallery of proteasome mutants that contain active site residues in the context of the inactive subunits beta3(Pup3), beta6(Pre7), and beta7(Pre4) show that the presence of Gly-1, Thr1, Asp17, Lys33, Ser129, Asp166, and Ser169 is not sufficient to generate activity.
Project description:Unwanted or misfolded proteins are either refolded by chaperones or degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When UPS is impaired, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are transported along microtubules by motor protein dynein towards the juxta-nuclear microtubule-organizing center to form aggresome, a single cellular garbage disposal complex. Because aggresome formation results from proteasome failure, aggresome components are degraded through the autophagy/lysosome pathway. Here we report that small molecule isothiocyanates (ITCs) can induce formation of aggresome-like structure (ALS) through covalent modification of cytoplasmic alpha- and beta-tubulin. The formation of ALS is related to neither proteasome inhibition nor oxidative stress. ITC-induced ALS is a proteasome-dependent assembly for emergent removal of misfolded proteins, suggesting that the cell may have a previously unknown strategy to cope with misfolded proteins.
Project description:Proteasomal processing is conducted by three individual catalytic subunits, namely beta1, beta2, and beta5. Subunit-specific inhibitors are useful tools in dissecting the role of these individual subunits and are leads toward the development of antitumor agents. We here report that the presence of fluorinated phenylalanine derivatives in peptide based proteasome inhibitors has a profound effect on inhibitor potency and selectivity. Specifically, compound 4a emerges as one of the most beta5 specific inhibitors known to date.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is an essential protease that selectively eliminates dysfunctional and short-lived regulatory proteins in eukaryotes. To define the composition of this proteolytic machine in plants, we tagged either the core protease (CP) or the regulatory particle (RP) sub-complexes in Arabidopsis to enable rapid affinity purification followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Studies on proteasomes enriched from whole seedlings, with or without ATP needed to maintain the holo-proteasome complex, identified all known proteasome subunits but failed to detect isoform preferences, suggesting that Arabidopsis does not construct distinct proteasome sub-types. We also detected a suite of proteasome-interacting proteins, including likely orthologs of the yeast and mammalian chaperones Pba1, Pba2, Pba3, and Pba4 that assist in CP assembly; Ump1 that helps connect CP half-barrels; Nas2, Nas6, and Hsm3 that assist in RP assembly; and Ecm29 that promotes CP-RP association. Proteasomes from seedlings exposed to the proteasome inhibitor MG132 accumulated assembly intermediates, reflecting partially built proteasome sub-complexes associated with assembly chaperones, and the CP capped with the PA200/Blm10 regulator. Genetic analyses of Arabidopsis UMP1 revealed that, unlike in yeast, this chaperone is essential, with mutants lacking the major UMP1a and UMP1b isoforms displaying a strong gametophytic defect. Single ump1 mutants were hypersensitive to conditions that induce proteotoxic, salt and osmotic stress, and also accumulated several proteasome assembly intermediates, consistent with its importance for CP construction. Insights into the chaperones reported here should enable study of the assembly events that generate the 26S holo-proteasome in Arabidopsis from the collection of 64 or more subunits.