Nonlabeled quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for bacterial detection using carbohydrate and lectin recognitions.
ABSTRACT: High percentages of harmful microbes or their secreting toxins bind to specific carbohydrate sequences on human cells at the recognition and attachment sites. A number of studies also show that lectins react with specific structures of bacteria and fungi. In this report, we take advantage of the fact that a high percentage of microorganisms have both carbohydrate and lectin binding pockets at their surface. We demonstrate here for the first time that a carbohydrate nonlabeled mass sensor in combination with lectin-bacterial O-antigen recognition can be used for detection of high molecular weight bacterial targets with remarkably high sensitivity and enhanced specificity. A functional mannose self-assembled monolayer in combination with lectin concanavalin A (Con A) was used as molecular recognition elements for the detection of Escherichia coli W1485 using a quartz crytsal microbalance (QCM) as a transducer. The multivalent binding of Con A to the E. coli surface O-antigen favors the strong adhesion of E. coli to the mannose-modified QCM surface by forming bridges between these two. As a result, the contact area between cell and QCM surface that increases leads to rigid and strong attachment. Therefore, it enhances the binding between E. coli and the mannose. Our results show a significant improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of the carbohydrate QCM biosensor with a experimental detection limit of a few hundred bacterial cells. The linear range is from 7.5 x 10(2) to 7.5 x 10(7) cells/mL, which is four decades wider than the mannose-alone QCM sensor. The change of damping resistances for E. coli adhesion experiments was no more than 1.4%, suggesting that the bacterial attachment was rigid, rather than a viscoelastic behavior. Little nonspecific binding was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and other proteins (fetal bovine serum, Erythrina cristagalli lectin). Our approach not only overcomes the challenges of applying QCM technology for bacterial detection but also increases the binding of bacteria to their carbohydrate receptor through bacterial surface binding lectins that significantly enhanced specificity and sensitivity of QCM biosensors. Combining carbohydrate and lectin recognition events with an appropriate QCM transducer can yield sensor devices highly suitable for the fast, reversible, and straightforward on-line screening and detection of bacteria in food, water, and clinical and biodefense areas.
Project description:A novel approach for preparing carbohydrate chips based on polydopamine (PDA) surface to study carbohydrate⁻lectin interactions by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor instrument has been developed. The amino-carbohydrates were immobilized on PDA-coated quartz crystals via Schiff base reaction and/or Michael addition reaction. The resulting carbohydrate-chips were applied to QCM biosensor instrument with flow-through system for real-time detection of lectin⁻carbohydrate interactions. A series of plant lectins, including wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and peanut agglutinin (PNA), were evaluated for the binding to different kinds of carbohydrate chips. Clearly, the results show that the predicted lectin selectively binds to the carbohydrates, which demonstrates the applicability of the approach. Furthermore, the kinetics of the interactions between Con A and mannose, WGA and N-Acetylglucosamine were studied, respectively. This study provides an efficient approach to preparing carbohydrate chips based on PDA for the lectin⁻carbohydrate interactions study.
Project description:A universal photochemical method to prepare carbohydrate sensors based on perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) modified polydopamine (PDA) for the study of carbohydrate-lectin interactions by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed. The PFPA was immobilized on PDA-coated gold sensors via Schiff base reactions. Upon light irradiation, the underivatized carbohydrates were inserted into the sensor surface, including mannose, galactose, fucose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Carbohydrate sensors were evaluated for the binding to a series of plant lectins. A kinetic study of the interactions between mannose and concanavalin A (Con A), fucose and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) were performed. This method can eliminate the tedious modification of carbohydrates, improve the experimental efficiency, and reduce the experimental cost, which is of great significance for the development of QCM biosensors and the study of biomolecular interactions.
Project description:In general, carbohydrate-lectin interactions are characterized by high specificity but also low affinity. The main reason for the low affinities are desolvation costs, due to the numerous hydroxy groups present on the ligand, together with the typically polar surface of the binding sites. Nonetheless, nature has evolved strategies to overcome this hurdle, most prominently in relation to carbohydrate-lectin interactions of the innate immune system but also in bacterial adhesion, a process key for the bacterium's survival. In an effort to better understand the particular characteristics, which contribute to a successful carbohydrate recognition domain, the mannose-binding sites of six C-type lectins and of three bacterial adhesins were analyzed. One important finding is that the high enthalpic penalties caused by desolvation can only be compensated for by the number and quality of hydrogen bonds formed by each of the polar hydroxy groups engaged in the binding process. In addition, since mammalian mannose-binding sites are in general flat and solvent exposed, the half-lives of carbohydrate-lectin complexes are rather short since water molecules can easily access and displace the ligand from the binding site. In contrast, the bacterial lectin FimH benefits from a deep mannose-binding site, leading to a substantial improvement in the off-rate. Together with both a catch-bond mechanism (i.e., improvement of affinity under shear stress) and multivalency, two methods commonly utilized by pathogens, the affinity of the carbohydrate-FimH interaction can be further improved. Including those just described, the various approaches explored by nature to optimize selectivity and affinity of carbohydrate-lectin interactions offer interesting therapeutic perspectives for the development of carbohydrate-based drugs.
Project description:Multivalent interaction between boronic acids immobilized on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor surface and the carbohydrates modified Au-nanoparticle (AuNP) has been demonstrated for the development of a sensitive carbohydrate biosensor. Briefly, a boronic acid-containing polymer (boropolymer) as multivalent carbohydrate receptor was oriented immobilized on the cysteamine coated electrode through isourea bond formation. Carbohydrates were conjugated to AuNPs to generate a multivalent carbohydrates moiety to amplify the response signal. Thus, the binding of the carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs to the boropolymer surface are multivalent which could simultaneously increase the binding affinity and specificity. We systematically studied the binding between five carbohydrates conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer. Our studies show that the associate constant (K(a)) was in the order of fucose<glucose<mannose<galactose<maltose. A linear response in the range from 23 ?M to 3.83 mM was observed for mannose conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer recognition elements, with the lower detection limit of 1.5 ?M for the carbohydrate analytes. Furthermore, the multivalent binding between carbohydrates and boronic acids are reversible and allow the regeneration of boropolymer surface by using 1M acetic acid so as to sequentially capture and release the carbohydrate analytes.
Project description:Janus emulsion assays that rely on carbohydrate-lectin binding for the detection of <i>Escherichia coli</i> bacteria are described. Surfactants containing mannose are self-assembled at the surface of Janus droplets to produce particles with lectin binding sites. Janus droplets orient in a vertical direction as a result of the difference in densities between the hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon solvents. Binding of lectin to mannose(s) causes agglutination and a tilted geometry. The distinct optical difference between naturally aligned and agglutinated Janus droplets produces signals that can be detected quantitatively. The Janus emulsion assay sensitively and selectively binds to <i>E. coli</i> at 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/mL and can be easily prepared with long-time stability. It provides the basis for the development of inexpensive portable devices for fast, on-site pathogen detection.
Project description:Cell surface carbohydrates are important to various bacterial activities and functions. It is well known that different types of Bacillus display heterogeneity of surface carbohydrate compositions, but detection of their presence, quantitation and estimation of variation at the single cell level have not been previously solved. Here, using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based recognition force mapping coupled with lectin probes, the specific carbohydrate distributions of N-acetylglucosamine and mannose/glucose were detected, mapped and quantified on single B. cereus surfaces at the nanoscale across the entire cell. Further, the changes of the surface carbohydrate compositions from the vegetative cell to spore were shown. These results demonstrate AFM-based 'recognition force mapping' as a versatile platform to quantitatively detect and spatially map key bacterial surface biomarkers (such as carbohydrate compositions), and monitor in situ changes in surface biochemical properties during intracellular activities at the single cell level.
Project description:Betacoronaviruses, responsible for the "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome" (SARS) and the "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome" (MERS), use the spikes protruding from the virion envelope to attach and subsequently infect the host cells. The coronavirus spike (S) proteins contain receptor binding domains (RBD), allowing the specific recognition of either the dipeptidyl peptidase CD23 (MERS-CoV) or the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2 (SARS-Cov, SARS-CoV-2) host cell receptors. The heavily glycosylated S protein includes both complex and high-mannose type <i>N</i>-glycans that are well exposed at the surface of the spikes. A detailed analysis of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of mannose-binding lectins from plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, revealed that, depending on their origin, they preferentially recognize either complex type <i>N</i>-glycans, or high-mannose type <i>N</i>-glycans. Since both complex and high-mannose glycans substantially decorate the S proteins, mannose-specific lectins are potentially useful glycan probes for targeting the SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 virions. Mannose-binding legume lectins, like pea lectin, and monocot mannose-binding lectins, like snowdrop lectin or the algal lectin griffithsin, which specifically recognize complex <i>N</i>-glycans and high-mannose glycans, respectively, are particularly adapted for targeting coronaviruses. The biomedical prospects of targeting coronaviruses with mannose-specific lectins are wide-ranging including detection, immobilization, prevention, and control of coronavirus infection.
Project description:Novel anti-HIV lectin family which shows a strict binding specificity for high mannose glycans has been found in lower organisms. The bacterial orthologue has been identified in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and the gene coding a putative lectin was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by one step gel filtration. Glycan array screening of the recombinant lectin, termed PFL, has revealed that PFL preferentially recognizes high mannose glycans with ?1-3 Man that was highly exposed at the D2 position. In contrast, masking of this ?1-3 Man with ?1-2 Man dramatically impaired lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Reducing terminal disaccharide, GlcNAc-GlcNAc of high mannose glycans was also essential for PFL-binding. PFL showed a potent anti-influenza virus activity by inhibiting the virus entry into cells at doses of low nanomolar concentration. At micromolar concentration or higher, PFL showed a cytotoxicity accompanying loss of the cell adhesion against human gastric cancer MKN28 cells. The cell surface molecule to which PFL bound was co-precipitated with biotin-labeled PFL and identified as integrin ?2 by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, upon treatment with exogenous PFL, integrin ?2 on the cell surface underwent rapid internalization to the cytoplasm and accumulated to perinuclear region, together with the bound PFL. The resulting loss of cell adherence would trigger a signaling pathway that induced anoikis-like cell death. These events were effectively inhibited by pretreatment of PFL with mannnan, indicating the involvement of high mannose glycans on PFL-induced cell death that was triggered by PFL-integrin ?2 interactions.
Project description:Molecular recognition of carbohydrates is a key step in essential biological processes. Carbohydrate receptors can distinguish monosaccharides even if they only differ in a single aspect of the orientation of the hydroxyl groups or harbor subtle chemical modifications. Hydroxyl-by-fluorine substitution has proven its merits for chemically mapping the importance of hydroxyl groups in carbohydrate-receptor interactions. <sup>19</sup>F NMR spectroscopy could thus be adapted to allow contact mapping together with screening in compound mixtures. Using a library of fluorinated glucose (Glc), mannose (Man), and galactose (Gal) derived by systematically exchanging every hydroxyl group by a fluorine atom, we developed a strategy combining chemical mapping and <sup>19</sup>F NMR T<sub>2</sub> filtering-based screening. By testing this strategy on the proof-of-principle level with a library of 13 fluorinated monosaccharides to a set of three carbohydrate receptors of diverse origin, i.e. the human macrophage galactose-type lectin, a plant lectin, <i>Pisum sativum</i> agglutinin, and the bacterial Gal-/Glc-binding protein from <i>Escherichia coli</i>, it became possible to simultaneously define their monosaccharide selectivity and identify the essential hydroxyls for interaction.
Project description:C-type lectin receptors expressed on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages are able to bind glycoproteins of microbial pathogens via mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Langerin on Langerhans cells, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells, and mannose receptor (MR) on dendritic cells and macrophages bind the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 principally via high mannose oligosaccharides. These C-type lectin receptors can also oligomerize to facilitate enhanced ligand binding. This study examined the effect of oligomerization of MR on its ability to bind to mannan, monomeric gp120, native trimeric gp140, and HIV type 1 BaL. Mass spectrometry analysis of cross-linked MR showed homodimerization on the surface of primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Both monomeric and dimeric MR were precipitated by mannan, but only the dimeric form was co-immunoprecipitated by gp120. These results were confirmed independently by flow cytometry analysis of soluble monomeric and trimeric HIV envelope and a cellular HIV virion capture assay. As expected, mannan bound to the carbohydrate recognition domains of MR dimers mostly in a calcium-dependent fashion. Unexpectedly, gp120-mediated binding of HIV to dimers on MR-transfected Rat-6 cells and macrophages was not calcium-dependent, was only partially blocked by mannan, and was also partially inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate. Thus gp120-mediated HIV binding occurs via the calcium-dependent, non-calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains and the cysteine-rich domain at the C terminus of MR dimers, presenting a much broader target for potential inhibitors of gp120-MR binding.