Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR examination of wild populations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Extensive sequencing efforts have been taking place for the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in recent years, the number of ESTs in the Genbank has reached more than 140.000. Despite its importance in North Atlantic fisheries and potential use in aquaculture, relatively few gene expression examination exists for this species, and systematic evaluations of reference gene stability in quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) studies are lacking. RESULTS:The stability of 10 potential reference genes was examined in six tissues of Atlantic cod obtained from four populations, to determine the most suitable genes to be used in qRT-PCR analyses. Relative transcription levels of genes encoding beta-actin (ACTB), elongation factor 1A (EF1A), actin-related protein-2 (ARP-2), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ubiquitin (Ubi), acidic ribosomal protein (ARP), ribosomal protein S9 (S9), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), RPL22 and RPL37 were quantified in gills, brain, liver, head kidney, muscle and middle intestine in six juvenile fish from three wild populations and from farmed Atlantic cod. Reference gene stability was investigated using the geNorm and NormFinder tools. Based on calculations performed with the geNorm, which determines the most stable genes from a set of tested genes in a given cDNA sample, ARP, Ubi, S9 and RPL37 were among the most stable genes in all tissues. When the same calculations were done with NormFinder, the same genes plus RPL4 and EF1A were ranked as the preferable genes. CONCLUSION:Overall, this work suggests that the Ubi and ARP can be useful as reference genes in qRT-PCR examination of gene expression studying wild populations of Atlantic cod.
Project description:BACKGROUND: One important physiological response to environmental stress in animals is change in gene expression. To obtain reliable data from gene expression studies using RT-qPCR it is important to evaluate a set of possible reference genes as normalizers for expression. The expression of these candidate genes should be analyzed in the relevant tissues during normal and stressed situations. To find suitable reference genes it was crucial that the genes were stably expressed also during a situation of physiological stress. For poikilotermic animals like cod, changes in temperature are normal, but if the changes are faster than physiological compensation, the animals respond with typical stress responses. It has previously been shown that Atlantic cod show stress responses when elevation of water temperature is faster than 1 degree/day, for this reason we chose hyperthermia as stress agent for this experiment. FINDINGS: We here describe the expression of eight candidate reference genes from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l.) and their stability during thermal stress (temperature elevation of one degree C/day for 5 days). The genes investigated were: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, ef1a; 18s ribosomal RNA; 18s, Ubiquitin conjugate protein; ubiq, cytoskeletal beta-actin; actb, major histcompatibility complex I; MHC-I light chain, beta-2 -microglobulin; b2m, cytoskeletal alpha-tubulin; tba1c, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein; rplp1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; g6pd. Their expression were analyzed in 6 tissues (liver, head kidney, intestine, spleen, heart and gills) from cods exposed to elevated temperature and compared to a control group. Although there were variations between tissues with respect to reference gene stability, four transcripts were more consistent than the others: ubiq, ef1a, 18s and rplp1. We therefore used these to analyze the expression of stress related genes (heat shock proteins) induced during hyperthermia. We found that both transcripts were significantly upregulated in several tissues in fish exposed to increased temperature. CONCLUSION: This is the first study comparing reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses of expression during hyperthermia in Atlantic cod. ef1a, 18s, rplp1 and ubiq transcripts were found to be well suited as reference genes during these experimental conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To obtain reliable quantitative RT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. However, in practice, expression levels of 'typical' housekeeping genes have been found to vary between tissues and under different experimental conditions. To date, validation studies of reference genes in insects are extremely rare and have never been performed in locusts. In this study, putative housekeeping genes were identified in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria and two different software programs (geNorm and Normfinder) were applied to assess the stability of these genes. RESULTS: We have identified seven orthologs of commonly used housekeeping genes in the desert locust. The selected genes were the orthologs of actin, EF1a, GAPDH, RP49, TubA1, Ubi, and CG13220. By employing real time RT-PCR we have analysed the expression of these housekeeping genes in brain tissue of fifth instar nymphs and adults. In the brain of fifth instar nymphs geNorm indicated Sg-EF1a, Sg-GAPDH and Sg-RP49 as most stable genes, while Normfinder ranked Sg-RP49, Sg-EF1a and Sg-ACT as most suitable candidates for normalization. The best normalization candidates for gene expression studies in the brains of adult locusts were Sg-EF1a, Sg-GAPDH and Sg-Ubi according to geNorm, while Normfinder determined Sg-GAPDH, Sg-Ubi and Sg-ACT as the most stable housekeeping genes. CONCLUSION: To perform transcript profiling studies on brains of the desert locust, the use of Sg-RP49, Sg-EF1a and Sg-ACT as reference genes is proposed for studies of fifth instar nymphs. In experiments with adult brains, however, the most preferred reference genes were Sg-GAPDH, Sg-Ubi and Sg-EF1a. These data will facilitate transcript profiling studies in desert locusts and provide a good starting point for the initial selection of genes for validation studies in other insects.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Planthoppers not only severely affect crops by causing mechanical damage when feeding but are also vectors of several plant virus species. The analysis of gene expression in persistently infected planthoppers might unveil the molecular basis of viral transmission. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method used for quantitative gene expression analysis. In order to normalize the resulting quantitative data, reference genes with constant expression during the experimental procedures are needed. RESULTS: Partial sequences of the commonly used reference genes actin (ACT), ?1-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18) and polyubiquitin C (UBI) from Delphacodes kuscheli, a planthopper capable of persistently transmitting the plant fijivirus Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), were isolated for the first time. Specific RT-qPCR primers were designed and the expression stability of these genes was assayed in MRCV-infective and naïve planthoppers using geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper tools. The overall analysis showed that UBI, followed by 18S and ACT, are the most suitable genes as internal controls for quantitative gene expression studies in MRCV-infective planthoppers, while TUB and EF1A are the most variable ones. Moreover, EF1A was upregulated by MRCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: A RT-qPCR platform for gene expression analysis in the MRCV-infected planthopper vector Delphacodes kuscheli was developed. Our work is the first report on reference gene selection in virus-infected insects, and might serve as a precedent for future gene expression studies on MRCV and other virus-planthopper pathosystems.
Project description:Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most common aphid pests of winter cereals. To facilitate accurate gene expression analyses with qRT-PCR assays, the expression stability of candidate reference genes under specific experimental conditions must be verified before they can be used to normalize target gene expression levels. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes in M. dirhodum were analyzed by qRT-PCR under various experimental conditions. Their expression stability was evaluated with delta Ct, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder methods, and the final stability ranking was determined with RefFinder. The results indicate that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were SDHB and RPL8 across geographic population; RPL8, Actin, and GAPDH across developmental stage; SDHB and NADH across body part; RPL8 and Actin across wing dimorphism and temperature; RPL4 and EF1A across starvation stress; AK and RPL4 across insecticide treatments; RPL8 and NADH across antibiotic treatments; RPL8, RPL4, Actin, and NADH across all samples. The results of this study provide useful insights for establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure for M. dirhodum and may be relevant for identifying appropriate reference genes for molecular analyses of related insects.
Project description:Selection of reference genes has become an integral step in any real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) based expression studies. The importance of this study stems from the fact that riverine buffaloes are major dairy species of Indian sub-continent and the information generated here will be of great interest to the investigators engaged in functional genomic studies of this important livestock species. In this study, an effort was made to evaluate a panel of 10 candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta- actin (ACTB), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), ribosomal protein S15 (RPS15), ribosomal protein L-4 (RPL4), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), ?2 Microglobulin (?2M) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) across 12 tissues (mammary gland, kidney, spleen, liver, heart, intestine, ovary, lung, muscle, brain, subcutaneous fat and testis) of riverine buffaloes. In addition to overall analysis, tissue wise evaluation of expression stability of individual RG was also performed. Three different algorithms provided in geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares were used to evaluate the stability of 10 potential reference genes from different functional classes. The M-value given by geNorm ranged from 0.9797 (RPS9 and UXT) to 1.7362 (RPS15). From the most stable to the least stable, genes were ranked as: UXT/RPS9> RPL4> RPS23> EEF1A1> ACTB> HMBS> GAPDH> B2M> RPS15. While NormFinder analysis ranked the genes as: UXT> RPS23> RPL4> RPS9> EEF1A1> HMBS> ACTB> ?2M> GAPDH> RPS15. Based on the crossing point SD value and range of fold change expression, BestKeeper analysis ranked the genes as: RPS9> RPS23/UXT> RPL4> GAPDH> EEF1A1> ACTB> HMBS> ?2M> RPS15. Overall the study has identified RPS23, RPS9, RPL4 and UXT genes to be the most stable and appropriate RGs that could be utilized for normalization of transcriptional data in various tissues of buffaloes. This manuscript thus provide useful information on panel of reference genes that could be helpful for researchers conducting functional genomic studies in riverine buffaloes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the economically most important species in the northern Atlantic Ocean and a model species for studying development of the immune system in vertebrates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small RNA molecules that regulate fundamental biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Detailed knowledge about a species miRNA repertoire is necessary to study how the miRNA transcriptome modulate gene expression. We have therefore discovered and characterized mature miRNAs and their corresponding miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. We have also performed a validation study to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression in Atlantic cod. Finally, we utilized the newly characterized miRNA repertoire and the dedicated RT-qPCR method to reveal miRNAs that are highly expressed in certain organs. RESULTS:The discovery analysis revealed 490 mature miRNAs (401 unique sequences) along with precursor sequences and genomic location of the miRNA genes. Twenty six of these were novel miRNA genes. Validation studies ranked gmo-miR-17-1-5p or the two-gene combination gmo-miR25-3p and gmo-miR210-5p as most suitable qPCR reference genes. Analysis by RT-qPCR revealed 45 miRNAs with significantly higher expression in tissues from one or a few organs. Comparisons to other vertebrates indicate that some of these miRNAs may regulate processes like growth, lipid metabolism, immune response to microbial infections and scar damage repair. Three teleost-specific and three novel Atlantic cod miRNAs were among the differentially expressed miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS:The number of known mature miRNAs was considerably increased by our identification of miRNAs and miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. This will benefit further functional studies of miRNA expression using deep sequencing methods. The validation study showed that stable miRNAs are suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression. Applying RT-qPCR we have identified several miRNAs likely to have important regulatory functions in particular organs.
Project description:The collapse of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the Atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. In order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in Atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. The Atlantic Cod Genomics and Broodstock Development Project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cDNA libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and stimuli. We used this resource to develop an Atlantic cod oligonucleotide microarray containing 20,000 unique probes. Selection of sequences from the full range of cDNA libraries enables application of the microarray for a broad spectrum of Atlantic cod functional genomics studies. We included sequences that were highly abundant in suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries, which were enriched for transcripts responsive to pathogens or other stressors. These sequences represent genes that potentially play an important role in stress and/or immune responses, making the microarray particularly useful for studies of Atlantic cod gene expression responses to immune stimuli and other stressors. To demonstrate its value, we used the microarray to analyze the Atlantic cod spleen response to stimulation with formalin-killed, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, resulting in a gene expression profile that indicates a strong innate immune response. These results were further validated by quantitative PCR analysis and comparison to results from previous analysis of an SSH library. This study shows that the Atlantic cod 20K oligonucleotide microarray is a valuable new tool for Atlantic cod functional genomics research.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Highly repetitive sequences are the bane of genome sequence assembly, and the short read lengths produced by current next generation sequencing technologies further exacerbates this obstacle. An adopted practice is to exclude repetitive sequences in genome data assembly, as the majority of repeats lack protein-coding genes. However, this could result in the exclusion of important genotypes in newly sequenced non-model species. The absence of the antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) gene family in the recently sequenced Atlantic cod genome serves as an example. RESULTS: The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome was assembled entirely from Roche 454 short reads, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. However, a well-known major adaptive trait, the AFGP, essential for survival in frigid Arctic marine habitats was absent in the annotated genome. To assess whether this resulted from population difference, we performed Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from multiple individuals from the North East Arctic cod population that the sequenced cod belonged, and verified that the AFGP genotype is indeed present. We searched the raw assemblies of the Atlantic cod using our G. morhua AFGP gene, and located partial AFGP coding sequences in two sequence scaffolds. We found these two scaffolds constitute a partial genomic AFGP locus through comparative sequence analyses with our newly assembled genomic AFGP locus of the related polar cod, Boreogadus saida. By examining the sequence assembly and annotation methodologies used for the Atlantic cod genome, we deduced the primary cause of the absence of the AFGP gene family from the annotated genome was the removal of all repetitive Roche 454 short reads before sequence assembly, which would exclude most of the highly repetitive AFGP coding sequences. Secondarily, the model teleost genomes used in projection annotation of the Atlantic cod genome have no antifreeze trait, perpetuating the unawareness that the AFGP gene family is missing. CONCLUSIONS: We recovered some of the missing AFGP coding sequences and reconstructed a partial AFGP locus in the Atlantic cod genome, bringing to light that not all repetitive sequences lack protein coding information. Also, reliance on genomes of model organisms as reference for annotating protein-coding gene content of a newly sequenced non-model species could lead to omission of novel genetic traits.
Project description:This study was conduct to identify the virus-responsive transcripts in Atlantic cod, using viral mimic, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) Overall design: Six individual Atlantic cod (1.087 ± 0.73 kg) were used for identification of antiviral (i.e. pIC-responsive) macrophage transcripts. The fish were kept in a 21 m^3 tank and optimum conditions (5.2-6.4˚C, 95-110% oxygen saturation and under an ambient photoperiod) in the Dr. Joe Brown Aquatic Research Building (JBARB) of the Ocean Sciences Centre (OSC). Atlantic cod head kidney cells were isolated from 6 fish. The cells were allowed to adhere overnight (16 h) at 10˚C, and then the non-adherent cells were removed. Thereafter, macrophages (adherent cells) from each individual were exposed to either viral mimic using 50 ug/ml pIC or PBS (control). Macrophages were lysed at 24 HPS using TRIzol, and RNAs were extracted. A common reference design was used for the microarray experiment. For each group (pIC or control), 6 biological replicates (pIC and control from 6 fish) were used for microarray experiment. The common reference consisted of a pool of 12 RNA samples. All test samples were labeled with Cy5, whereas common reference was labeled with Cy3. Each individual test sample was co-hybridized with the common reference sample on an array (20K Atlantic cod microarray platform); therefore, 12 arrays were used for this experiment. [variable] other: pIC: Fish_1_pIC, Fish_2_pIC, Fish_3_pIC, Fish_4_pIC, Fish_5_pIC, Fish_6_pIC, [variable] other: Control: Fish_1_Control, Fish_2_Control, Fish_3_Control, Fish_4_Control, Fish_5_Control, Fish_6_Control, [repeat] biological replicate: Fish_1_pIC, Fish_2_pIC, Fish_3_pIC, Fish_4_pIC, Fish_5_pIC, Fish_6_pIC, [repeat] biological replicate: Fish_1_Control, Fish_2_Control, Fish_3_Control, Fish_4_Control, Fish_5_Control, Fish_6_Control,
Project description:BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a method for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA transcription. Internal standards such as reference genes are used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of mRNA transcription level. Selection of high quality reference genes is of crucial importance for the interpretation of data generated by real-time qPCR. RESULTS: In this study nine commonly used reference genes were investigated in 17 different pig tissues using real-time qPCR with SYBR green. The genes included beta-actin (ACTB), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), TATA box binding protein (TPB)and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The stability of these reference genes in different pig tissues was investigated using the geNorm application. The range of expression stability in the genes analysed was (from the most stable to the least stable): ACTB/RPL4, TBP, HPRT, HMBS, YWHAZ, SDHA, B2M and GAPDH. CONCLUSION: Expression stability varies greatly between genes. ACTB, RPL4, TPB and HPRT1 were found to have the highest stability across tissues. Based on both expression stability and expression level, our data suggest that ACTB and RPL4 are good reference genes for high abundant transcripts while TPB and HPRT1 are good reference genes for low abundant transcripts in expression studies across different pig tissues.