A preliminary study of sleep ontogenesis in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
ABSTRACT: We investigated sleep ontogenesis in the ferret-a placental mammal that is highly altricial compared to other mammalian species. Because altriciality is linked with elevated rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep amounts during infancy, it was expected that ferret kits would display very high levels of this state. Longitudinal polysomnographic measurements were made from 8 ferret kits from approximately eye-opening (postnatal day [P]30)-P50 using an experimental routine that minimized the effects of maternal separation. These data were compared to values from 8 adult ferrets (>3 months of age) and 6 neonatal cats (mean age: P31.7). We find that the polygraphic features of REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep are present by at least P30. Over the next 2 weeks, REM sleep amounts slightly declined while wakefulness and NREM sleep amounts increased. However, a comparison to published values from developing cats and rats showed that the ferret did not exhibit a disproportionate amount of REM sleep at similar postnatal ages or relative to a common developmental milestone (eye-opening).
Project description:Sleep is critical for proper memory consolidation. The locus coeruleus (LC) releases norepinephrine throughout the brain except when the LC falls silent throughout rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and prior to each non-REM (NREM) sleep spindle. We hypothesize that these transient LC silences allow the synaptic plasticity that is necessary to incorporate new information into pre-existing memory circuits. We found that spontaneous LC activity within sleep spindles triggers a decrease in spindle power. By optogenetically stimulating norepinephrine-containing LC neurons at 2 Hz during sleep, we reduced sleep spindle occurrence, as well as NREM delta power and REM theta power, without causing arousals or changing sleep amounts. Stimulating the LC during sleep following a hippocampus-dependent food location learning task interfered with consolidation of newly learned locations and reconsolidation of previous locations, disrupting next-day place cell activity. The LC stimulation-induced reduction in NREM sleep spindles, delta, and REM theta and reduced ripple-spindle coupling all correlated with decreased hippocampus-dependent performance on the task. Thus, periods of LC silence during sleep following learning are essential for normal spindle generation, delta and theta power, and consolidation of spatial memories.
Project description:Rapid eye movement-predominant obstructive sleep apnea has been shown to be independently associated with hypertension. This study aimed to non-invasively measure blood pressure during the rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) obstructive events and the post-obstructive event period. Thirty-two consecutive continuous positive airway pressure-naïve obstructive sleep apnea patients (men, 50%) aged 50.2?±?12 years underwent overnight polysomnography. Blood pressure was assessed indirectly using a validated method based on the pulse transit time and pulse wave velocity during the NREM and REM obstructive events (both apneas and hypopneas) and the post-obstructive event period. Among the recruited patients, 10 (31.3%) had hypertension. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 40.1?±?27.6 events/hr. Apnea-hypopnea indexes were 38.3?±?30.6 and 51.9?±?28.3 events/hr for NREM and REM sleep, respectively. No differences were detected in obstructive respiratory event duration or degree of desaturation between REM and NREM sleep. Additionally, no difference in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) was detected between REM and NREM sleep during obstructive events and post-obstructive event period. Simple linear regression identified history of hypertension as a predictor of increased systolic blood pressure during obstructive events and post-obstructive event period in both rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Oxygen desaturation index was also a predictor of increased systolic blood pressure during obstructive events and post-obstructive event period in REM sleep. When obstructive event duration and the degree of desaturation were comparable, no difference in blood pressure was found between REM and NREM sleep during obstructive events and post-obstructive event period.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a paradoxical state of wake-like brain activity occurring after non-REM (NREM) sleep in mammals and birds. In mammals, brain cooling during NREM sleep is followed by warming during REM sleep, potentially preparing the brain to perform adaptively upon awakening. If brain warming is the primary function of REM sleep, then it should occur in other animals with similar states. We measured cortical temperature in pigeons and bearded dragons, lizards that exhibit NREM-like sleep and REM-like sleep with brain activity resembling wakefulness. In pigeons, cortical temperature decreased during NREM sleep and increased during REM sleep. However, brain temperature did not increase when dragons switched from NREM-like to REM-like sleep. Our findings indicate that brain warming is not a universal outcome of sleep states characterized by wake-like activity, challenging the hypothesis that their primary function is to warm the brain in preparation for wakefulness.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories. In contrast during REM sleep, solely cueing of neutral (but not emotional) memories was associated with increases in theta activity. Our results do not support a preferential role of REM sleep for emotional memories, but rather suggest that emotional arousal modulates memory replay and consolidation processes and their oscillatory correlates during NREM sleep.
Project description:In this study, we applied high-density EEG recordings (HD-EEG) to quantitatively characterize the fine-grained spatiotemporal distribution of inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) across different sleep stages. We quantified differences in spatial extent and duration of IEDs at the scalp and cortical levels using HD-EEG source-localization, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, in six medication-refractory focal epilepsy patients during epilepsy monitoring unit admission. Statistical analyses were performed at single subject level and group level across different sleep stages for duration and distribution of IEDs. Tests were corrected for multiple comparisons across all channels and time points. Compared to NREM sleep, IEDs during REM sleep were of significantly shorter duration and spatially more restricted. Compared to NREM sleep, IEDs location in REM sleep also showed a higher concordance with electrographic ictal onset zone from scalp EEG recording. This study supports the localizing value of REM IEDs over NREM IEDs and suggests that HD-EEG may be of clinical utility in epilepsy surgery work-up.
Project description:Mammalian sleep consists of distinct rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) states. The midbrain region ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is known to be important for gating REM sleep, but the underlying neuronal mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that activating vlPAG GABAergic neurons in mice suppresses the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep while consolidating NREM sleep, partly through their projection to the dorsolateral pons. Cell-type-specific recording and calcium imaging reveal that most vlPAG GABAergic neurons are strongly suppressed at REM sleep onset and activated at its termination. In addition to the rapid changes at brain state transitions, their activity decreases gradually between REM sleep and is reset by each REM episode in a duration-dependent manner, mirroring the accumulation and dissipation of REM sleep pressure. Thus, vlPAG GABAergic neurons powerfully gate REM sleep, and their firing rate modulation may contribute to the ultradian rhythm of REM/NREM alternation.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is an important component of the natural sleep/wake cycle, yet the mechanisms that regulate REM sleep remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum have been implicated in REM sleep regulation, but lesions of this area have had varying effects on REM sleep. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) in REM sleep generation. Selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during non-REM (NREM) sleep increased the number of REM sleep episodes and did not change REM sleep episode duration. Activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during NREM sleep was sufficient to induce REM sleep.
Project description:Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism.
Project description:Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening. Electroencephalographic markers of learning extracted during sleep confirm a dissociation between sleep facilitating memory formation (light NREM and REM sleep) and sleep suppressing learning (deep NREM sleep). We can trace these neural changes back to transient sleep events, such as spindles for memory facilitation and slow waves for suppression. Thus, highly selective memory processes are active during human sleep, with intertwined episodes of facilitative and suppressive plasticity.Though memory and sleep are related, it is still unclear whether new memories can be formed during sleep. Here, authors show that people could learn new sounds during REM or light non-REM sleep, but that learning was suppressed when sounds were played during deep NREM sleep.
Project description:Sleep is traditionally constituted of two global behavioral states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM), characterized by quiescence and reduced responsiveness to sensory stimuli . NREM sleep is distinguished by slow waves and spindles throughout the cerebral cortex and REM sleep by an "activated," low-voltage fast electroencephalogram (EEG) paradoxically similar to that of wake, accompanied by rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. However, recent evidence has shown that cortical activity patterns during wake and NREM sleep are not as global as previously thought. Local slow waves can appear in various cortical regions in both awake humans  and rodents [3-5]. Intracranial recordings in humans  and rodents [4, 7] have shown that NREM sleep slow waves most often involve only a subset of brain regions that varies from wave to wave rather than occurring near synchronously across all cortical areas. Moreover, some cortical areas can transiently "wake up"  in an otherwise sleeping brain. Yet until now, cortical activity during REM sleep was thought to be homogenously wake-like. We show here, using local laminar recordings in freely moving mice, that slow waves occur regularly during REM sleep, but only in primary sensory and motor areas and mostly in layer 4, the main target of relay thalamic inputs, and layer 3. This finding may help explain why, during REM sleep, we remain disconnected from the environment even though the bulk of the cortex shows wake-like, paradoxical activation.