Reactivity of superoxide radical anion with cyclic nitrones: role of intramolecular H-bond and electrostatic effects.
ABSTRACT: Limitations exist among the commonly used cyclic nitrone spin traps for biological free radical detection using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The design of new spin traps for biological free radical detection and identification using EPR spectroscopy has been a major challenge due to the lack of systematic and rational approaches to their design. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and stopped-flow kinetics were employed to predict the reactivity of functionalized spin traps with superoxide radical anion (O2*-). Functional groups provide versatility and can potentially improve spin-trap reactivity, adduct stability, and target specificity. The effect of functional group substitution at the C-5 position of pyrroline N-oxides on spin-trap reactivity toward O2*- was computationally rationalized at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) and PCM/mPW1K/6-31+G(d,p) levels of theory. Calculated free energies and rate constants for the reactivity of O2*- with model nitrones were found to correlate with the experimentally obtained rate constants using stopped-flow and EPR spectroscopic methods. New insights into the nucleophilic nature of O2*- addition to nitrones as well as the role of intramolecular hydrogen bonding of O2*- in facilitating this reaction are discussed. This study shows that using an N-monoalkylsubstituted amide or an ester as attached groups on the nitrone can be ideal in molecular tethering for improved spin-trapping properties and could pave the way for improved in vivo radical detection at the site of superoxide formation.
Project description:Nitrone spin traps have been employed as probes for the identification of transient radical species in chemical and biological systems using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and have exhibited pharmacological activity against oxidative-stress-mediated diseases. Since superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) is a major precursor to most reactive oxygen species and calixpyrroles have been shown to exhibit high affinity to anions, a cyclic nitrone conjugate of calixpyrrole (CalixMPO) was designed, synthesized, and characterized. Computational studies at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level suggest a pendant-type linkage between the calixpyrrole and the nitrone to be the most efficient design for spin trapping of O2(•-), giving exoergic reaction enthalpies (?H(298K,aq)) and free energies (?G(298K,aq)) of -16.9 and -2.1 kcal/mol, respectively. (1)H NMR study revealed solvent-dependent conformational changes in CalixMPO leading to changes in the electronic properties of the nitronyl group upon H-bonding with the pyrrole groups as also confirmed by calculations. CalixMPO spin trapping of O2(•-) exhibited robust EPR spectra. Kinetic analysis of O2(•-) adduct formation and decay in polar aprotic solvents using UV-vis stopped-flow and EPR methods gave a larger trapping rate constant for CalixMPO and a longer half-life for its O2(•-) adduct compared to the commonly used nitrones. The unusually high reactivity of CalixMPO with O2(•-) was rationalized to be due to the synergy between the ?-effect and electrostatic effect by the calixpyrrole moiety on O2(•-) and the nitrone, respectively. This work demonstrates for the first time the application of an anion receptor for the detection of one of the most important radical intermediates in biological and chemical systems (i.e., O2(•-)).
Project description:Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO(2)), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and nitrosoperoxycarbonate (ONOOCO(2)(-)) are among the most damaging species present in biological systems due to their ability to cause modification of key biomolecular systems through oxidation, nitrosylation, and nitration. Nitrone spin traps are known to react with free radicals and nonradicals via electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions and have been employed as reagents to detect radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and as pharmacological agents against oxidative stress-mediated injury. This study examines the reactivity of cyclic nitrones such as 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) with (•)NO(2), ONOO(-), ONOOCO(2)(-), SNAP, and SIN-1 using EPR. The thermochemistries of nitrone reactivity with RNS and isotropic hfsc's of the addition products were also calculated at the PCM(water)/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory with and without explicit water molecules to rationalize the nature of the observed EPR spectra. Spin trapping of other RNS such as azide ((•)N(3)), nitrogen trioxide ((•)NO(3)), amino ((•)NH(2)) radicals and nitroxyl (HNO) were also theoretically and experimentally investigated by EPR spin trapping and mass spectrometry. This study also shows that other spin traps such as 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-pyrroline N-oxide, 5-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-pyrroline N-oxide, and 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide can react with radical and nonradical RNS, thus making spin traps suitable probes as well as antioxidants against RNS-mediated oxidative damage.
Project description:The unique ability of nitrone spin traps to detect and characterize transient free radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has fueled the development of new spin traps with improved properties. Among a variety of free radicals in chemical and biological systems, superoxide radical anion (O(2)(•-)) plays a critical role as a precursor to other more oxidizing species such as hydroxyl radical (HO(•)), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and therefore the direct detection of O(2)(•-) is important. To overcome the limitations of conventional cyclic nitrones, that is, poor reactivity with O(2)(•-), instability of the O(2)(•-) adduct, and poor cellular target specificity, synthesis of disubstituted nitrones has become attractive. Disubstituted nitrones offer advantages over the monosubstituted ones because they allow bifunctionalization of spin traps, therefore accommodating all the desired spin trap properties in one molecular design. However, because of the high number of possible disubstituted analogues as candidate, a systematic computational study is needed to find leads for the optimal spin trap design for biconjugation. In this paper, calculation of the energetics of O(2)(•-) and HO(2)(•) adduct formation from various disubstituted nitrones at PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was performed to determine the most favorable disubstituted nitrones for this reaction. In addition, our results provided general trends of radical reactivity that is dependent upon but not exclusive to the charge densities of nitronyl-C, the position of substituents including stereoselectivities, and the presence of intramolecular H-bonding interaction. Unusually high exoergic ?G(298K,aq)'s for O(2)(•-) and HO(2)(•) adduct formation were predicted for (3S,5S)-5-methyl-3,5-bis(methylcarbamoyl)-1-pyrroline N-oxide (11-cis) and (4S,5S)-5-dimethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-4-ethoxycarbonyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (29-trans) with ?G(298K,aq) = -3.3 and -9.4 kcal/mol, respectively, which are the most exoergic ?G(298K,aq) observed thus far for any nitrone at the level of theory employed in this study.
Project description:In this work, a series of ?-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrones bearing one, two, or three substituents on the tert-butyl group was synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to investigate their electrochemical properties and showed a more pronounced substituent effect for oxidation than for reduction. Rate constants of superoxide radical (O2(•-)) reactions with nitrones were determined using a UV-vis stopped-flow method, and phenyl radical (Ph(•)) trapping rate constants were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The effect of N-tert-butyl substitution on the charge density and electron density localization of the nitronyl carbon as well as on the free energies of nitrone reactivity with O2(•-) and HO2(•) were computationally rationalized at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Theoretical and experimental data showed that the rates of the reaction correlate with the nitronyl carbon charge density, suggesting a nucleophilic nature of O2(•-) and Ph(•) addition to the nitronyl carbon atom. Finally, the substituent effect was investigated in cell cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide and a correlation between the cell viability and the oxidation potential of the nitrones was observed. Through a combination of computational methodologies and experimental methods, new insights into the reactivity of free radicals with nitrone derivatives have been proposed.
Project description:Nitrone spin traps are commonly employed as probes for the identification of transient radicals in chemical and biological systems using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Nitrones have also found applications as therapeutic agent in the treatment of radical-mediated diseases. Therefore, a spin trap that incorporates high reactivity to superoxide radical anion (O2(*-)), more persistent superoxide adduct, enhanced bioavailability, and selective targeting in one molecular design is desirable. In this work, the synthesis of a nitrone spin trap, 4, that is tethered via amide bonds to a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and a dodecyl chain was achieved with the expectation that the beta-cyclodextrin would lead to increased reactivity to O2(*-) and persistent O2(*-) adduct while the lipophilic chain would impart membrane targeting property. The two constitutional racemic isomers, 4a and 4b, were separated using preparative HPLC, and structural analysis and self-aggregation properties were carried out using NMR, induced circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and computational approach. EPR spin trapping of O2(*-) by 4a and 4b was only successful in DMSO and not in an aqueous system, due most likely to the amphiphilic character of 4 that can favor conformations (or aggregation) hindering radical addition to nitrone. Kinetics of formation and decay of the 4a-O2H adduct in polar aprotic solvents show faster reactivity to O2(*-) and more persistent O2(*-) adduct compared to nitrones not conjugated to beta-CD. Computational analysis of 4a and 4b as well as 4a-OOH and 4b-OOH adducts were carried out, and results show that isomerism, both constitutional and stereochemical, affects the orientations of aminoxyl-NO and/or hydroperoxyl groups relative to the beta-CD annulus for optimal H-bond interaction and stability.
Project description:Nitrones are potential synthetic antioxidants against the reduction of radical-mediated oxidative damage in cells and as analytical reagents for the identification of HO2* and other such transient species. In this work, the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) and PCM/mPW1K/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) methods were employed to predict the reactivity of HO2* with various functionalized nitrones as spin traps. The calculated second-order rate constants and free energies of reaction at both levels of theory were in the range of 100-103 M-1 s-1 and 1 to -12 kcal mol-1, respectively, and the rate constants for some nitrones are on the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally. The trend in HO2* reactivity to nitrones could not be explained solely on the basis of the relationship of the theoretical positive charge densities on the nitronyl-C, with their respective ionization potentials, electron affinities, rate constants, or free energies of reaction. However, various modes of intramolecular H-bonding interaction were observed at the transition state (TS) structures of HO2* addition to nitrones. The presence of intramolecular H-bonding interactions in the transition states were predicted and may play a significant role toward a facile addition of HO2* to nitrones. In general, HO2* addition to ethoxycarbonyl- and spirolactam-substituted nitrones, as well as those nitrones without electron-withdrawing substituents, such as 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and 5-spirocyclopentyl-pyrroline N-oxide (CPPO), are most preferred compared to the methylcarbamoyl-substituted nitrones. This study suggests that the use of specific spin traps for efficient trapping of HO2* could pave the way toward improved radical detection and antioxidant protection.
Project description:Spin trapping of hydroperoxyl radical (HOO.) by the amide-linked conjugate of 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (AMPO) to ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was studied computationally using a two-layered ONIOM method. From a conformational perspective, the "internal" conformation of 5R-?-CD-AMPO is more favored than the "external" conformation in which the nitrone is located outside of the cavity of the ?-CD. When the HOO. addition product is formed, the most stable isomer has the nitroxyl (N1-O1) moiety pointing inside the cavity of the ?-CD. Thus, this "internal" conformation might protect the N1-O1 moiety of the resulting spin adduct from access by reducing agents, thereby improving the lifetime of the radical adduct. The computed energetic barrier for HOO. addition to the 5R-?-CD-AMPO is 8.7 kcal/mol, which is marginally smaller than spin trapping by the non-conjugated AMPO (that is, without the ?-CD). To optimize the reactivity of the ?-CD-AMPO conjugate, the effect of a spacer unit between the AMPO segment and the ?-CD moiety with varying methylene units, (CH2) n (n = 1, 2, 3), on the energetics of HOO. addition was evaluated. The structure with only one methylene spacer (n = 1) appears to be optimal as determined by the smaller activation barrier (6.2 kcal/mol) for HOO. addition to the nitrone moiety. Compared with very time-consuming quantum mechanical methods, the ONIOM method appears to offer significant advantages for evaluation of the best ?-CD-AMPO conjugate for trapping of such reactive oxygen species and providing for the rational design of novel nitrones as spin traps.
Project description:Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), sulfite (SO(3)(2-)), sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO(3)(•-) and SO(4)(•-). The thermochemistries of SO(2)(•-), SO(3)(•-), SO(4)(•-), and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO(2)(•-) by EPR, but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO(3)(•-)and an O-centered adduct for SO(4)(•-). Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc's with theoretical values. The thermodynamics of the nonradical addition of SO(3)(2-) and HSO(3)(-) to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H(2)(17)O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism.
Project description:Spin trapping has been commonly employed in the detection of superoxide radical anion in chemical and biological systems; hence, accurate interpretation of the hyperfine splitting constants (hfsc's) arising from the O(2)(*-) adducts (also referred to as hydroperoxyl (HO(2)(*)) radical adducts) of various nitrones is important. In this work, the nature of the relevant hfsc's was investigated by examining the effect of conformational changes in the hydroperoxyl moiety of the O(2)(*-) adducts of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 5-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (EMPO), 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DEPMPO), 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (AMPO), and 7-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.4]non-1-en-6-one N-oxide, (CPCOMPO) on the magnitude of a(N), a(beta-H), and a(gamma-H). Conformational change around the substituents and their effect on the hfsc's were also explored. Results indicate that a(beta-H) is most sensitive to conformational changes of the hydroperoxyl and substituent groups relative to hfsc's of other nuclei. The orbital overlap between the C-H sigma-orbital and the SOMO of the nitroxyl nitrogen plays a crucial factor in determining the magnitude of the a(beta-H). The hfsc values for the O(2)(*-) adducts were predicted with high accuracy by using a low-cost computational method at the PCM(water)/BHandHLYP/EPR-III//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory without taking into account the explicit water interaction.
Project description:We report here the detection and characterization of spin adducts formed from the trapping of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydroxyl radicals) and glutathiyl and carbon-centered radicals by a newly synthesized nitrone, Mito-DEPMPO. This is a cationic nitrone spin trap with a triphenyl phosphonium cation conjugated to the DEPMPO analogue. The Mito-DEPMPO-OOH adduct, formed from the trapping of superoxide by Mito-DEPMPO, was enzymatically generated using xanthine/xanthine oxidase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and chemically generated by KO2 in 18-crown-6. The Mito-DEPMPO-OOH adduct exhibits an eight-line EPR spectrum with partial asymmetry arising from the alternate line-width effect. The half-life of the Mito-DEPMPO-OOH adduct is 2-2.5-times greater than that of the DEPMPO-OOH. The Mito-DEPMPO-SG adduct, formed from the trapping of glutathiyl radicals by Mito-DEPMPO, is 3-times more persistent than the analogue DEPMPO-SG adduct. In this study, we describe the EPR characterization of spin adducts formed from Mito-DEPMPO. The EPR parameters of Mito-DEPMPO adducts are distinctly different and highly characteristic. The detection of superoxide from an intact mitochondrion was feasible with Mito-DEPMPO but not with DEPMPO. We conclude that Mito-DEPMPO nitrone and its analogues are more effective than most nitrone spin traps for trapping superoxide, hydroxyl, and thiyl radicals formed in biological systems, including mitochondria.