Ultra-brief intervention for problem drinkers: research protocol.
ABSTRACT: Helping the large number of problem drinkers who will never seek treatment is a challenging issue. Public health initiatives employing educational materials or mass media campaigns have met with mixed success. However, clinical research has developed effective brief interventions to help problem drinkers. This project will employ an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as a public health intervention. The major objective of this study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial to establish the effectiveness of an ultra-brief, personalized feedback intervention for problem drinkers.Problem drinkers recruited on a baseline population telephone survey conducted in a major metropolitan city in Canada will be randomized to one of three conditions - a personalized feedback pamphlet condition, a control pamphlet condition, or a no intervention control condition. In the week after the baseline survey, households in the two pamphlet conditions will be sent their respective pamphlets. Changes in drinking will be assessed post intervention at three-month and six-month follow-ups. Drinking outcomes will be compared between experimental conditions using Structural Equation Modeling. The primary hypothesis is that problem drinkers from households who receive the personalized feedback pamphlet intervention will display significantly improved drinking outcomes at three and six-month follow-ups as compared to problem drinkers from households in the no intervention control condition. Secondary hypotheses will test the impact of the intervention on help seeking, and explore the mediating or moderating role of perceived drinking norms, perceived alcohol risks and the problem drinker's social reasons for drinking.This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of a pamphlet-based personalized feedback intervention for problem drinkers in a community setting.ClinicalTrials.gov registration #NCT00688584.
Project description:There are a number of evidence-based, in-person clinical inteventions for problem drinkers, but most problem drinkers will never seek such treatments. Reaching the population of non-treatment seeking problem drinkers will require a different approach. Accordingly, this randomized clinical trial evaluated an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as an indicated public health intervention (i.e., targeting the population of non-treatment seeking problem drinkers).Problem drinkers (N?=?1767) completed a baseline population telephone survey and then were randomized to one of three conditions - a personalized feedback pamphlet condition, a control pamphlet condition, or a no intervention control condition. In the week after the baseline survey, households in the two pamphlet conditions were sent their respective interventions by postal mail addressed to 'Check Your Drinking.' Changes in drinking were assessed post intervention at three-month and six-month follow-ups. The follow-up rate was 86% at three-months and 76% at six-months. There was a small effect (p?=?.04) in one of three outcome variables (reduction in AUDIT-C, a composite measure of quantity and frequency of drinking) observed for the personalized feedback pamphlet compared to the no intervention control. No significant differences (p>.05) between groups were observed for the other two outcome variables - number of drinks consumed in the past seven days and highest number of drinks on one occasion.Based on the results of this study, we tentatively conclude that a brief intervention, modified to an ultra-brief, public health format can have a meaningful impact.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688584.
Project description:The literature shows that computer-delivered interventions with personalized normative feedback can reduce problem drinking for up to 6 months in the West. Meanwhile, no studies have been conducted to examine the effects of such interventions among Japanese problem drinkers. Possible moderators associated with effectiveness of the intervention need to be also explored.The purpose of this study is to conduct a trial and examine the efficacy of a brief intervention with personal normative feedback and psychoeducation on several measures of alcohol consumption among Japanese problem drinkers. Additionally, this study will examine whether the level of alcohol use disorder and beliefs about the physical and psychological outcomes of drinking moderate the effect of the intervention on outcome measures.This study will conduct a single-blind, 2-armed randomized controlled trial. Japanese adults with an Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score of 8 or higher will be enrolled in the trial. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive the intervention immediately after the baseline measurements, and participants allocated to the waitlist group will receive the intervention at the end of the trial. Outcome measures include drinking quantity, drinking frequency, and alcohol-related consequences. Follow-up assessment will take place at 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months following the baseline measurement. The authors will not know the group allocation during trial. The authors will plan to collect a sample of 600 participants. Mixed-effect analyses of variance will be used to examine the main effects of condition, the main effects of time, and the interaction effects between condition and time on outcome variables.Enrollment for the trial began on January 6, 2018 and data are expected to be available by August 2018.This study will contribute to the literature by demonstrating the efficacy of Web-based screenings and brief interventions among Japanese problem drinkers and indicating several possible moderators between the intervention and outcomes. This type of Web-based brief intervention has the possibility of being implemented in Japanese schools and workplaces as a prevention tool.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry R000034388; https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi? recptno=R000034388 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xmOoTfTI).RR1-10.2196/10650.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The present study attempted to determine whether behavioral economic indices of elevated alcohol reward value, measured before and immediately after a brief alcohol intervention, predict treatment response. METHOD:Participants were 133 heavy drinking college students (49.6% female, 51.4% male; 64.3% Caucasian, 29.5% African American) who were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: motivational interviewing plus personalized feedback (brief motivational interventions; BMI), computerized personalized feedback intervention (electronic check-up to go; e-CHUG), and assessment only. RESULTS:Baseline level of alcohol demand intensity (maximum consumption) significantly predicted drinks per week and alcohol problems at 1-month follow-up and baseline relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol significantly predicted drinks per week and alcohol problems at 6-month follow-up. BMI and e-CHUG were associated with an immediate postsession reduction in alcohol demand (p < .001, ?p2 = .29) that persisted at the 1-month follow-up, with greater postsession reductions in the BMI condition (p = .02, ?p2 = .06). Reductions in demand intensity and Omax (maximum expenditure) immediately postintervention significantly predicted drinking reductions at 1-month follow up (p = .04, ?R2 = .02, and p = .01, ?R2 = .03, respectively). Reductions in relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol at 1-month significantly predicted drinking (p = .002, ?R2 = .06,) and alcohol problem (p < .001, ?R2 = .13) reductions at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that behavioral economic reward value indices may function as risk factors for poor intervention response and as clinically relevant markers of change in heavy drinkers.
Project description:Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups.To test whether a fully automated Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention and a fully automated Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention in a non-treatment-seeking population of heavy drinkers would result in a reduced alcohol intake.We conducted a 3-arm parallel randomized controlled trial in a general population-based sample of heavy drinkers. The 54,157 participants (median age of 58 years) were screened for heavy drinking. Of the 3418 participants who had a weekly alcohol consumption above 14 drinks for women and 21 drinks for men, 1380 (619 women) consented to take part in the trial and were randomly assigned to an Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention group (normative feedback, n = 476), an Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention group (n = 450), or a nonintervention control group (n = 454). Follow-up after 6 and 12 months included 871 and 1064 participants, respectively, of all groups combined. The outcome measure was self-reported weekly alcohol consumption. We analyzed the data according to the intention-to-treat principle. To examine changes over time and to account for the multiple time measurements, we used a multilevel linear mixed model. To take attrition into account, we used multiple imputation to address missing data.The intervention effect of the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention, determined as the mean additional difference in changes in alcohol consumption in the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention compared with the control group, was -1.8 drinks/week after 6 months and -1.4 drinks/week after 12 months; these effects were nonsignificant (95% confidence interval -4.0 to 0.3 at 6 months, -3.4 to 0.6 at 12 months). The intervention effect of the Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention was -0.5 drinks/week after 6 months and -1.2 drinks/week after 12 months; these effects were nonsignificant (95% confidence interval -2.7 to 1.6 at 6 months, -3.3 to 0.9 at 12 months).In this randomized controlled trial we found no evidence that an Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention was effective in reducing drinking in an adult population of heavy drinkers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00751985; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00751985 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/68WCRLyaP).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problematic drinking among emerging adult college students is extensive. Computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) have strong appeal because they can be quickly delivered to large numbers of students. Although they are efficacious in the short term, CDIs are not as efficacious as in-person interventions longer term. This study examined the utility of emailed boosters containing personalized feedback after a CDI to enhance and extend reductions among emerging adult college drinkers. Sex and age were explored as potential moderators. METHODS:Participants were 537 college students (67.4% female) aged 18 to 24 years (M age = 19.65, SD = 1.67) who consumed at least 1 alcoholic drink in the past 2 weeks. They were randomly assigned to CDI-only, CDI + booster email, or an assessment-only control condition, and were assessed up to 9 months postintervention. A booster email with personalized feedback was sent to the CDI + booster email group 2 weeks after completion of the CDI. RESULTS:Moderation findings for age revealed that the booster may be an effective means to strengthen and extend intervention effects for emerging adults who are of legal drinking age. However, effects were negligible for underage drinkers. Although the booster effect for the overall sample demonstrated a trend in the expected direction, it failed to reach significance. Booster effects were not significantly moderated by sex. Intervention effects were not moderated by either age or sex. CONCLUSIONS:The present investigation contributes to a limited body of research on boosters to augment main intervention effects in college drinkers. Our study demonstrated that a brief CDI plus a simple email booster with personalized feedback resulted in significant reductions in drinking outcomes for emerging adults of legal drinking age. Efforts to further develop and refine intervention booster strategies represent a promising future direction to minimize harmful drinking among college students.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among high school seniors. METHOD:Participants (n = 221) were high school seniors randomized by class period to either a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) or an assessment-only control group. Participants completed online surveys at baseline and at a 6-week follow-up. RESULTS:Students participating in the eCHECKUP TO GO intervention reported a significant reduction in weekly drinking quantity, peak drinking quantity, and frequency of drinking to intoxication relative to those in the control group. Intervention effects were moderated by high-risk status (one or more episodes of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks reported at baseline) such that intervention effects were significant for high-risk students only. Results for alcohol-related consequences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS:Providing a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention in the school setting is a promising approach for reducing problem alcohol use among high school seniors who report recent heavy episodic drinking.
Project description:There is a growing body of evidence indicating that web-based personalized feedback interventions can reduce the amount of alcohol consumed in problem drinking college students. This study sought to evaluate whether providing voluntary access to such an intervention would have an impact on drinking.College students responded to an email inviting them to participate in a short drinking survey. Those meeting criteria for risky drinking (and agreeing to participate in a follow-up) were randomized to an intervention condition where they were offered to participate in a web-based personalized feedback intervention or to a control condition (intervention not offered). Participants were followed-up at six weeks.A total of 425 participants were randomized to condition and 68% (n = 290) completed the six-week follow-up. No significant difference in drinking between conditions was observed.Web-based personalized feedback interventions that are offered to students on a voluntary basis may not have a measurable impact on problem drinking.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01521078.
Project description:To examine the impact of a web-based personalized feedback intervention, the Check Your Drinking (CYD; www.CheckYourDrinking.net) screener at 12-month follow-up.Respondents (N = 185) were recruited from a general population telephone survey of Ontario, Canadian adults (> or =18 years) by asking risky drinkers if they were willing to help develop and evaluate Internet-based interventions for drinkers. Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition were provided with the web address and a unique password to a study-specific copy of the CYD. Respondents assigned to the control condition were sent a written description of the different components of the CYD and asked how useful they thought each of the components might be. Respondents were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months.By the 12-month follow-up, the impact of the intervention previously reported at 3 and 6 months of CYD on problem drinkers' alcohol consumption was no longer apparent (P > 0.05).Recognizing that many people with alcohol concerns will never seek treatment, recent years have seen an increase in efforts to find ways to take treatment to problem drinkers. The CYD is one such intervention that has a demonstrated effect on reducing alcohol consumption in the short term (i.e. 6 months). Other more intensive Internet-based interventions or interventions via other modalities may enhance this positive outcome over the short and long term among problem drinkers who would be otherwise unlikely to access treatment for their alcohol concerns.
Project description:Personalized feedback is a promising self-help for problem gamblers. Such interventions have shown consistently positive results with other addictive behaviours, and our own pilot test of personalized normative feedback materials for gamblers yielded positive findings. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness, and the sustained efficacy, of the personalized feedback intervention materials for problem gamblers.Respondents recruited by a general population telephone screener of Ontario adults included gamblers with moderate and severe gambling problems. Those who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to receive: 1) the full personalized normative feedback intervention; 2) a partial feedback that contained all the feedback information provided to those in condition 1 but without the normative feedback content (i.e., no comparisons provided to general population gambling norms); or 3) a waiting list control condition. The primary hypothesis was that problem gamblers who received the personalized normative feedback intervention would reduce their gambling more than problem gamblers who did not receive any intervention (waiting list control condition) by the six-month follow-up.The study found no evidence for the impact of normative personalized feedback. However, participants who received, the partial feedback (without norms) reduced the number of days they gambled compared to participants who did not receive the intervention. We concluded that personalized feedback interventions were well received and the materials may be helpful at reducing gambling. Realistically, it can be expected that the personalized feedback intervention may have a limited, short term impact on the severity of participants' problem gambling because the intervention is just a brief screener. An Internet-based version of the personalized feedback intervention tool, however, may offer an easy to access and non-threatening portal that can be used to motivate participants to seek further help online or in person.ClinicalTrials.govNCT00578357.
Project description:Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) proposes that individuals regulate their behavior to be in line with the behaviors of others. Specifically, individuals desire to stand out in positive way and not stand out in a negative way. DRT has been successfully applied to encourage other health behaviors and offers a unique method to utilize both injunctive norms in combination with descriptive norms in brief alcohol interventions. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a computer-delivered, norms-based personalized feedback intervention which systematically varied the focus on whether specific drinking behaviors were described as common or uncommon (a descriptive norm), whether the drinking behaviors were healthy versus unhealthy, and whether the drinking behaviors were positively or negatively framed (an injunctive norm). Nine-hundred and fifty-nine college drinkers completed baseline, three-month, and six-month follow-up assessments. Results indicated messages focusing on unhealthy drinking behaviors, particularly when described as uncommon, were most effective in reducing drinking and alcohol-related problems over time. This research utilizes deviance regulation theory as a way of improving personalized normative feedback by elucidating how to construct messages for brief interventions based on descriptive characteristics associated with specific target drinking behaviors in combination with perceptions of prevalence and acceptability of such drinking behaviors (an injunctive norm).