Intramolecular cyclohexadienone annulations of Fischer carbene complexes: model studies for the synthesis of Phomactins.
ABSTRACT: The intramolecular cyclohexadienone annulation of chromium carbene complexes is examined as a method to provide general access to the Phomactin family of natural products. The importance of the stereochemistry of the carbene complex and the number of carbons in the tether connecting the carbene complex and the alkyne are probed. Additionally, the degree of the 1,4-asymmetric induction is examined.
Project description:The venerable Hauser-Kraus annulation is an effective and convergent method for generating oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds. Despite its application in complex molecule synthesis, the harsh and strongly basic conditions can limit its utility in more functionalized molecular settings. We have developed the first catalytic Hauser-Kraus annulation based on N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis that proceeds under milder conditions. We demonstrate the scope of the transformation in the presence of several functional groups. We also propose a concerted mechanism for the annulation that proceeds through a non-canonical Breslow intermediate.
Project description:Chromium Fischer carbene complexes with trans,trans-dienyl substituents on the carbene carbon will react with diiron nonacarbonyl to give 2-alkoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone iron tricarbonyl complexes and/or 2-alkoxyphenols in excellent yields. In the presence of silica gel or base, the cyclohexadienone complex will suffer loss of the iron and aromatization to give 2-alkoxyphenols. The formation of 2-alkoxyphenols from dienyl chromium carbene complexes is a known process (ortho-benzannulation) that only occurs with certain cis,trans-dienyl complexes. Control experiments show that trans,trans-dienyl chromium carbene complexes do not undergo conversion to 2-alkoxyphenols in the absence of an iron source. The process most likely occurs either via coordination of the dienyl unit in the chromium carbene complex to an iron tricarbonyl group and then loss of the chromium or via direct trans-metalation of the carbene ligand to give an iron carbene complex and then internal coordination to the dienyl unit such that cis to trans isomerization of the alpha,beta-double bond occurs.
Project description:A direct decarboxylative strategy for the generation of aza-o-quinone methides (aza-o-QMs) by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis has been discovered and explored. This process requires no stoichiometric additives in contrast with current approaches. Aza-o-QMs react with trifluoromethyl ketones through a formal [4+2] manifold to access highly enantioenriched dihydrobenzoxazin-4-one products, which can be converted to dihydroquinolones through an interesting stereoretentive aza-Petasis-Ferrier rearrangement sequence. Complementary dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) studies provided an accurate prediction of the reaction enantioselectivity and lend further insight to the origins of stereocontrol. Additionally, a computed potential energy surface around the major transition structure suggests a concerted asynchronous mechanism for the formal annulation.
Project description:A combination of a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst and ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde leads to a catalytically generated ?,?-unsaturated acyl azolium, which participates in a highly enantioselective annulation to give dihydropyranone products. This full account of our investigations into the scope and mechanism of this reaction reveals the critical role of both the type and substitution pattern of the chiral triazolium precatalyst in inducing and controlling the stereochemistry. In an effort to explain why stable enols such as naphthol, kojic acid, and dicarbonyl are uniquely efficient, we have postulated that this annulation occurs via a Coates-Claisen rearrangement that invokes the formation of a hemiacetal prior to a sigmatropic rearrangement. Detailed kinetic investigations of the catalytic annulation are consistent with this mechanistic postulate.
Project description:A Rh-catalyzed tandem annulation and (5 + 1) cycloaddition was realized. 3-Hydroxy-1,4-enyne served as the new 5-carbon component for the (5 + 1) cycloaddition. Substituted carbazoles, dibenzofurans, and tricyclic compounds containing a cyclohexadienone moiety could be prepared efficiently. The identification of a byproduct suggests that metal carbene and ketene intermediates may be involved in the (5 + 1) cycloaddition.
Project description:Enantioselective ?-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular ?-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an ?-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using ?-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development.
Project description:Add acetic acid: A highly stereoselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed formal [4+2] annulation between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and imidazolidinones for the synthesis of imidazoles has been developed. Acetic acid serves as a key additive to achieve high chemoselectivity for the formal [4+2]?annulation product.
Project description:A dual activation strategy integrating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis and a second Lewis base has been developed. NHC-bound homoenolate equivalents derived from ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes combine with transient reactive o-quinone methides in an enantioselective formal [4 + 3] fashion to access 2-benzoxopinones. The overall approach provides a general blueprint for the integration of carbene catalysis with additional Lewis base activation modes.
Project description:Cycloisomerizations of 1,n-enynes catalyzed by gold(I) proceed via electrophilic species with a highly distorted cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like structure, which can react with different nucleophiles to form a wide variety of products by attack at the cyclopropane or the carbene carbons. Particularly important are reactions in which the gold(I) carbene reacts with alkenes to form cyclopropanes either intra- or intermolecularly. In the absence of nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes lead to a variety of cycloisomerized products including those resulting from skeletal rearrangements. Reactions proceeding through cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates are ideally suited for the bioinspired synthesis of terpenoid natural products by the selective activation of the alkyne in highly functionalized enynes or polyenynes.
Project description:The highly enantioselective NHC-catalyzed [3+2] annulation reaction with ?,?-alkynals and ?-ketoesters has been developed. A new mode of cooperative catalysis involving the combination of a chiral Brønsted acid and a C1-symmetric biaryl saturated-imidazolium precatalyst was required to generate the desired ?-crotonolactones in high yields and levels of enantioselectivity.