Vasopressin-stimulated increase in phosphorylation at Ser269 potentiates plasma membrane retention of aquaporin-2.
ABSTRACT: Vasopressin controls water excretion through regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking in renal collecting duct cells. Using mass spectrometry, we previously demonstrated four phosphorylated serines (Ser256, Ser261, Ser264, and Ser269) in the carboxyl-terminal tail of rat AQP2. Here, we used phospho-specific antibodies and protein mass spectrometry to investigate the roles of vasopressin and cyclic AMP in the regulation of phosphorylation at Ser269 and addressed the role of this site in AQP2 trafficking. The V2 receptor-specific vasopressin analog dDAVP increased Ser(P)269-AQP2 abundance more than 10-fold, but at a rate much slower than the corresponding increase in Ser256 phosphorylation. Vasopressin-mediated changes in phosphorylation at both sites were mimicked by cAMP addition and inhibited by protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists. In vitro kinase assays, however, demonstrated that PKA phosphorylates Ser256, but not Ser269. Phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269 did not occur when Ser256 was replaced by an unphosphorylatable amino acid, as seen in both S256L-AQP2 mutant mice and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S256A mutant, suggesting that Ser269 phosphorylation depends upon prior phosphorylation at Ser256. Immunogold electron microscopy localized Ser(P)269-AQP2 solely in the apical plasma membrane of rat collecting duct cells, in contrast to the other three phospho-forms (found in both apical plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles). Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S269D "phosphomimic" AQP2 mutant showed constitutive localization at the plasma membrane. The data support a model in which vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269:(a) depends on prior PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 and (b) enhances apical plasma membrane retention of AQP2.
Project description:The action of vasopressin in rodent collecting ducts to regulate water permeability depends in part on increases in phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at three sites: Ser256, Ser264, and Ser269. Previous studies of AQP2 phosphorylation have depended largely on qualitative data using protein mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies. Here, we use a new method employing phospho-specific antibodies to determine the percentage of total AQP2 phosphorylated at each site in the presence and absence of the V2-receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP in rat renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and cultured mpkCCD cells. Phosphorylation of Ser269, a site previously implicated in plasma membrane retention, was found to increase from 3 to 26% of total AQP2 in rat IMCD cells following dDAVP. Quantification of immunogold labeling of the opposite kidneys from the same rats estimated that 11% of total AQP2 is present in the apical plasma membrane (APM) without injection of dDAVP and 25% is present in the APM after dDAVP. Surprisingly, the baseline level of Ser256 phosphorylation was constitutively high, and there was no increase with dDAVP (confirmed in 2 more sets of rats). In general, Ser264 phosphorylation remained below 5% of total. The pattern of response was similar in cultured mpkCCD cells (large increase in Ser269 phosphorylation following dDAVP, but constitutively high levels of Ser256 phosphorylation). We suggest from these studies that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation.
Project description:The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for urine concentration. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation of AQP2 at four conserved serine residues at the COOH-terminal tail (S256, S261, S264, and S269). We used numerous stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cell models, replacing serine residues with either alanine (A), which prevents phosphorylation, or aspartic acid (D), which mimics the charged state of phosphorylated AQP2, to address whether phosphorylation is involved in regulation of (i) apical plasma membrane abundance of AQP2, (ii) internalization of AQP2, (iii) AQP2 protein-protein interactions, and (iv) degradation of AQP2. Under control conditions, S256D- and 269D-AQP2 mutants had significantly greater apical plasma membrane abundance compared to wild type (WT)-AQP2. Activation of adenylate cyclase significantly increased the apical plasma membrane abundance of all S-A or S-D AQP2 mutants with the exception of 256D-AQP2, although 256A-, 261A-, and 269A-AQP2 mutants increased to a lesser extent than WT-AQP2. Biotin internalization assays and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the internalization of 256D- and 269D-AQP2 from the plasma membrane was slower than WT-AQP2. The slower internalization corresponded with reduced interaction of S256D- and 269D-AQP2 with several proteins involved in endocytosis, including Hsp70, Hsc70, dynamin, and clathrin heavy chain. The mutants with the slowest rate of internalization, 256D- and 269D-AQP2, had a greater protein half-life (t(1/2) = 5.1 h and t(1/2) = 4.4 h, respectively) compared to WT-AQP2 (t(1/2) = 2.9 h). Our results suggest that vasopressin-mediated membrane accumulation of AQP2 can be controlled via regulated exocytosis and endocytosis in a process that is dependent on COOH terminal phosphorylation and subsequent protein-protein interactions.
Project description:In the renal collecting duct, binding of AVP to the V2 receptor triggers signaling changes that regulate osmotic water transport. Short-term regulation of water transport is dependent on vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at Ser256. The protein kinase that phosphorylates this site is not known. We use Bayes' theorem to rank all 521 rat protein kinases with regard to the likelihood of a role in Ser256 phosphorylation on the basis of prior data and new experimental data. First, prior probabilities were estimated from previous transcriptomic and proteomic profiling data, kinase substrate specificity data, and evidence for kinase regulation by vasopressin. This ranking was updated using new experimental data describing the effects of several small-molecule kinase inhibitors with known inhibitory spectra (H-89, KN-62, KN-93, and GSK-650394) on AQP2 phosphorylation at Ser256 in inner medullary collecting duct suspensions. The top-ranked kinase was Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), followed by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase B (AKT). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based in vitro phosphorylation studies compared the ability of three highly ranked kinases to phosphorylate AQP2 and other inner medullary collecting duct proteins, PKA, CAMK2, and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK). All three proved capable of phosphorylating AQP2 at Ser256, although CAMK2 and PKA were more potent than SGK. The in vitro phosphorylation experiments also identified candidate protein kinases for several additional phosphoproteins with likely roles in collecting duct regulation, including Nedd4-2, Map4k4, and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1. We conclude that Bayes' theorem is an effective means of integrating data from multiple data sets in physiology.
Project description:The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser256, Ser261, Ser264, and Thr269), of which Ser256 is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane. However, whether AQP2 phosphorylation modulates AQP2-LIP5 complex affinity is unknown. Here we used far-Western blot analysis and microscale thermophoresis to show that the AQP2 binds LIP5 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We constructed five phospho-mimicking mutants (S256E, S261E, S264E, T269E, and S256E/T269E) and a C-terminal truncation mutant (?P242) that lacked all phosphorylation sites but retained a previously suggested LIP5-binding site. CD spectroscopy indicated that wild-type AQP2 and the phospho-mimicking mutants had similar overall structure but displayed differences in melting temperatures possibly arising from C-terminal conformational changes. Non-phosphorylated AQP2 bound LIP5 with the highest affinity, whereas AQP2-?P242 had 20-fold lower affinity as determined by microscale thermophoresis. AQP2-S256E, S261E, T269E, and S256E/T269E all had reduced affinity. This effect was most prominent for AQP2-S256E, which fits well with its role in apical membrane targeting. AQP2-S264E had affinity similar to non-phosphorylated AQP2, possibly indicating a role in exosome excretion. Our data suggest that AQP2 phosphorylation allosterically controls its interaction with LIP5, illustrating how altered affinities to interacting proteins form the basis for regulation of AQP2 trafficking by post-translational modifications.
Project description:In renal collecting duct (CD) principal cells (PCs), vasopressin (VP) acts through its receptor, V2R, to increase intracellular cAMP leading to phosphorylation and apical membrane accumulation of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2). The trafficking and function of basolaterally located AQP2 is, however, poorly understood. Here we report the successful application of a 3-dimensional Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial model to study polarized AQP2 trafficking. This model recapitulates the luminal architecture of the CD and bi-polarized distribution of AQP2 as seen in kidney. Without stimulation, AQP2 is located in the subapical and basolateral regions. Treatment with VP, forskolin (FK), or 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate (CPT-cAMP) leads to translocation of cytosolic AQP2 to the apical membrane, but not to the basolateral membrane. Treating cells with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (m?CD) to acutely block endocytosis causes accumulation of AQP2 on the basolateral membrane, but not on the apical membrane. Our data suggest that AQP2 may traffic differently at the apical and basolateral domains in this 3D epithelial model. In addition, application of a panel of phosphorylation specific AQP2 antibodies reveals the polarized, subcellular localization of differentially phosphorylated AQP2 at S256, S261, S264 and S269 in the 3D culture model, which is consistent with observations made in the CDs of VP treated animals, suggesting the preservation of phosphorylation dependent regulatory mechanism of AQP2 trafficking in this model. Therefore we have established a 3D culture model for the study of trafficking and regulation of both the apical and basolaterally targeted AQP2. The new model will enable further characterization of the complex mechanism regulating bi-polarized trafficking of AQP2 in vitro.
Project description:Arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-mediated translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein-forming water channels from storage vesicles to the membrane of renal collecting ducts is critical for the renal conservation of water. The type-1 PDZ-binding motif (PBM) in AQP2, "GTKA," is a critical barcode for its translocation, but its precise role and that of its interacting protein partners in this process remain obscure. We determined that synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein involved in establishing epithelial cell polarity, was an avid binding partner to the PBM of AQP2. The role of PBM and SAP97 on AQP2 redistribution in response to AVP was assessed in LLC-PK1 renal collecting cells by confocal microscopy and cell surface biotinylation techniques. These experiments indicated that distribution of AQP2 and SAP97 overlapped in the kidneys and LLC-PK1 cells and that knockdown of SAP97 inhibited the translocation of AQP2 in response to AVP. Binding between AQP2 and SAP97 was mediated by specific interactions between the second PDZ of SAP97 and PBM of AQP2. Mechanistically, inactivation of the PBM of AQP2, global delocalization of PKA, or knockdown of SAP97 inhibited AQP2 translocation as well as AVP- and forskolin-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 in AQP2, which serves as the major translocation barcode of AQP2. These results suggest that the targeting of PKA to the microdomain of AQP2 via SAP97-AQP2 interactions in association with cross-talk between two barcodes in AQP2, namely, the PBM and phospho-Ser256, plays an important role in the translocation of AQP2 in the kidney.
Project description:To regulate mammalian water homeostasis, arginine-vasopressin (AVP) induces phosphorylation and thereby redistribution of renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels from vesicles to the apical membrane. Vice versa, AVP (or forskolin) removal and hormones activating PKC cause AQP2 internalization, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that a fraction of AQP2 is modified with two to three ubiquitin moieties in vitro and in vivo. Mutagenesis revealed that AQP2 is ubiquitinated with one K63-linked chain at K270 only. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, AQP2 ubiquitination occurs preferentially when present in the apical membrane, is transiently increased with forskolin removal or PKC activation, and precedes its internalization. Internalization kinetics assays with wild type (wt) and ubiquitination-deficient (K270R) AQP2 revealed that ubiquitination enhances AQP2 endocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that a translational fusion of AQP2 with ubiquitin (AQP2-Ub) localized particularly to internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), whereas AQP2-K270R largely localized to the apical membrane, early endosomes, and the limiting membrane of MVBs. Consistent with this distribution pattern, lysosomal degradation was extensive for AQP2-Ub, low for AQP2-K270R, and intermediate for wt-AQP2. Our data show that short-chain ubiquitination is involved in the regulated endocytosis, MVB sorting, and degradation of AQP2 and may be the mechanism used by AVP removal and PKC-activating hormones to reduce renal water reabsorption. Moreover, because several other channels are also (short-chain) ubiquitinated, our data suggest that ubiquitination may be a general mediator for the regulated endocytosis and degradation of channels in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Vasopressin binding to the V2 receptor in renal principal cells leads to activation of protein kinase A, phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at Ser256, and the translocation of AQP2 to the apical membrane, resulting in concentration of the urine. In contrast, phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C pathway leads to ubiquitination of AQP2 at Lys270 and its internalization to multivesicular bodies, where it is targeted for lysosomal degradation or stored for recycling. Because little is known about the regulation of AQP2 trafficking, we used the carboxy-terminal tail of constitutively nonphosphorylated AQP2 (S256A) as a bait for interacting proteins in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We isolated lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein 5 (LIP5) and found that LIP5 interacted with the proximal carboxy-terminal tail (L230-D243) of AQP2 in vitro but not with AQP3 or AQP4, which are also expressed in principal cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LIP5 co-localized with AQP2 in principal cells. LIP5 binding occurred independent of the state of Ser256 phosphorylation or Lys270 ubiquitination. LIP5 has been shown to facilitate degradation of the EGF receptor; here, LIP5 seemed to bind this receptor. Knockdown of LIP5 in mouse renal cells (mpkCCD) reduced the phorbol ester-induced degradation of AQP2 approximately two-fold. In summary, LIP5 binds cargo proteins and, considering the role of LIP5 in protein sorting to multivesicular bodies, plays a role in the degradation of AQP2, possibly by reducing the formation of late endosomes.
Project description:Trafficking of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical membrane and its vasopressin and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation in renal collecting ducts is critical for body water homeostasis. We previously identified an AQP2 binding protein complex including actin and tropomyosin-5b (TM5b). We show that dynamic interactions between AQP2 and the actin cytoskeleton are critical for initiating AQP2 apical targeting. Specific binding of AQP2 to G-actin in reconstituted liposomes is negatively regulated by PKA phosphorylation. Dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy reveals local AQP2 interaction with G-actin in live epithelial cells at single-molecule resolution. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling and AQP2 phosphorylation release AQP2 from G-actin. In turn, AQP2 phosphorylation increases its affinity to TM5b, resulting in reduction of TM5b bound to F-actin, subsequently inducing F-actin destabilization. RNA interference-mediated knockdown and overexpression of TM5b confirm its inhibitory role in apical trafficking of AQP2. These findings indicate a novel mechanism of channel protein trafficking, in which the channel protein itself critically regulates local actin reorganization to initiate its movement.
Project description:Fine tuning of urine concentration occurs in the renal collecting duct in response to circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP stimulates intracellular cAMP production, which mediates exocytosis of sub-apical vesicles containing the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein Kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates AQP2 on serine-256 (S256), which triggers plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. This mediates insertion of AQP2 into the apical plasma membrane, increasing water permeability of the collecting duct. AQP2 is a homo-tetramer. When S256 on all four monomers is changed to the phosphomimic aspartic acid (S256D), AQP2-S256D localizes to the plasma membrane and internalization is decreased. In contrast, when S256 is mutated to alanine (S256A) to mimic non-phosphorylated AQP2, AQP2-S256A localizes to intracellular vesicles as well as the plasma membrane, with increased internalization from the plasma membrane. S256 phosphorylation is not necessary for exocytosis and dephosphorylation is not necessary for endocytosis, however, the degree of S256 phosphorylation is hypothesized to regulate the kinetics of AQP2 endocytosis and thus, retention time in the plasma membrane. Using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS), we determined how the number of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated S256 monomers in the AQP2 tetramer affects diffusion speed of AQP2 in the plasma membrane. When all four monomers mimicked constitutive phosphorylation (AQP2-S256D), diffusion was faster than when all four were non-phosphorylated (AQP2-S256A). AQP2-WT diffused at a speed similar to that of AQP2-S256D. When an average of two or three monomers in the tetramer were constitutively phosphorylated, the average diffusion coefficients were not significantly different to that of AQP2-S256D. However, when only one monomer was phosphorylated, diffusion was slower and similar to AQP2-S256A. Thus, AQP2 with two to four phosphorylated monomers has faster plasma membrane kinetics, than the tetramer which contains just one or no phosphorylated monomers. This difference in diffusion rate may reflect behavior of AQP2 tetramers destined for either plasma membrane retention or endocytosis.