The use of an innovative device for wound closure after upper extremity fasciotomy.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Silver Bullet Wound Closure Device (SBWCD, Boehringer Laboratories, Norristown, PA), a new device for delayed primary closure of fasciotomy wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed over a period of 36 months of all patients with an upper extremity fasciotomy that could not be closed primarily. Cases that underwent fasciotomy closure with the SBWCD were separated from the patients that had a split thickness skin graft (STSG). RESULTS: Seven patients had their wound closed with the SBWCD within 10 days (mean of 7.4 days). The seven patients that underwent STSG had their wound closed in an average of 8.4 days. The average number of days between the day of the fasciotomy incision and the date of the placement of the SBWCD was 1.9 days. STSGs were placed on the fasciotomy wounds on an average of 10.3 days after the date of the fasciotomy incision. We found that the SBWCD allowed for starting to approximate the edges of the fasciotomy wound at an earlier time when compare to STSG (2.1 vs 10.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: We feel that the SBWCD as a one-stage procedure provides a consistent and efficacious way to manage upper extremity fasciotomy wounds while minimizing the morbidity associated with STSG. Elimination of a second-stage procedure reduces hospital costs. Our findings may help to inform surgeons about an available alternative when an upper extremity fasciotomy wound is not amenable to primary closure.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a useful therapy in the preparation of wounds prior to application of a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) both "pregraft" and "postgraft" on top of the STSG. Customarily, a foam-based NPWT has been used, but gauze-based therapy is finding an increasing use. Gauze is easy to apply and forgiving of complicated wound geometries so it can be an ideal material in this indication. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the clinical efficacy of gauze-based NPWT as an adjunctive therapy to STSG procedures. METHODS:A prospective, noncomparative, multicenter evaluation was carried out to assess the performance of gauze-based NPWT. Twenty-one patients had NPWT applied prior to definitive closure by STSG or flap techniques (pregraft group). A further 21 patients underwent an STSG procedure and had gauze-based NPWT placed immediately on top of the STSG (postgraft group). Negative pressure was applied at -80 mm Hg. RESULTS:In the pregraft group, NPWT was used for a median of 12 days. Improvement in quality of wound bed with decreased nonviable tissue (from 20% to 0% median wound area) and increased granulation tissue (from 20% to 90% median wound area) was observed. In the postgraft group, median duration of therapy was 5 days at which point median percentage skin graft-take was 96%. CONCLUSIONS:Gauze-based NPWT appears to be an effective addition to the care and management of wounds intended for definitive closure by STSG.
Project description:Optimal treatment of full-thickness skin injuries requires dermal and epidermal replacement. To spare donor dermis, dermal substitutes can be used ahead of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) application. However, this two-stage procedure requires an additional general anaesthetic, often prolongs hospitalisation, and increases outpatient services. Although a few case series have described successful single-stage reconstructions, with application of both STSG and dermal substitute at the index operation, we have little understanding of how the physical characteristics of dermal substitutes affects the success of a single-stage procedure. Here, we evaluated several dermal substitutes to optimise single-stage skin replacement in a preclinical porcine model. A porcine full-thickness excisional wound model was used to evaluate the following dermal substitutes: autologous dermal graft (ADG; thicknesses 0.15-0.60 mm), Integra (0.4-0.8 mm), Alloderm (0.9-1.6 mm), and chitosan-based hydrogel (0.1-0.2 mm). After excision, each wound was treated with either a dermal substitute followed by STSG or STSG alone (control). Endpoints included graft take at postoperative days (PODs) 7 and 14, wound closure at POD 28, and wound contracture from POD 28-120. Graft take was highest in the STSG alone and hydrogel groups at POD 14 (86.9% ± 19.5% and 81.3% ± 12.3%, respectively; P < .001). There were no differences in graft take at POD 7 or in wound closure at POD 28, though highest rates of wound closure were seen in the STSG alone and hydrogel groups (93.6% ± 9.1% and 99.8% ± 0.5%, respectively). ADG-treated wounds demonstrated the least amount of wound contracture at each time point. Increase dermal substitute thickness was associated with worse percent graft take at PODs 14 and 28 (Spearman ρ of -0.50 and -0.45, respectively; P < .001). In this preclinical single-stage skin reconstruction model, thinner ADG and hydrogel dermal substitutes outperformed thicker dermal substitutes. Both substitute thickness and composition affect treatment success. Further preclinical and clinical studies to optimise this treatment modality are warranted.
Project description:Clinicians have anecdotally noted that combat-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) lead to residual limb shortening, additional days and operative procedures before initial wound closure, and high early complication rates. We evaluated the validity of these observations and identified risk factors that may impact time to initial wound closure.Retrospective review and case-control analysis.Military hospitals.US military personnel injured during combat operations (2009-2011). The IFI cases were identified based on the presence of recurrent, necrotic extremity wounds with mold growth in culture, and/or histopathologic fungal evidence. Non-IFI controls were matched on injury pattern and severity. In a supplemental matching analysis, non-IFI controls were also matched by blood volume transfused within 24 hours of injury.None.Amputation revision rate and loss of functional levels.Seventy-one IFI cases (112 fungal-infected extremity wounds) were identified and matched to 160 control patients (315 non-IFI extremity wounds). The IFI wounds resulted in significantly more changes in amputation level (P < 0.001). Additionally, significantly (P < 0.001) higher number of operative procedures and longer duration to initial wound closure were associated with IFI. A shorter duration to initial wound closure was significantly associated with wounds lacking IFIs (Hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.01). The supplemental matching analysis found similar results.Our analysis indicates that IFIs adversely impact wound healing and patient recovery, requiring more frequent proximal amputation revisions and leading to higher early complication rates.Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:We compared cellular viability between cryopreserved and lyopreserved amniotic membranes and clinical outcomes of the lyopreserved construct in a prospective cohort study of 40 patients with neuropathic foot ulcers. Patients received weekly application of lyopreserved membrane for 12 weeks with standard weekly debridement and offloading. We evaluated the proportion of foot ulcers that closed, time to closure, closure trajectories, and infection during therapy. We used chi-square tests for dichotomous variables and independent t-tests for continuous variables with an alpha of α = .10. Cellular viability was equivalent between cryo- and lyopreserved amniotic tissues. Clinically, 48% of subjects' wounds closed in an average of 40.0 days. Those that did not close were older (63 vs 59 years, P = .011) and larger ulcers at baseline (7.8 vs 1.6 cm<sup>2</sup> , P = .012). Significantly more patients who achieved closure reached a 50% wound area reduction in 4 weeks compared with non-closed wounds (73.7% vs 47.6%, P = .093). There was no difference in the slope of the wound closure trajectories between closed and non-closed wounds (0.124 and 0.159, P = .85), indicating the rate of closure was similar. The rate of closure was 0.60 mm/day (SD = 0.47) for wounds that closed and 0.50 mm/day (SD = 0.58) for wounds that did not close (P = .89).
Project description:Following full-thickness skin injuries, epithelialization of the wound is essential. The standard of care to achieve this wound "closure" in patients is autologous split-thickness skin grafting (STSG). However, patients living with STSGs report significant chronic impairments leading to functional deficiencies such as itch, altered sensation, fragility, hypertrophic scarring, and contractures. These features are attributable to the absence of functional dermis combined with the formation of disorganized fibrotic extracellular matrix. Recent work has demonstrated the existence of dermal progenitor cells (DPCs) residing within hair follicles that function to continuously regenerate mesenchymal tissue. The present work examines whether cultured DPCs could regenerate dermis within an STSG and improve overall graft function. Adult human DPCs were transplanted into a full-thickness skin wound in immune-compromised mice and closed with a human STSG. At 3 months, human DPCs (hDPCs) had successfully integrated into the xenograft and differentiated into various regionally specified phenotypes, improving both viscoelastic properties of the graft and mitigating pruritus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A recently published meta-analysis comparing metallic staples to sutures in orthopaedic procedures revealed three fold increase in risk for infection in stapled wounds. The studies included in the meta-analysis are at risk of bias due to experimental design limitations. A large randomized controlled trial is proposed to direct orthopaedic surgeons in their choice of wound closure material. METHODS/DESIGN:A parallel group randomized controlled trial with institutional review board approval will be conducted. Patients will be randomized intraoperatively to have skin wounds closed with sutures or staples. Dressings will be used to maintain blinding outcome assessors. The primary outcome measure will be a composite all-cause wound complication outcome measure composed of: infection, wound drainage, wound necrosis, blistering, dehiscence, suture abscess and material sensitivity reaction. An independent review board blinded to treatment assignment will adjudicate suspected complications based on clinical data. All deceased patients will also be reviewed. An interim analysis of complications will take place after half of the patients have been recruited. All data will be analyzed by a blinded statistician. Dichotomous primary and secondary outcome measures will be analyzed using the Chi-squared statistic. Continuous outcome measures will be analyzed using Student's?t-test. Subgroup analysis will compare infection rates using sutures versus staples in each anatomic area (upper extremity, pelvis/acetabulum, hip/femur, knee, ankle). A further subgroup analysis will be conducted comparing trauma patients to elective surgery patients. Non-infected revision surgery will also be compared to primary surgery. DISCUSSION:Wound closure material is an afterthought for many orthopaedic surgeons. The combined results of several comparative trials suggests that the choice of wound closure materials may have an impact on the rate of surgical site infections. However, the strength of the evidence is poor given the heterogeneity of the methods employed in previous studies. The following study protocol aims to guide surgeons in their choice of wound closure material by determining if there is a difference in complication rates in sutured and stapled wounds. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01146236 (registered June 14, 2010).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Wounds that have been closed under excessive tension, and skin defects that cannot be closed primarily, pose a daily challenge for the reconstructive surgeon.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate a new tension relief system (TRS) device for skin stretching and secure wound closure.<h4>Methods</h4>From September 2013 to March 2014, a consecutive series of 41 Chinese patients with 43 wounds were enrolled for application of 50 cycles of TRS therapy. TRS was used for two main clinical applications: closure of a variety of surgical/traumatic wounds; and securing wound closure after high-tension suture closure. Basic information and details regarding this therapy and its complications were recorded. Follow-up visits were conducted three to six months after wound closure.<h4>Results</h4>Mean residual wound width decreased approximately 20% every two days during cycles of TRS therapy. Infection was the most common complication (five cases). Other complications included dehiscence (two cases) and pressure ulcer (one case). At the six-month follow-up visit, (21 wounds in 20 patients), both the extent of healing and the scar were acceptable.<h4>Discussion</h4>There are no absolute contraindications to TRS therapy. The authors have formulated instructions for the prevention and treatment of the most common complications.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results demonstrate that TRS therapy is a simple, effective method for primary closure of difficult wounds, and large skin and soft-tissue defects. Larger randomized studies are required to further evaluate of the effectiveness, indications, complications and cost effectiveness of this innovative TRS therapy.
Project description:Damage to cutaneous nerves inhibits wound healing in patients. Results from animals on the nerve contributions to healing are various and sometimes contradictory. Here, we aim to clearly define the collective role of central, caudal, and rostral nerves in ear wound healing of mice, rats, and rabbits. These wounds heal with minimal contraction like wounds in humans. We resected central, caudal, and rostral nerves at the base of ear pinnae by microsurgery and created excisional full-thickness skin wounds in the pinnae neurologically downstream from the resections. Denervation in mice resulted in no closure for 14 days post-wounding (dpw) and led to only 17.2% closure at 21 dpw when the excisional wounds of non-denervated ear pinnae were completely closed. Compared to excisional wounds that were not denervated in sham surgery, wounds with denervation showed an increase of excisional wound areas for 5.0% by 7 dpw and a 43.7% reduction of wound closure at 12 dpw for rats. In rabbits, denervation attenuated wound closure for 14.2, 34.4, and 28.3% at 7, 14, and 18 dpw, respectively. Our histological analysis showed marked denervation impairment in pivotal healing processes, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue growth, suggesting denervation impairment in the regeneration of blood capillaries and/or connective tissue in wounds. These results reveal the critical contributions made by central, caudal, and rostral nerves in ear pinnae to minimal-contraction skin wound healing. Our study also provides small animal models of minimal-contraction wound healing of denervated ear skins that recapitulate human wound healing involving surgical or traumatic nerve damages.
Project description:Harvesting of autografts results in donor site morbidities and is limited in scenarios such as large total body surface area burns. In these instances, coverage is increased by meshing grafts at the expense of delayed biologic closure. Moreover, graft meshing increases the likelihood of contraction and hypertrophic scarring, limits range of motion, and worsens cosmesis. Many tissue engineering technologies have touted the promise of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for burn wounds. The primary objective of the current study was to determine feasibility and efficacy of in situ ASC delivery via PEGylated fibrin (FPEG) hydrogels as adjuncts to meshed split thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. Deep partial thickness burns were created on the dorsum of anesthetized Yorkshire pigs, and subsequently debrided on post-burn day 4. After debridement, wounds were treated with: split thickness skin grafts (STSG); meshed STSG (mSTSG); and mSTSG + FPEG with increasing doses of ASCs. We show that FPEG hydrogels can be delivered in situ to prevent the contraction seen after meshing of STSG. Moreover, ASCs delivered in FPEG dose-dependently increase blood vessel size which significantly correlates with CD31 protein levels. The current study reports a dual-action adjunct therapy to autografting administered in situ, wherein FPEG acts as both scaffolding to prevent contraction, and as a delivery vehicle for ASCs to accelerate angiogenesis. This strategy may be used to incorporate other biologics for generating tissue engineered products aimed at improving wound healing and minimizing donor sites or scarring. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:360-372.
Project description:Background:Biofilm can impair wound healing by maintaining an elevated, but ineffective, inflammatory state. This article describes interim results from the prospective RESPOND postmarketing registry evaluating the use of a native type 1, porcine collagen matrix with the embedded antimicrobial polyhexamethylene biguanide (PCMP) in the management of chronic wounds. Methods:Adults ?18 years of age with ?1 appropriate wound were eligible for inclusion. Data that were final on January 26, 2018 were included in this analysis. At week 0, wounds were cleaned, debrided, and prepared as necessary and PCMP was applied, with a dressing to fix it in place. Patients received standard wound care plus PCMP weekly, up to 24 weeks, at the investigator's discretion. At each visit, wounds were assessed for area and quality of granulation tissue. Results:Most common wound types (N = 63) were venous ulcers (28.6%), trauma and lacerations (22.2%), postsurgical open wounds (15.9%), pressure injuries (12.7%), and diabetic ulcers (9.5%). Median baseline wound area was 6.5?cm2; mean wound duration at baseline was 4 months. Of the 63 wounds, 43 (68.3%) achieved complete wound closure, 41 of 43 (95.3%) closed after PCMP treatment, and 2 of 43 (4.7%) after bridging to other modalities and surgical closure. Twelve out of 63 wounds were bridged to other modalities after PCMP treatment. Mean time to closure for PCMP wounds was 5.0 weeks. Conclusions:PCMP appears to be a useful adjunct for treating various wound types. PCMP use should be considered when managing chronic or acute wounds.