De novo asymmetric syntheses of SL0101 and its analogues via a palladium-catalyzed glycosylation.
ABSTRACT: The enantioselective syntheses of naturally occurring kaempferol glycoside SL0101 (1a) and its analogues 1b-e, as well as their enantiomers, have been achieved in 7-10 steps. The routes rely upon a diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylation, ketone reduction, and dihydroxylation to introduce the rhamno-stereochemistry. The asymmetry of the sugar moiety of these kaempferol glycosides was derived from Noyori reduction of an acylfuran. An acetyl group shift from an axial (C-2) to equatorial position (C-3) under basic conditions was also described. [reaction: see text]
Project description:The de novo asymmetric syntheses of several partially acylated dodecanyl tri- and tetra-rhamnoside natural products (cleistriosides-5 and 6 and cleistetrosides-2 to 7) have been achieved (19-24 steps). The divergent route requires the use of three or less protecting groups. The asymmetry was derived via Noyori reduction of an acylfuran. The rhamno-stereochemistry was installed by a diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylation, ketone reduction and dihydroxylation.
Project description:[reaction: see text] The enantioselective syntheses of both enantiomers of the indolizidine natural product swainsonine have been achieved in 13 steps from furan. The indolizidine ring system is installed by a one-pot hydrogenolysis of both an azide and an O-Bn group along with an intramolecular reductive amination reaction. The asymmetry of swainsonine was introduced by Noyori reduction of an acylfuran. This route relies upon an Achmatowicz rearrangement, a diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylation, Luche reduction, and a dihydroxylation reaction.
Project description:A highly enantioselective and stereocontrolled approach to d-, l- and 8-epi-d-swainsonine has been developed from achiral furan and ?-butyrolactone. A one-pot hydrogenolysis of both azide and benzyl ether followed by an intramolecular reductive amination has been employed as key step to establish the indolizidine ring system. The absolute stereochemistry was installed by the Noyori reduction and the relative stereochemistry by the use of several highly diastereoselective palladium catalyzed glycosylation, Luche reduction, dihydroxylation and palladium catalyzed azide allylation reactions. This practical approach provide multigram quantities of indolizidine natural product d-swainsonine in 13 steps and 25% overall yield.
Project description:The Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK, is important in the etiology of tumor progression including invasion and motility. The natural product kaempferol-3-O-(3?,4?-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside), called SL0101, is a highly specific RSK inhibitor. Acylation of the rhamnose moiety is necessary for high affinity binding and selectivity. However, the acetyl groups can be cleaved by esterases, which accounts for the poor in vitro biological stability of SL0101. To address this problem a series of analogs containing acetyl group replacements were synthesized and their in vitro stability evaluated. Monosubstituted carbamate analogs of SL0101 showed improved in vitro biological stability while maintaining specificity for RSK. These results should facilitate the development of RSK inhibitors derived from SL0101 as anticancer agents.
Project description:Enhanced activity of the Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK, is associated with transformation and metastasis, which suggests that RSK is an attractive drug target. The natural product, SL0101 (kaempferol 3-O-(3?,4?-di-O-acetyl-?-L-rhamnopyranoside), has been shown to be a RSK selective inhibitor. However, the Ki for SL0101 is 1 ?M with a half-life of less than 30 min in vivo. To identify analogues with improved efficacy we designed a set of analogues based on the crystallographic model of SL0101 in complex with the RSK2 N-terminal kinase domain. We identified an analogue with a 5?-n-propyl group on the rhamnose that has > 40-fold improved affinity for RSK relative to SL0101 in an in vitro kinase assay. This analogue preferentially inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer line, MCF-7, versus the normal untransformed breast line, MCF-10A, which is consistent with results using SL0101. However, the efficacy of the 5?-n-propyl analogue to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation was only two-fold better than for SL0101, which we hypothesize is due to limited membrane permeability. The improved affinity of the 5?-n-propyl analogue for RSK will aid in the design of future compounds for in vivo use.
Project description:A convergent and stereocontrolled route to trisaccharide natural product digitoxin has been developed. The route is amenable to the preparation of both the digitoxigen mono- and bisdigitoxoside. This route featured the iterative application of the palladium-catalyzed glycosylation reaction, reductive 1,3-transposition, diastereoselective dihydroxylation, and regioselective protection. The natural product digitoxin was fashioned in 15 steps starting from digitoxigenin 2 and pyranone 8a or 18 steps from achiral acylfuran.
Project description:The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-?-L-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 Å resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the ?D-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.
Project description:The Ser/Thr protein kinase, RSK, is associated with oncogenesis, and therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop RSK inhibitors that are suitable for use in vivo. SL0101 is a natural product that demonstrates selectivity for RSK inhibition. However, SL0101 has a short biological half-life in vivo. To address this issue we designed a set of eight cyclitol analogues, which should be resistant to acid catalyzed anomeric bond hydrolysis. The analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit RSK in vitro and in cell-based assays. All the analogues were prepared using a stereodivergent palladium-catalyzed glycosylation/cyclitolization for installing the aglycon. The l-cyclitol analogues were found to inhibit RSK2 in in vitro kinase activity with a similar efficacy to that of SL0101, however, the analogues were not specific for RSK in cell-based assays. In contrast, the d-isomers showed no RSK inhibitory activity in in vitro kinase assay.
Project description:In an effort to improve upon the in vivo half-life of the known ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor SL0101, C4?-amide/C6?-alkyl substituted analogues of SL0101 were synthesized and evaluated in cell-based assays. The analogues were prepared using a de novo asymmetric synthetic approach, which featured Pd-?-allylic catalyzed glycosylation for the introduction of a C4?-azido group. Surprisingly replacement of the C4?-acetate with a C4?-amide resulted in analogues that were no longer specific for RSK in cell-based assays.
Project description:An asymmetric synthesis of the di- and trisaccharide portion of the naturally occurring anthrax tetrasaccharide from acetylfuran has been developed. The construction of the di- and trisaccharide subunits is based upon our previously disclosed route to anthrax tetrasaccharide. The approach uses iterative diastereoselective palladium-catalyzed glycosylations, Luche reductions, diastereoselective dihydroxylations, and regioselective protections for the assembly of the rhamno- di- and tri-saccharide. The route was also modified for the preparation of the mixed D-/L-disaccharide analogue.