Overcorrection during treatment of pectus deformities with DCC orthoses: experience in 17 cases.
ABSTRACT: Treatment of pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum with dynamic chest compressor (DCC) orthoses have been reported by Haje and others. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that overcorrection during orthotic treatment of children and adolescents with pectus deformities can occur and requires medical attention. Of 3,028 children and adolescents with pectus deformities, observed between 1977 and October 2005, 1,824 were prescribed treatment with DCC orthoses and, after a few months of treatment, some overcorrection was noted in 30 patients. Of the patients who received orthoses, 738 had a minimum follow-up of 1 year and 17 of these, 2 with pectus excavatum and 15 with pectus carinatum, presented overcorrection and were studied. The dynamic remodeling method (DCC orthoses + exercises) was applied. The procedures, adopted according to each patient's needs, were: decreasing the time of orthosis wear and/or the tightening of the screws, introducing a second orthosis, and improving the prescribed exercises and/or encouraging the patient to perform them more intensively. The therapy was successful in all patients, and the result was maintained in one case of pectus excavatum followed up until adulthood. It was concluded that overcorrection during DCC orthosis wear can occur and that careful medical follow-up is necessary if this complication is to be successfully reversed.
Project description:Pectus excavatum, thoracic spine deformities, tracheal hypoplasia and lateral heart displacement are frequently described in brachycephalic dog breeds. Pectus carinatum is described sporadically, although the authors' observations demonstrate that it may occur in certain brachycephalic dog breeds. It was hypothesised that dogs of screw-tailed brachycephalic breeds carry a greater risk of these anomalies than normal-tailed brachycephalic breeds, and that there could a relation between the presence of pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum and thoracic spine deformities, tracheal hypoplasia and lateral heart displacement. During retrospective studies, these anomalies were identified in lateral and dorso-ventral radiographs of the thorax in brachycephalic dog breeds. A statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of pectus excavatum occurrence in screw-tailed and normal-tailed brachycephalic dog breeds is similar. The greatest risk of pectus excavatum occurrence is carried by two breeds: Maltese (60%) and English Bulldog (58%), while for pectus carinatum: Pug (41%) and French Bulldog (18%). Dogs of screw-tailed brachycephalic breeds carry a greater risk of kyphosis (p < 0.0001), tracheal hypoplasia occurrence (p < 0.0001), compared to "normal-tailed" breeds. The hypothesis concerning a relation between the presence of pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum and the other anomalies studied was not confirmed (p > 0.05). It was demonstrated that in dogs of brachycephalic breeds there was a greater risk of co-incidence between kyphosis of the thoracic spine and lateral heart displacement (p = 0.038), as well as kyphosis of the thoracic spine and tracheal hypoplasia (p = 0.003).
Project description:Congenital chest wall deformities are considered to be anomalies in chest wall growth. These can be categorized as either rib cage overgrowth or deformities related to inadequate growth (aplasia or dysplasia). Rib cage overgrowth leads to depression of the sternum (pectus excavatum) or protuberance of the sternum (pectus carinatum) and accounts for greater than 90% of congenital chest wall deformities. The remaining deformities are a result of inadequate growth. Evolution in the management of congenital chest wall deformities has made significant progress over the past 25 years. This article will review chest wall deformities and the current management strategies of these interesting anomalies.
Project description:Midfoot osteoarthritis (OA) is more prevalent and strongly associated with pain than previously thought. Excessive mechanical loading of the midfoot structures may contribute to midfoot OA and studies suggest that functional foot orthoses (FFO) may relieve pain through improving function. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the mechanical effect of two off-the-shelf FFOs, compared to a sham orthosis in people with midfoot OA.Thirty-three participants with radiographically confirmed symptomatic midfoot OA were randomly assigned to wear either a commercially available FFO or a sham orthosis. After wearing their assigned orthoses for 12 weeks, plantar pressure measurements were obtained under shoe-only and assigned orthoses conditions. Participants assigned to the sham, were additionally tested wearing a second type of FFO at the end of trial. Descriptive mean change (±95% confidence intervals) in plantar pressure for each orthoses condition, versus a shoe only baseline condition are presented.Compared to the shoe only conditions, both FFOs decreased hindfoot and forefoot maximum force and peak pressure, whilst increasing maximum force and contact area under the midfoot. The sham orthosis yielded plantar pressures similar to the shoe-only condition.Findings suggest that both types of off-the-shelf FFO may provide mechanical benefit, whilst the sham orthoses produced similar findings to the shoe only condition, indicating appropriate sham properties. This paper provides insight into the mechanisms of action underpinning the use of FFOs and sham orthoses, which can inform future definitive RCTs examining the effect of orthoses on midfoot OA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum are the most common chest wall deformities. Although minimally invasive correction (minimally invasive repair of pectus, MIRP) has become common practice, it remains associated with severe postoperative pain. Preoperative psychosocial factors such as anxiety and low self-esteem can increase postsurgical pain. Early detection of psychological symptoms, effective biopsychosocial perioperative management of patients, and prevention of pain chronification using an enhanced recovery pathway (ERP) may improve outcomes. However, the incidence of the latter is poorly described in adolescents undergoing MIRP.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of our study was to evaluate the implementation of an ERP containing early recovery goals and to assess persistent postsurgical pain 3 months postoperatively in pediatric patients undergoing MIRP. The ERP consists of a Web-based platform containing psychological screening questionnaires and extensive telemonitoring for follow-up of patients at home.<h4>Methods</h4>A population-based cohort study was conducted with prospectively collected data from patients undergoing pectus surgery between June 2017 and December 2017. An ERP was initiated preoperatively; it included patient education, electronic health-based psychological screening, multimodal pre-emptive analgesia, nausea prophylaxis as well as early Foley catheter removal and respiratory exercises. After hospital discharge, patients were followed up to 10 weeks using a Web-based diary evaluating pain and sleep quality, while their rehabilitation progress was monitored via Bluetooth-connected telemonitoring devices.<h4>Results</h4>We enrolled 29 adolescents using the developed ERP. Pre-emptive multimodal analgesia pain rating scores were low at hospital admission. Optimal epidural placement, defined by T8-9 or T9-10, occurred in 90% (26/29) of the participants; thus, no motor block or Horner syndrome occurred. Mean bladder catheterization duration was 3.41 (SD 1.50) days in ERP patients. Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores for pain and the incidence of nausea were low, contributing to a fluent rehabilitation. Mean NRS scores were 2.58 (SD 1.77) on postoperative day (POD) 1, 2.48 (SD 1.66) on POD 2, and 3.14 (SD 1.98) on POD 3 in ERP-treated patients. Telemonitoring at home was feasible in adolescents after hospital discharge despite adherence difficulties. Although the pain scores at the final interview were low (0.81 [SD 1.33]), 33% (9/27) long-term follow-up ERP patients still experienced frequent disturbing thoracic pain, requiring analgesic administration, school absenteeism, and multiple doctor (re)visits.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Allocating patients to the appropriate level of care preoperatively and immediately postoperatively may improve long-term outcome variables. Internet-based technologies and feasible, objective monitoring tools can help clinicians screen surgical patients for risk factors and initiate early treatment when indicated. Future research should focus on improving risk stratification and include a psychological assessment and evaluation of the effect of perioperative care pathways in children undergoing major surgery.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03100669; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03100669 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72qLB1ADX).
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare the effectiveness between parallel bar and cross-bar techniques for treating pectus excavatum. METHODS:A total of 80 patients who underwent parallel bar insertion (group 1) or cross-bar insertion (group 2) were evaluated retrospectively. From the pre- and post-operative chest CT images, vertebral-level-specific pectus indices were defined as the ratio of the maximum transverse diameter to the anteroposterior diameter of the thoracic cavity at a specific vertebral level and measured at 3 levels up (3Up-PI, 2Up-PI, 1Up-PI) and 1 vertebral level down (1Down-PI) from the narrowest point. The effectiveness of double-bar correction was compared between the 2 groups using postoperative vertebral level-specific pectus index changes. RESULTS:A total of 44 patients were enrolled in group 1, and 36 patients were enrolled in group 2. Preoperative pectus index values were not different between the 2 groups (4.5 ± 1.0 vs. 4.9 ± 1.5, P = 0.135). After double-bar correction, pectus index significantly decreased in both groups. There were no differences in postoperative pectus indices between the 2 groups (2.7 ± 0.4 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, P = 0.197). Postoperative changes in 3Up-PI, 2Up-PI, and 1Up-PI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). However, postoperative changes at the narrowest level and at 1Down-PI were significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (1.78 ± 0.85 vs. 2.32 ± 1.44, P = 0.009; 1.21 ± 0.70 vs. 1.70 ± 1.20, P = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Double-bar correction appears to be effective for treating pectus excavatum. The cross-bar insertion technique might be superior to the parallel bar insertion technique for correcting a wider range of deformities, especially at the lower part of the depression.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The most common surgical treatment of traumatic spine fractures is through a posterior approach using pedicle screws and rods. Postoperative treatment protocols including the use of postoperative orthoses however differ between hospitals and surgeons. A three-point hyperextension orthosis is designed to support proper posture and unload the anterior column. Some motion remains when wearing an orthosis, and its main value in postoperative treatment is therefore believed to be pain relief and patient confidence. This could consequently shorten recovery time. On the other hand, an orthosis could also lead to muscle weakness and slow down recovery. Any orthosis-related complications might also be avoided. Additionally, recent studies on conservative fracture treatment show no difference in radiological outcomes with or without an orthosis. To date, no randomised studies have been performed on the use of postoperative orthoses. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Patients undergoing posterior fixation with pedicle screws for a traumatic thoracolumbar fracture (T7-L4) will be included in this randomised controlled multicentre non-inferiority trial. Forty-six patients will be randomised 1:1 to one of the two parallel groups; one group will wear a postoperative orthosis for 6?weeks followed by 6?weeks of weaning and one group will not wear an orthosis. The primary outcome is pain at 6?weeks reported on the Numerical Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes consist of pain on other moments, analgesic use, complications and length of hospital stay, quality of life (EuroQuol 5 Dimensions), back pain-related function (Oswestry Disability Index) and radiological outcomes with a follow-up of 1?year. Orthosis compliance is monitored weekly in the orthosis group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The institutional review board (METc VUmc) approved this study on 11 October 2016 under case number 2016.389. After completion of the trial, the results will be offered to an international scientific journal for peer-reviewed publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03097081 and NTR6285; Pre-results.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>It is unclear if amianthoid transformation (AT) of costal cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) has an impact on the development of pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC).<h4>Methods</h4>AT foci were examined in intrasurgical biopsy specimens of costal cartilages of children (8-17 years old) with PE (n = 12) and PC (n = 12) and in age-matching autopsy control samples (n = 10) using histological and immunohistochemical staining, atomic force and nonlinear optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, morphometry and statistics.<h4>Results</h4>AT areas were identified in the costal cartilage ECM in children with normal chest, PE and PC. Each type of the AT areas ("canonical", "intertwined", "fine-fibred" and "intralacunary") had a unique morphological pattern of thickness and alignment of amianthoid fibers (AFs). AFs were formed via lateral aggregation of collagen type II fibrils in the intact ECM. Foci of the AT were observed significantly more frequently in the PE and PC groups. The AT areas had unique quantitative features in each study group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>AT is a structurally diverse form of ECM alteration present in healthy and pathological costal cartilage. PE and PC are associated with specific AT disorders.
Project description:Introduction:Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of knee orthoses on proprioception. One belief is that pressure applied by orthoses heightens kinesthetic awareness and that this affects balance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two different orthosis designs on kinesthetic awareness and balance in healthy individuals. Methods:Twenty individuals (13 women) participated in this case series study. Each was tested wearing 1/no orthosis, 2/soft elastic orthosis and 3/non-elastic jointed orthosis. Pressure under orthoses was recorded. Kinesthetic awareness was investigated by testing joint position sense and threshold to detection of passive motion. Balance was tested using a modified sensory organization test. Results:Non-elastic jointed orthoses applied the greatest pressure to the knee. With non-elastic jointed orthoses, threshold to detection of passive motion was significantly poorer for pooled results (p?=?0.02) and when the start position of the knee was 70° (mean threshold?=?0.6°, 0.6°, 0.7° for no-orthosis, elastic and jointed-orthoses; p?=?0.03). No major differences were observed in JPS or balance and correlation between proprioception and balance was poor. Conclusions:There may be a limit to the amount of pressure that should be applied to the knee joint by an orthosis. Exceeding this limit may compromise kinesthetic awareness.
Project description:Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury.We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found.Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The effectiveness of foot orthoses has been evaluated in many clinical trials with sham foot orthoses used as the control intervention in at least 10 clinical trials. However, the mechanical effects and credibility of sham orthoses has been rarely quantified. This study aimed to: (i) compare the effects on plantar pressures of three sham foot orthoses to a customised foot orthosis, and (ii) establish the perceived credibility and the expected benefit of each orthotic condition.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty adults aged between 18 and 51 participated in this study. At 0 and 4 weeks, plantar pressure data were collected for the heel, midfoot and forefoot using the pedar(®)-X in-shoe system for the following five randomly assigned conditions: (i) shoe alone, (ii) customised foot orthosis, (iii) contoured polyethylene sham foot orthosis, (iv) contoured EVA sham foot orthosis, and (v) flat EVA sham foot orthosis. At the initial data collection session, each participant completed a Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) to determine the credibility and expected benefit of each orthotic condition.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to the shoe alone at week 0, the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis was the only condition to not significantly effect peak pressure at any region of the foot. In contrast, the contoured EVA sham orthosis, the flat EVA sham orthosis and the customised orthosis significantly reduced peak pressure at the heel. At the medial midfoot, all sham orthoses provided the same effect as the shoe alone, which corresponded to effects that were significantly different to the customised orthosis. There were no differences in peak pressure between conditions at the other mask regions, the lateral midfoot and forefoot. When the conditions were compared at week 4, the differences between the conditions were generally similar to the findings observed at week 0. With respect to credibility and expected benefit, all orthotic conditions were considered the same with the exception of the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis, which was perceived as being less credible and less likely to provide benefits.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The findings of this study indicate that all of the sham orthoses tested provided the same effect on plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot as a shoe alone. However, the contoured EVA sham orthosis and the flat EVA sham orthosis significantly reduced peak pressure under the heel, which was similar to the customised orthosis. In contrast, the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis had no significant effect on plantar pressure and was comparable to the shoe alone at all regions of the foot. Hence, lower plantar pressures were found under the heel with some sham orthoses, but not with others. Importantly, participants perceived the polyethylene sham orthosis - the sham that had no effect on plantar pressure - to be the least credible orthosis and the least likely to provide benefits. This may be critical for the design of future clinical trials as it may introduce confounding effects that produce inaccurate results. These findings provide some evidence for the mechanical effects, treatment credibility and expected benefit of sham foot orthoses, which should be considered when they are used as a control intervention in a clinical trial.