Identification of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol-modified active site peptides and glutathione conjugates formed during metabolism and inactivation of P450s 2B1 and 2B6.
ABSTRACT: The oral contraceptive 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (17EE) is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450s (P450s) 2B1 and 2B6. Inactivation of P450s 2B1 and 2B6 in the reconstituted system by [3H]17EE resulted in labeling of the P450 apoprotein. Mass spectral analysis of 17EE-inactivated P450 2B1 showed an increase in the mass of the apoprotein by 313 Da, consistent with the mass of 17EE plus one oxygen atom. P450s 2B1 and 2B6 were inactivated with [3H]17EE and digested with CNBr. Separation of these peptides resulted in the identification of one major labeled peptide for each enzyme. N-Terminal sequencing of these peptides yielded the amino acid sequences PYTDAVIHEI (for P450 2B1) and PYTEAV (for P450 2B6) that corresponded to amino acids P347-M376 and P347-M365 in P450s 2B1 and 2B6, respectively. Electrospray ionization (ESI)-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS analysis of the P450 2B1-derived peptide resulted in a mass of 3654 Da consistent with the mass of the P347-M376 peptide (3385 Da) plus a 268 Da 17EE adduct. Chemically reactive intermediates of 17EE that were generated during the metabolism of 17EE by P450s 2B1 and 2B6 were trapped with gluthathione (GSH). ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis of 17EE-GSH conjugates from the incubation mixtures indicated that P450s 2B1 and 2B6 generated different reactive 17EE intermediates that were responsible for the inactivation and protein modification or the formation of GSH conjugates by these two enzymes.
Project description:The mechanism of inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) by 4-tert-butylphenylacetylene (BPA) has been characterized previously to be caused by the covalent binding of a reactive intermediate to the apoprotein rather than heme destruction (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 331:392-403, 2009). The identification of a BPA-glutathione conjugate and the increase in the mass of the BPA-adducted apoprotein have indicated that the mass of adduct is 174 Da, equivalent to the mass of BPA plus one oxygen atom. To identify the adducted residue, BPA-inactivated CYP2B1 was digested with trypsin, and the digest was then analyzed by using capillary liquid chromatography with a LTQ linear ion trap mass spectrometer as the detector. A mass shift of 174 Da was used for a SEQUEST database search. The tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation of the modified peptide and the identity of modified residue were determined. The results revealed a mass increase of 174 Da for the peptide sequence (296)FFAGTSSTTLR(308) in the I-helix of CYP2B1 and that the site of adduction formation is Thr302. Homology modeling and ligand docking studies showed that BPA binds in close proximity to both the heme iron and Thr302 with the distances being 2.96 and 3.42 A, respectively. The identification of Thr302 in the CYP2B1 active site as the site of covalent modification leading to inactivation by BPA supports previous hypotheses that this conserved Thr residue may play a crucial role for various functions in P450s.
Project description:To elucidate the effects of codon optimization and chaperone coexpression on the heterologous expression of mammalian cytochrome P450s (P450) in Escherichia coli, the expression of P450s 2B1, 2S1, 2U1, 2W1, and 27C1 were investigated. With codon optimization for N-terminus or the entire gene, the expression levels of P450 27C1, 2U1 and 2W1 increased 22-fold, 3.6-fold and 2.1-fold, respectively, while those for P450s 2B1 and 2S1 remained unchanged. With coexpression of E. coli molecular chaperones GroEL/ES, the expression level increased up to 14-fold for P450 27C1, and 3- to 5-fold for P450s 2B1, 2S1, and 2W1. Simultaneous application of these two techniques resulted in synergetic effects.
Project description:Mifepristone [RU486; 17beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17alpha-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] inactivates CYP2B6 in the reconstituted system in a mechanism-based manner. The loss of 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin deethylation activity of CYP2B6 is concentration- and time-dependent. The inactivation requires NADPH and is irreversible. The concentration of inactivator required to give the half-maximal rate of inactivation is 2.8 microM, and the maximal rate constant for inactivation at a saturating concentration of the inactivator is 0.07 min(-1). Incubation of CYP2B6 with 20 microM RU486 for 15 min resulted in 61% loss of catalytic activity, 60% loss of the reduced cytochrome P450 (P450)-CO complex, and a 40% loss of native heme. The partition ratio is approximately 5, and the stoichiometry of binding is approximately 0.6 mol RU486/mol P450 inactivated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that [(3)H]RU486 was irreversibly bound to CYP2B6 apoprotein. RU486 is metabolized to form three major metabolites and bioactivated to give reactive intermediates by purified P450s in the reconstituted system. After incubation of RU486 with the purified P450s and liver microsomes from rats and humans in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and NADPH, GSH conjugates with MH(+) ions at m/z 769, 753, and 751 were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Two GSH conjugates with MH(+) ions at m/z 753 are formed from the reaction of GSH with RU486. The adducts are formed after addition of an activated oxygen to the carbon-carbon triple bond of the propynyl moiety. This suggests that oxirene intermediates may be involved in the mechanism of inactivation. It seems that the potential for drug-drug interactions of RU486 may not be limited only to CYP3A4 and should also be evaluated for drugs metabolized primarily by CYP2B6, such as bupropion and efavirenz.
Project description:The structure of the K262R genetic variant of human cytochrome P450 2B6 in complex with the inhibitor 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole (4-CPI) has been determined using X-ray crystallography to 2.0-A resolution. Production of diffraction quality crystals was enabled through a combination of protein engineering, chaperone coexpression, modifications to the purification protocol, and the use of unique facial amphiphiles during crystallization. The 2B6-4-CPI complex is virtually identical to the rabbit 2B4 structure bound to the same inhibitor with respect to the arrangement of secondary structural elements and the placement of active site residues. The structure supports prior P450 2B6 homology models based on other mammalian cytochromes P450 and is consistent with the limited site-directed mutagenesis studies on 2B6 and extensive studies on P450 2B4 and 2B1. Although the K262R genetic variant shows unaltered binding of 4-CPI, altered binding affinity, kinetics, and/or product profiles have been previously shown with several other ligands. On the basis of new P450 2B6 crystal structure and previous 2B4 structures, substitutions at residue 262 affect a hydrogen-bonding network connecting the G and H helices, where subtle differences could be transduced to the active site. Docking experiments indicate that the closed protein conformation allows smaller ligands such as ticlopidine to bind to the 2B6 active site in the expected orientation. However, it is unknown whether 2B6 undergoes structural reorganization to accommodate bulkier molecules, as previously inferred from multiple P450 2B4 crystal structures.
Project description:To discover new selective mechanism-based P450 inhibitors, eight 7-ethynylcoumarin derivatives were prepared through a facile two-step synthetic route. Cytochrome P450 activity assays indicated that introduction of functional groups in the backbone of coumarin could enhance the inhibition activities toward P450s 1A1 and 1A2, providing good selectivity against P450s 2A6 and 2B1. The most potent product 7-ethynyl-3,4,8-trimethylcoumarin (7ETMC) showed IC(50) values of 0.46 ?M and 0.50 ?M for P450s 1A1 and 1A2 in the first six minutes, respectively, and did not show any inhibition activity for P450s 2A6 and 2B1 even at the dose of 50 ?M. All of the inhibitors except 7-ethynyl-3-methyl-4-phenylcoumarin (7E3M4PC) showed mechanism-based inhibition of P450s 1A1 and 1A2. In order to explain this mechanistic difference in inhibitory activities, X-ray crystallography data were used to study the difference in conformation between 7E3M4PC and the other compounds studied. Docking simulations indicated that the binding orientations and affinities resulted in different behaviors of the inhibitors on P450 1A2. Specifically, 7E3M4PC with its two-plane structure fits into the P450 1A2's active site cavity with an orientation leading to no reactive binding, causing it to act as a competitive inhibitor.
Project description:Rational mutagenesis was used to improve the thermal stability of human cytochrome P450 2B6 and canine P450 2B11. Comparison of the amino acid sequences revealed seven sites that are conserved between the stable 2B1 and 2B4 but different from those found in the less stable 2B6 and 2B11. P334S was the only mutant that showed increased heterologous expression levels and thermal stability in both 2B6 and 2B11. The mechanism of this effect was explored with pressure-perturbation spectroscopy. Compressibility of the heme pocket in variants of all four CYP2B enzymes containing proline at position 334 are characterized by lower compressibility than their more stable serine 334 counterpart. Therefore, the stabilizing effect of P334S is associated with increased conformational flexibility in the region of the heme pocket. Improved stability of P334S 2B6 and 2B11 may facilitate the studies of these enzymes by X-ray crystallography and biophysical techniques.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that bergamottin (BG), a component of grapefruit juice, is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4 and contributes, in part, to the grapefruit juice-drug interaction. Although the covalent binding of [(14)C]BG to the CYP3A4 apoprotein has been demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the identity of the modified amino acid residue and the reactive intermediate species of BG responsible for the inactivation have not been reported. In the present study, we show that inactivation of CYP3A4 by BG results in formation of a modified apoprotein-3A4 and a GSH conjugate, both exhibiting mass increases of 388 Da, which corresponds to the mass of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG), a metabolite of BG, plus one oxygen atom. To identify the adducted residue, BG-inactivated 3A4 was digested with trypsin, and the digests were then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A mass shift of 388 Da was used for the SEQUEST database search, which revealed a mass increase of 388 Da for the peptide with the sequence (272)LQLMIDSQNSK(282), and MS/MS analysis of the adducted peptide demonstrated that Gln273 is the residue modified. Mutagenesis studies showed that the Gln273 to Val mutant was resistant to inactivation by BG and DHBG and did not generate two of the major metabolites of BG formed by 3A4 wild type. In conclusion, we have determined that the reactive intermediate, oxygenated DHBG, covalently binds to Gln273 and thereby contributes to the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4 by BG.
Project description:In silico docking studies and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of a number of in-house cytochrome P450 inhibitors have revealed important structural characteristics that are required for a molecule to function as a good inhibitor of P450 enzymes 1A1, 1A2, 2B1, and/or 2A6. These insights were incorporated into the design of pharmacophores used for a 2D search of the Chinese medicine database. Emodin, a natural anthraquinone isolated from Rheum emodi and known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, was one of the hits and was used as the lead compound. Emodin was found to inhibit P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1 with IC(50) values of 12.25, 3.73, and 14.89 ?M, respectively. On the basis of the emodin molecular structure, further similarity searches of the PubChem and ZINC chemical databases were conducted resulting in the identification of 12 emodin analogues for testing against P450s 1A1-, 1A2-, 2B1-, and 2A6-dependent activities. 1-Amino-4-chloro-2-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 1) showed the best inhibition potency for P450 1A1 with an IC(50) value of 0.40 ?M. 1-Amino-4-chloro-2-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 1) and 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 2) both inhibited P450 1A2 with the same IC(50) value of 0.53 ?M. In addition, compound 1 acted as a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450s 1A1 and 1A2 with K(I) and K(inactivation) values of 5.38 ?M and 1.57 min(-1) for P450 1A1 and 0.50 ?M and 0.08 min(-1) for P450 1A2. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione (compound 8) directly inhibited P450 2B1 with good selectivity and inhibition potency (IC(50) = 5.66 ?M). Docking studies using the 3D structures of the enzymes were carried out on all of the compounds. The binding modes of these compounds revealed the structural characteristics responsible for their potency and selectivity. Compound 1, which is structurally similar to compound 2 with the presence of an amino group at position 1, showed a difference in the mechanism of inhibition toward P450s 1A1 and 1A2. The mechanism-based inhibition seen for compound 1 may be attributed to the presence of the methyl group at the 2-position, in close proximity to the amino group. Compound 2, which is otherwise similar, lacks that methyl moiety and did not show mechanism-based inhibition.
Project description:Structures of human cytochrome P450 2B6 and rabbit cytochrome P450 2B4 in complex with two molecules of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The presence of two drug molecules suggests clear substrate access channels in each P450. According to a previously established nomenclature, amlodipine molecules were trapped in access pathway 2f in P450 2B6 and in pathway 2a or 2f in P450 2B4. These pathways overlap for part of the length and then diverge as they extend toward the protein surface. A previously described solvent channel was also found in each enzyme. The results indicate that key residues located on the surface and at the entrance of the substrate access channels in each of these P450s may play a crucial role in guiding substrate entry. In addition, the region of P450 2B6 and 2B4 involving helices B', F, F', and G' and part of helix G is substantially more open in the amlodipine complexes than in the corresponding 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole complexes. The increased active site volume observed results from the major retraction of helices F, F', and B' and the ?4 sheet region located close to the binding cavity to accommodate amlodipine. These structures demonstrate novel insight into distinct conformational states not observed with previous P450 2B structures and provide clear evidence of the substrate access channels in two drug-metabolizing P450s. In addition, the structures exhibit the versatility that can be exploited via in silico studies with other P450 2B6 ligands as large as raloxifene and itraconazole.
Project description:Both 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) and 5-fluoro-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (GW 610) contain the benzothiazole pharmacophore and possess potent and selective in vitro antitumor properties. Prior studies suggested the involvement of cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1 and 2W1-mediated bioactivation in the antitumor activities and P450 2S1-mediated deactivation of 5F 203 and GW 610. In the present study, the biotransformation pathways of 5F 203 and GW 610 by P450s 1A1, 2W1, and 2S1 were investigated, and the catalytic parameters of P450 1A1- and 2W1-catalyzed oxidation were determined in steady-state kinetic studies. The oxidations of 5F 203 catalyzed by P450s 1A1 and 2W1 yielded different products, and the formation of a hydroxylamine was observed for the first time in the latter process. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis with the synthetic hydroxylamine and also a P450 2W1/5F 203 incubation mixture indicated the formation of dGuo adduct via a putative nitrenium intermediate. P450 2W1-catalyzed oxidation of GW 610 was 5-fold more efficient than the P450 1A1-catalyzed reaction. GW 610 underwent a two-step oxidation process catalyzed by P450 1A1 or 2W1: a regiospecific O-demethylation and a further hydroxylation. Glutathione (GSH) conjugates of 5F 203 and GW 610, presumably through a quninoneimine and a 1,2-quinone intermediate, respectively, were detected. These results demonstrate that human P450s 1A1 and 2W1 mediate 5F 203 and GW 610 bioactivation to reactive intermediates and lead to GSH conjugates and a dGuo adduct, which may account for the antitumor activities of 5F 203 and GW 610 and also be involved in cell toxicity. P450 2S1 can catalyze the reduction of the hydroxylamine to the amine 5F 203 under anaerobic conditions and, to a lesser extent, under aerobic conditions, thus attenuating the anticancer activity.