In vitro characterization of salmochelin and enterobactin trilactone hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes.
ABSTRACT: The iroA locus encodes five genes (iroB, iroC, iroD, iroE, iroN) that are found in pathogenic Salmonella and Escherichia coli strains. We recently reported that IroB is an enterobactin (Ent) C-glucosyltransferase, converting the siderophore into mono-, di-, and triglucosyl enterobactins (MGE, DGE, and TGE, respectively). Here, we report the characterization of IroD and IroE as esterases for the apo and Fe(3+)-bound forms of Ent, MGE, DGE, and TGE, and we compare their activities with those of Fes, the previously characterized enterobactin esterase. IroD hydrolyzes both apo and Fe(3+)-bound siderophores distributively to generate DHB-Ser and/or Glc-DHB-Ser, with higher catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on Fe(3+)-bound forms, suggesting that IroD is the ferric MGE/DGE esterase responsible for cytoplasmic iron release. Similarly, Fes hydrolyzes ferric Ent more efficiently than apo Ent, confirming Fes is the ferric Ent esterase responsible for Fe(3+) release from ferric Ent. Although each enzyme exhibits lower k(cat)'s processing ferric siderophores, dramatic decreases in K(m)'s for ferric siderophores result in increased catalytic efficiencies. The inability of Fes to efficiently hydrolyze ferric MGE, ferric DGE, or ferric TGE explains the requirement for IroD in the iroA cluster. IroE, in contrast, prefers apo siderophores as substrates and tends to hydrolyze the trilactone just once to produce linearized trimers. These data and the periplasmic location of IroE suggest that it hydrolyzes apo enterobactins while they are being exported. IroD hydrolyzes apo MGE (and DGE) regioselectively to give a single linear trimer product and a single linear dimer product as determined by NMR.
Project description:Ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) acquisition is a highly efficient and conserved iron scavenging system in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, we have characterized two FeEnt receptors (CfrA and CfrB) in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, the enteric human pathogens that do not produce any siderophores. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis identified a unique Ent trilactone esterase Cee (Cj1376) in C.?jejuni. Genomic analysis and biochemical assay strongly suggested that Cee is the sole trilactone esterase in C.?jejuni. Thin-layer chromatography and HPLC analyses showed high efficiency of the purified Cee to hydrolyse Ent. Three Cee homologues previously characterized from other bacteria (IroE, IroD and Fes) were also purified and analysed together with Cee, indicating that Cee, Fes and IroD displayed similar hydrolysis dynamics for both apo and ferric forms of Ent while IroE catalysed Ent inefficiently. Unlike cytoplasmic Fes and IroD, Cee is localized in the periplasm as demonstrated by immunoblotting using Cee-specific antibodies. Genetic manipulation of diverse Campylobacter strains demonstrated that Cee is not only essential for CfrB-dependent FeEnt acquisition but also involved in CfrA-dependent pathway. Together, this study identified and characterized a novel periplasmic trilactone esterase and suggested a new model of FeEnt acquisition in Campylobacter.
Project description:Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica modify the tricatecholic siderophore enterobactin (Ent) by glucosylation of three aryl carbon atoms, a process controlled by the iroA locus [Hantke, K., Nicholson, G., Rabsch, W. & Winkelmann, G. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3677-3682]. Here, we report the purification of the IroB protein and its characterization as the Ent C-glucosyltransferase. IroB transfers glucosyl groups from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose to C5 of one, two, or three of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl units of Ent to yield monoglucosyl-C-Ent (MGE), diglucosyl-C-Ent (DGE), and triglucosyl-C-Ent (TGE). DGE, also known as salmochelin S4, and macrolactone-opened derivatives have been isolated from the culture broths of S. enterica and uropathogenic E. coli [Bister, B., Bischoff, D., Nicholson, G. J., Valdebenito, M., Schneider, K., Winkelmann, G., Hantke, K. & Sussmuth, R. D. (2004) Biometals 17, 471-481], but MGE and TGE have not been reported previously. IroB has a k(cat) of approximately 10 min(-1) for the first C-glucosylation and is distributive, with sequential conversion and buildup of MGE and then DGE. The C5 to C1' regio-selectivity of the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-glucose linkage at all three rings of TGE suggests a C5 carbanion, para to the C2 phenolate oxygen, as the carbon nucleophile in this novel enzymatic C-glucosylation.
Project description:Both host and pathogen competitively manipulate coordination environments during bacterial infections. Human cells release the innate immune protein siderocalin (Scn, also known as lipocalin-2/Lcn2, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/NGAL) that can inhibit bacterial growth by sequestering iron in a ferric complex with enterobactin (Ent), the ubiquitous <i>Escherichia coli</i> siderophore. Pathogenic <i>E. coli</i> use the virulence-associated esterase IroE to linearize the Ent cyclic trilactone to linear enterobactin (lin-Ent). We characterized lin-Ent interactions with Scn by using native mass spectrometry (MS) with hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) and Lys/Arg specific covalent footprinting. These approaches support 1:1 binding of both Fe(III)-lin-Ent to Scn and iron-free lin-Ent to Scn. Both ferric and nonferric lin-Ent localize to all three pockets of the Scn calyx, consistent with Scn capture of lin-Ent both before and after Fe(III) chelation. These findings raise the possibility that Scn neutralizes both siderophores and siderophore-bound iron during infections. This integrated, MS-based approach circumvents the limitations that frustrate traditional structural approaches to examining Scn interactions with enterobactin-based ligands.
Project description:Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains are a subset of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains associated with respiratory infections and septicemia in poultry. The iroBCDEN genes encode the salmochelin siderophore system present in Salmonella enterica and some ExPEC strains. Roles of the iro genes for virulence in chickens and production of salmochelins were assessed by introducing plasmids carrying different combinations of iro genes into an attenuated salmochelin- and aerobactin-negative mutant of O78 strain chi7122. Complementation with the iroBCDEN genes resulted in a regaining of virulence, whereas the absence of iroC, iroDE, or iroN abrogated restoration of virulence. The iroE gene was not required for virulence, since introduction of iroBCDN restored the capacity to cause lesions and colonize extraintestinal tissues. Prevalence studies indicated that iro sequences were associated with virulent APEC strains. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of supernatants of APEC chi7122 and the complemented mutants indicated that (i) for chi7122, salmochelins comprised 14 to 27% of the siderophores present in iron-limited medium or infected tissues; (ii) complementation of the mutant with the iro locus increased levels of glucosylated dimers (S1 and S5) and monomer (SX) compared to APEC strain chi7122; (iii) the iroDE genes were important for generation of S1, S5, and SX; (iv) iroC was required for export of salmochelin trimers and dimers; and (v) iroB was required for generation of salmochelins. Overall, efficient glucosylation (IroB), transport (IroC and IroN), and processing (IroD and IroE) of salmochelins are required for APEC virulence, although IroE appears to serve an ancillary role.
Project description:Bacillibactin and enterobactin are hexadentate catecholate siderophores produced by bacteria upon iron limitation to scavenge ferric ion and seem to be the ultimate siderophores of their two respective domains: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Iron acquisition mediated by these trilactone-based ligands necessitates enzymatic hydrolysis of the scaffold for successful intracellular iron delivery. The esterases BesA and Fes hydrolyze bacillibactin and enterobactin, respectively, as well as the corresponding iron complexes. Bacillibactin binds iron through three 2,3-catecholamide moieties linked to a trithreonine scaffold via glycine spacers, whereas in enterobactin the iron-binding moieties are directly attached to a tri-l-serine backbone; although apparently minor, these structural differences result in markedly different iron coordination properties and iron transport behavior. Comparison of the solution thermodynamic and circular dichroism properties of bacillibactin, enterobactin and the synthetic analogs d-enterobactin, SERGlyCAM and d-SERGlyCAM has determined the role of each different feature in the siderophores' molecular structures in ferric complex stability and metal chirality. While opposite metal chiralities in the different complexes did not affect transport and incorporation in Bacillus subtilis, ferric complexes formed with the various siderophores did not systematically promote growth of the bacteria. The bacillibactin esterase BesA is less specific than the enterobactin esterase Fes; BesA can hydrolyze the trilactones of both siderophores, while only the tri-l-serine trilactone is a substrate of Fes. Both enzymes are stereospecific and cannot cleave tri-d-serine lactones. These data provide a complete picture of the microbial iron transport mediated by these two siderophores, from initial recognition and transport to intracellular iron release.
Project description:Iron is essential for many cellular processes and is required by bacteria for replication. To acquire iron from the host, pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria secrete siderophores, including enterobactin (Ent). However, Ent is bound by the host protein lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), preventing bacterial reuptake of aferric or ferric Ent. Furthermore, the combination of Ent and Lcn2 (Ent+Lcn2) leads to enhanced secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to that induced by either stimulus alone. Modified or structurally distinct siderophores, including yersiniabactin (Ybt) and glycosylated Ent (GlyEnt, or salmochelin), deliver iron to bacteria despite the presence of Lcn2. We hypothesized that the robust immune response to Ent and Lcn2 requires iron chelation rather than the Ent+Lcn2 complex itself and also can be stimulated by Lcn2-evasive siderophores. To test this hypothesis, cultured respiratory epithelial cells were stimulated with combinations of purified siderophores and Lcn2 and analyzed by gene expression microarrays, quantitative PCR, and cytokine immunoassays. Ent caused HIF-1α protein stabilization, induced the expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and repressed genes involved in cell cycle and DNA replication, whereas Lcn2 induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation by excess Ent or Ybt significantly increased Lcn2-induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and CCL20. Stabilization of HIF-1α was sufficient to enhance Lcn2-induced IL-6 secretion. These data indicate that respiratory epithelial cells can respond to bacterial siderophores that evade or overwhelm Lcn2 binding by increasing proinflammatory cytokine production.
Project description:Enteric Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, biosynthesize and deploy the triscatecholate siderophore enterobactin (Ent) in the vertebrate host to acquire iron, an essential nutrient. We report that Ent-Cipro, a synthetic siderophore-antibiotic conjugate based on the native Ent platform that harbors an alkyl linker at one of the catechols with a ciprofloxacin cargo attached, affords targeted antibacterial activity against E. coli strains that express the pathogen-associated iroA gene cluster. Attachment of the siderophore to ciprofloxacin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor and broad-spectrum antibiotic that is used to treat infections caused by E. coli, generates an inactive prodrug and guides the antibiotic into the cytoplasm of bacteria that express the Ent uptake machinery (FepABCDG). Intracellular hydrolysis of the siderophore restores the activity of the antibiotic. Remarkably, Fes, the cytoplasmic Ent hydrolase expressed by all E. coli, does not contribute to Ent-Cipro activation. Instead, this processing step requires IroD, a cytoplasmic hydrolase that is expressed only by E. coli that harbor the iroA gene cluster and are predominantly pathogenic. In the uropathogenic E. coli UTI89 and CFT073, Ent-Cipro provides antibacterial activity comparable to unmodified ciprofloxacin. This work highlights the potential of leveraging and targeting pathogen-associated microbial enzymes in narrow-spectrum antibacterial approaches. Moreover, because E. coli include harmless gut commensals as well as resident microbes that can contribute to disease, Ent-Cipro may provide a valuable chemical tool for strain-selective modulation of the microbiota.
Project description:The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-). This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an antibacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) and Scn-Y106F:[Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-) complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe (III)(Ent)] (3-). Fluorescence, UV-vis, and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogues of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.
Project description:During an inflammatory response in the gut, some commensal bacteria such as E. coli can thrive and contribute to disease. Here we demonstrate that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore released by E. coli, is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a bactericidal enzyme of the host. Glycosylated Ent (salmochelin) and non-catecholate siderophores (yersiniabactin and ferrichrome) fail to inhibit MPO activity. An E. coli mutant (?fepA) that overproduces Ent, but not an Ent-deficient double mutant (?aroB/?fepA), inhibits MPO activity and exhibits enhanced survival in inflamed guts. This survival advantage is counter-regulated by lipocalin 2, a siderophore-binding host protein, which rescues MPO from Ent-mediated inhibition. Spectral analysis reveals that Ent interferes with compound I [oxoiron, Fe(IV)=O] and reverts the enzyme back to its native ferric [Fe(III)] state. These findings define a fundamental mechanism by which E. coli surpasses the host innate immune responses during inflammatory gut diseases and gains a distinct survival advantage.
Project description:Siderophores are small-molecule high-affinity multidentate chelators selective for ferric iron that are produced by pathogenic microbes to aid in nutrient sequestration and enhance virulence. In Gram-positive bacteria, the currently accepted paradigm in siderophore-mediated iron acquisition is that effluxed metal-free siderophores extract ferric iron from biological sources and the resulting ferric siderophore complex undergoes diffusion-controlled association with a surface-displayed siderophore-binding protein (SBP) followed by ABC permease-mediated translocation across the cell envelope powered by ATP hydrolysis. Here we show that a more efficient paradigm is possible in Gram-positive bacteria where extracellular metal-free siderophores associate directly with apo-SBPs on the cell surface and serve as non-covalent cofactors that enable the holo-SBPs to non-reductively extract ferric iron directly from host metalloproteins with so-called "ferrichelatase" activity. The resulting SBP-bound ferric siderophore complex is ready for import through an associated membrane permease and enzymatic turnover is achieved through cofactor replacement from the readily available pool of extracellular siderophores. This new "iron shuttle" model closes a major knowledge gap in microbial iron acquisition and defines new roles of the siderophore and SBP as cofactor and enzyme, respectively, in addition to the classically accepted roles as a transport substrate and receptor pair. We propose the formal name "siderophore-dependent ferrichelatases" for this new class of catalytic SBPs.