Mutations in topoisomerase genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant salmonellae in Hong Kong.
ABSTRACT: A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is increasingly a cause of enteric fever. Sequence analysis of an Indian isolate showed a unique strain with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin associated with double mutations in the DNA gyrase subunit gyrA (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly) and a mutation in topoisomerase IV subunit parC (Ser80-->Arg).
Project description:Background:Fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli isolates have become an important challenge in healthcare settings in Iran. In this study, we have determined Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates (from both outpatients and inpatients) and evaluated mutations of gyrA and parC within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of these clinical isolates. Materials and methods:Clinical isolates were recovered from the urine sample of patients with urinary tract infections admitted at Alzahra hospital, Iran, between September and February 2013. We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates and determined mutations in QRDR of gyrA and parC genes from 13 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates by DNA sequencing. Results:A total of 135 E. coli strains were obtained from 135 patients (91 outpatients and 44 inpatients). The resistance rate of fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin) among our strains was 45.2%. Two E. coli isolates were shown just a single mutation, but other isolates possessed 2-5 mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Mutations in the QRDR regions of gyrA were at positions Ser83 and Asp87 and parC at positions Ser80, Glu84, Gly78. Conclusions:Ciprofloxacin is the most common antimicrobial agent used for treating urinary tract infections (UTIs) in healthcare settings in Iran. Accumulation of different substitutions in the QRDR regions of gyrA and parC confers high-level resistance of fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates.
Project description:Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia.Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n?=?43) were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n?=?29) for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes using PCR and sequencing.Beta-lactamase genes (bla) were detected in 34 (79.1%) of the isolates. The dominant bla gene was blaTEM, recovered from 33 (76.7%) of the isolates, majority being TEM-1 (24, 72.7%) followed by TEM-57, (10, 30.3%). The blaOXA-10 and blaCTX-M-15 were detected only in a single S. Concord human isolate. Double substitutions in gyrA (Ser83-Phe?+?Asp87-Gly) as well as parC (Thr57-Ser?+?Ser80-Ile) subunits of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) were detected in all S. Kentucky isolates with high level resistance to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Single amino acid substitutions, Ser83-Phe (n?=?4) and Ser83-Tyr (n?=?1) were also detected in the gyrA gene. An isolate of S. Miami susceptible to nalidixic acid but intermediately resistant to ciprofloxacin had Thr57-Ser and an additional novel mutation (Tyr83-Phe) in the parC gene. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes investigated were not detected in any of the isolates. In some isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and/or nalidixic acid, no mutations in QRDR or PMQR genes were detected. Over half of the quinolone resistant isolates in the current study 17 (58.6%) were also resistant to at least one of the beta-lactam antimicrobials.Acquisition of blaTEM was the principal beta-lactamase resistance mechanism and mutations within QRDR of gyrA and parC were the primary mechanism for resistance to quinolones. Further study on extended spectrum beta-lactamase and quinolone resistance mechanisms in other gram negative pathogens is recommended.
Project description:Sixty extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland were screened for individual strains additionally exhibiting a reduced quinolone susceptibility phenotype. Totally, 42 such isolates were found and further characterized for their molecular (fluoro)quinolone resistance mechanisms. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and to describe the occurrence of the following plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes: qepA, aac-6'-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS. The contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance phenotype of selected strains was further determined by the broth microdilution method in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phe-arg-?-naphthylamide (PA?N). Almost all strains, except two isolates, showed at least one mutation in the QRDR of gyrA. Ten strains showed only one mutation in gyrA, whereas thirty isolates exhibited up to four mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, parC and/or parE. No mutations were detected in gyrB. Most frequently the amino-acid substitution Ser83?Leu was detected in GyrA followed by Asp87?Asn in GyrA, Ser80?Ile in ParC, Glu84?Val in ParC and Ser458?Ala in ParE. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms were found in twenty isolates bearing QnrS1 (4/20), AAC-6'-Ib-cr (15/20) and QepA (1/20) determinants, respectively. No qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrD were found. In the presence of PA?N, the MICs of nalidixic acid were decreased 4- to 32-fold. (Fluoro) quinolone resistance is due to various mechanisms frequently associated with ESBL-production in E. coli from surface waters in Switzerland.
Project description:Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 182) were examined for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The frequency, location, and type of GyrA substitution varied with the serovar. Mutations were found in parC that encoded Thr57-Ser, Thr66-Ile, and Ser80-Arg substitutions. Mutations in the gyrB quinolone resistance-determining region were located at codon Tyr420-Cys or Arg437-Leu. Novel mutations were also found in parE encoding Glu453-Gly, His461-Tyr, Ala498-Thr, Val512-Gly, and Ser518-Cys. Although it is counterintuitive, isolates with a mutation in both gyrA and parC were more susceptible to ciprofloxacin than were isolates with a mutation in gyrA alone.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single Asp426-->Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser83-->Leu or Trp) were found only from the third round of selection. With sparfloxacin, three rounds of selection generated 4 first-, 7 second-, and 10 third-step mutants. In contrast to ofloxacin resistance, GyrA mutations (Ser83-->Leu or Ser84-->Trp) were detected in the first-step mutants prior to ParC changes (Glu84-->Lys), which appeared only after the second round of selection. Further analysis of eight multistep-selected mutants of M. hominis that were previously described (2) revealed that they carried mutations in ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParC (Ser80-->Ile), or ParC (Ser80-->Ile) alone, depending on the fluoroquinolone used for selection, i.e., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, or pefloxacin, respectively. These data indicate that in M. hominis DNA gyrase is the primary target of sparfloxacin whereas topoisomerase IV is the primary target of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The widespread distribution of antimicrobial-resistant Shigella has become a recurrent challenge in many parts of the developing world. Previous studies indicate that the host of Shigella has expanded from humans to animals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance and associated molecular characterization of S. dysenteriae 1 isolated from calves.<h4>Results</h4>All 38 unduplicated S. dysenteriae 1 isolates were collected from calves in Gansu Province from October 2014 to December 2016. According to MLST and PFGE analysis, these isolates were separated into 4 and 28 genotypes, respectively. The most common STs identified were ST228 (34.21%, 13/38) and ST229 (39.47%, 15/38), which were first found in the present study. All isolates harbored virulence genes, and the incidence of the seven virulence genes were ipaH (100%), ipaBCD (92.11%), stx (73.68%), ial (57.89%), sen (28.95%), set1A and set1B (0%). According to the results of antimicrobial susceptibilities, 76.32% (29/38) were resistant to fluoroquinolone and showed multidrug resistance. In a study on the polymorphism of quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA/B and parC/E genes, we identified two mutations in gyrA (Ser83???Leu and Asp87???Asn) and parC (Ser80???Ile and Ser83???Leu), respectively. Among them, 55.17% (16/29) of resistant strains had the gyrA point mutations (Ser83???Leu) and parC point mutation (Ser83???Leu). Moreover, 41.38% (12/29) of isolates had all five point mutations of gyrA and parC. In addition, the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinant genes was also investigated. All 29 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were positive for the aac (6')-Ib-cr gene but negative for qepA, except for SD001. In addition, only 6 (20.69%, 6/29) isolates harbored the qnr gene, including two with qnrB (6.90%, 2/29) and four with qnrS (13.79%, 4/29).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Given the increased common emergence of multidrug resistant isolates, uninterrupted surveillance will be necessary to understand the actual epidemic burden and control this infection.
Project description:The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 33 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins from three hospitals in Singapore ranged from 0.25 to >128 microg/ml. Nineteen of the isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant according to the NCCLS guidelines. Strains for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >or=0.5 microg/ml harbored a mutation in DNA gyrase A (Ser83-->Tyr, Leu, or IIe), and some had a secondary Asp87-->Asn mutation. Isolates for which the MIC was 16 microg/ml possessed an additional alteration in ParC (Ser80-->IIe, Trp, or Arg). Tolerance of the organic solvent cyclohexane was observed in 10 of the 19 fluoroquinolone-resistant strains; 3 of these were also pentane tolerant. Five of the 10 organic solvent-tolerant isolates overexpressed AcrA and also showed deletions within the acrR gene. Complementation of the mutated acrR gene with the wild-type gene decreased AcrA levels and produced a two- to fourfold reduction in the fluoroquinolone MICs. None of the organic solvent-tolerant clinical isolates overexpressed another efflux-related gene, acrE. While marA and soxS were not overexpressed, another marA homologue, ramA, was overexpressed in 3 of 10 organic solvent-tolerant isolates. These findings indicate that multiple target and nontarget gene changes contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance in K. pneumoniae. Besides AcrR mutations, ramA overexpression (but not marA or soxS overexpression) was related to increased AcrAB efflux pump expression in this collection of isolates.
Project description:Resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in 111 (48.1%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. GyrA alterations were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. The results, including previously published data, indicate that the single substitution Ser83-->Ile and three types of double mutations at Ser83 and Asp87 were required for ciprofloxacin resistance (P < 0.05).
Project description:It is important that antibiotics prescriptions are based on antimicrobial susceptibility data to ensure effective treatment outcomes. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing, bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) can facilitate a more reliable and faster alternative to traditional phenotyping for the detection and surveillance of AMR. This work proposes a machine learning approach that can predict the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for a given antibiotic, here ciprofloxacin, on the basis of both genome-wide mutation profiles and profiles of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes. We analysed 704 Escherichia coli genomes combined with their respective MIC measurements for ciprofloxacin originating from different countries. The four most important predictors found by the model, mutations in gyrA residues Ser83 and Asp87, a mutation in parC residue Ser80 and presence of the qnrS1 gene, have been experimentally validated before. Using only these four predictors in a linear regression model, 65% and 93% of the test samples' MIC were correctly predicted within a two- and a four-fold dilution range, respectively. The presented work does not treat machine learning as a black box model concept, but also identifies the genomic features that determine susceptibility. The recent progress in WGS technology in combination with machine learning analysis approaches indicates that in the near future WGS of bacteria might become cheaper and faster than a MIC measurement.