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Granzyme B delivery via perforin is restricted by size, but not by heparan sulfate-dependent endocytosis.

ABSTRACT: How granzymes gain entry into the cytosol of target cells during killer cell attack has been the subject of several studies in the past, but the effective delivery mechanism during target cell encounter has not been clarified. Here we show that granzyme B (GzmB) mutants lacking binding to negatively charged, essentially heparan-sulfate-containing membrane receptors are poorly endocytosed yet are delivered to the cytosol with efficacy similar to that of WT GzmB. In a cell-based system GzmB-deficient natural killer cells provided perforin (pfn) by natural polarized secretion and synergized with externally added GzmB. Whereas receptor (heparan sulfate)-dependent endocytosis was dispensable, delivery of larger cargo like that of GzmB fusion proteins and GzmB-antibody complexes was restricted by their size. Our data support the model in which granzymes are primarily translocated through repairable membrane pores of finite size and not by the disruption of endocytosed vesicles. We conclude that structurally related translocators, i.e., perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, deliver deathly cargo across host cell membranes in a similar manner.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2544534 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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