Utility of new 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat typing for discriminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Bulgaria.
ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated new markers for molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a collection of strains circulating in Bulgaria. A study sample included 133 strains from epidemiologically unlinked patients from different regions of the country. Spoligotyping was used as a primary typing tool; it subdivided these strains into 37 types, including 15 clusters and 22 singletons. Traditional IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing and novel 24-locus variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing methods were applied to the selection of 73 strains. Discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index [HGI]) of these methods was found to be 0.983 and 0.997, respectively. The 73 strains were subdivided into 66 types by a 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU)-VNTR scheme, 62 types by a classical 12-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme, 51 types by IS6110-RFLP typing, and 31 types by spoligotyping. A combination of the five most polymorphic loci (MIRU40, Mtub04, Mtub21, QUB-11b, and QUB-26) was shown to achieve a high discrimination (HGI = 0.984). To conclude, a complete 24-locus scheme excellently differentiated strains in our study, whereas a reduced 5-locus set provided a sufficiently high differentiation and may be preliminarily suggested for the first-line typing of M. tuberculosis isolates in Bulgaria.
Project description:In South Africa and other high prevalence countries, transmission is a significant contributor to rising rates of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Thus, there is a need to develop an early detection system for transmission clusters suitable for high burden settings. We have evaluated the discriminatory power and clustering concordance of a novel and simple genotyping approach, combining spoligotyping with pncA sequencing (SpoNC), against two well-established methods: IS6110-RFLP and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR.A total of 216 MDR-TB isolates collected from January to June 2010 from the NHLS Central TB referral laboratory in Braamfontein, Johannesburg, representing a diversity of strains from South Africa, were included. The isolates were submitted for genotyping, pncA sequencing and analysis to the Centre for Tuberculosis in South Africa and the Public Health Research Institute Tuberculosis Center at Rutgers University in the United States. Clustering rates, Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Indexes (HGI) and Wallace coefficients were compared between the methods.Overall clustering rates were high by both IS6110-RFLP (52.8%) and MIRU-VNTR (45.8%), indicative of on-going transmission. Both 24-loci MIRU-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP had similar HGI (0.972 and 0.973, respectively), with close numbers of unique profiles (87 vs. 70), clustered isolates (129 vs. 146), and cluster sizes (2 to 26 vs. 2 to 25 isolates). Spoligotyping alone was the least discriminatory (80.1% clustering, HGI 0.903), with 28 unique types. However, the discriminatory power of spoligotyping was improved when combined with pncA sequencing using the SpoNC approach (61.8% clustering, HGI 0.958). A high proportion of MDR-TB isolates had mutations in pncA (68%, n = 145), and pncA mutations were significantly associated with clustering (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0013 by 24-loci MIRU-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP, respectively), suggesting high rates of resistance to pyrazinamide among all MDR-TB cases and particularly among clustered cases.We conclude that SpoNC provides good discrimination for MDR-TB surveillance and early identification of outbreaks in South Africa, with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR applied for pncA wild-type strains as needed.
Project description:An optimized set of 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, including a discriminatory subset of 15 loci, has recently been defined for the typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated the performances of this MIRU-VNTR typing system in combination with spoligotyping for the detection of transmission chains in a population-based study comprising 91% of culture-confirmed tuberculosis patients reported in 2003 in Hamburg, Germany. Of the 154 isolates investigated, more than 90% had high IS6110 copy numbers (>/=6). IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing resulted in 13 clusters, 5 of which had a confirmed epidemiological link. All five, as well as six of the eight IS6110 clusters with no identified epidemiological link, were perfectly matched by MIRU-VNTR typing with the 24 loci. Two IS6110 clusters were split by differences into 6 to 12 MIRU-VNTR loci, clearly supporting the absence of a link, as judged by contact tracing data. In contrast, only one MIRU-VNTR cluster, grouping what were probably epidemiologically unlinked isolates, was split by IS6110 RFLP. However, these isolates were also distinguished by spoligotyping. Both the optimized 24-locus and 15-locus sets thus showed a comparable to slightly better predictive value, especially when combined with spoligotyping, than the current gold standard IS6110 RFLP for the study of tuberculosis transmission in Hamburg. Because the epidemiological characteristics of this setting are similar to those of many developed countries, these results support the wide applicability of this real-time genotyping approach for population-based studies of M. tuberculosis transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious problem in China. While there have been some studies on the nationwide genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), there has been little detailed research in Beijing, the capital of China, which has a huge population. Here, M. tuberculosis clinical strains collected in Beijing during 2009 were genotyped by classical methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our aim was to analyze the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains within the Beijing metropolitan area. We characterized these strains using two standard methods, spoligotyping (n?=?1585) and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing (n?=?1053). We found that the most prominent genotype was Beijing family genotype. Other genotypes included the MANU, T and H families etc. Spoligotyping resulted in 137 type patterns, included 101 unclustered strains and 1484 strains clustered into 36 clusters. In VNTR typing analysis, we selected 12-locus (QUB-11b, MIRU10, Mtub21, MIRU 23, MIRU39, MIRU16, MIRU40, MIRU31, Mtub24, Mtub04, MIRU20, and QUB-4156c) and named it 12-locus (BJ) VNTR. VNTR resulted in 869 type patterns, included 796 unclustered strains and 257 strains clustered into 73 clusters. It has almost equal discriminatory power to the 24-locus VNTR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a detailed characterization of the genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis in Beijing. Combining spoligotyping and VNTR typing to study the genotyping of M. tuberculosis gave superior results than when these techniques were used separately. Our results indicated that Beijing family strains were still the most prevalent M. tuberculosis in Beijing. Moreover, VNTR typing analyzing of M. tuberculosis strains in Beijing was successfully accomplished using 12-locus (BJ) VNTR. This method used for strains genotyping from the Beijing metropolitan area was comparable. This study will not only provide TB researchers with valuable information for related studies, but also provides guidance for the prevention and control of TB in Beijing.
Project description:A study set of 180 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis isolates having low copy numbers of IS6110 were genotyped using the recently introduced method based on the variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR). The results were compared with results of the more commonly used methods, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and spoligotyping. The isolates were collected in Michigan from 1996 to 1999 as part of a project to genotype all isolates from new cases of tuberculosis in the state. Twelve MIRU loci were amplified, and the amplicons were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to determine the copy number at each MIRU locus. MIRU-VNTR produced more distinct patterns (80 patterns) than did IS6110 RFLP (58 patterns), as would be expected in this study set. Spoligotyping identified 59 patterns. No single method defined all unique isolates, and the combination of all three typing methods generated 112 distinct patterns identifying 90 unique isolates and 90 isolates in 22 clusters. The results confirm the potential utility of MIRU-VNTR typing and show that typing with multiple methods is required to attain maximum specificity.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) remains an immense public health problem in the Republic of Korea despite a more than fivefold decrease in the prevalence of the disease over the last 3 decades. The rise in drug-resistant TB has compounded the situation. We analyzed 208 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from the National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital by spoligotyping, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and 24-locus-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing to assess the diversity and transmission dynamics of the tubercle bacilli in the Republic of Korea. The majority of the isolates (97.1%) belonged to the Beijing genotype. Cluster analysis by MIRU-VNTR yielded a low clustering rate of 22.3%, with most of the clusters comprising isolates with diverse drug resistance patterns. The discriminatory capacity of the typing methods was high for RFLP and MIRU-VNTR (allelic diversity [h] = 0.99) but low for spoligotyping (h = 0.31). Although analysis of 19 MIRU-VNTR loci was needed to achieve maximum discrimination, an informative set of 8 loci (960, 1955, 2163b, 2165, 2996, 3192, 4052, and 4348) (h = 0.98) that was able to differentiate most of the closely related strains was identified. These findings suggest that 24-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing is a likely suitable alternative to RFLP to differentiate clinical isolates in this setting, which is dominated by M. tuberculosis Beijing strains. Within the study limits, our results also suggest that the problem of drug-resistant TB in the Republic of Korea may be largely due to acquired resistance as opposed to transmission.
Project description:The Beijing genotype is a globally spread lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Russia, these strains constitute half of the local population of M. tuberculosis; they are associated with multidrug resistance and show increased transmissibility. Here, we analyzed traditional and new markers for the rapid and simple genotyping of the Beijing strains. A representative sample of 120 Beijing genotype strains was selected from a local IS6110-restriction fragment length (RFLP) database at the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. These strains were subjected to variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using 24 loci of a newly proposed format and three hypervariable (HV) loci (QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, and VNTR-4120). Ten of the 27 VNTR loci were monomorphic, while five loci, MIRU26, QUB-26, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820, and VNTR-4120, were the most polymorphic (Hunter Gaston index, >0.5). VNTR typing allowed us to differentiate between two large IS6110-RFLP clusters known to be prevalent across the entire country (clusters B0/W148 and A0) and identified in 27 and 23% of strains, respectively, in the Beijing genotype database. The B0/W148 strains were grouped closely in the VNTR dendrogram and could be distinguished by a characteristic signature of the loci MIRU26 and QUB-26. Consequently, this clinically important IS6110-RFLP variant, B0/W148, likely presents a successful clonal group within the M. tuberculosis Beijing lineage that is widespread in Russia. To conclude, the IS6110-RFLP method and VNTR typing using a reduced set of the most polymorphic loci complement each other for the high-resolution epidemiological typing of the M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains circulating in or imported from Russia.
Project description:Sources of Mycobacterium bovis contamination remain unclear for many cases of animal and human disease. A major limitation is the lack of sufficiently informative or epidemiologically well evaluated molecular methods for typing. Here, we report an evaluation of a high-throughput method based on 29 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci to genotype 127 M. bovis isolates from cattle from 77 different Belgian farms, representative of a nationwide collection obtained from 1995 to 2003. MIRU-VNTR stability was demonstrated by analyzing a series of 74 isolates in total, obtained from different animals from a single farm or from different farms with an identified epidemiological link. The genotyping results and the genotypic diversity (h) were compared with those obtained by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. Among 68 isolates with no known epidemiological link, MIRU-VNTR typing discriminated better than either RFLP analysis or spoligotyping, [corrected] taken individually (32 versus 16 and 17 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.73 and 0.85, respectively) or in combination (32 versus 28 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.92). Maximal resolution was already achieved with a subset of 9 loci. The observed congruence of the genetic relationships based on IS6110 RFLP analysis, spoligotyping, and MIRU-VNTR markers is consistent with a clonal population structure of M. bovis. These results support MIRU-VNTR typing as a convenient and discriminatory technique for analysis of the population structure of M. bovis in much greater detail and for addressing some still unresolved issues in the epidemiology of the pathogen.
Project description:Molecular typing based on 12 loci containing variable numbers of tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTRs) has been adopted in combination with spoligotyping as the basis for large-scale, high-throughput genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, even the combination of these two methods is still less discriminatory than IS6110 fingerprinting. Here, we define an optimized set of MIRU-VNTR loci with a significantly higher discriminatory power. The resolution and the stability/robustness of 29 loci were analyzed, using a total of 824 tubercle bacillus isolates, including representatives of the main lineages identified worldwide so far. Five loci were excluded for lack of robustness and/or stability in serial isolates or isolates from epidemiologically linked patients. The use of the 24 remaining loci increased the number of types by 40%--and by 23% in combination with spoligotyping--among isolates from cosmopolitan origins, compared to those obtained with the original set of 12 loci. Consequently, the clustering rate was decreased by fourfold--by threefold in combination with spoligotyping--under the same conditions. A discriminatory subset of 15 loci with the highest evolutionary rates was then defined that concentrated 96% of the total resolution obtained with the full 24-locus set. Its predictive value for evaluating M. tuberculosis transmission was found to be equal to that of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, as shown in a companion population-based study. This 15-locus system is therefore proposed as the new standard for routine epidemiological discrimination of M. tuberculosis isolates and the 24-locus system as a high-resolution tool for phylogenetic studies.
Project description:The worldwide threat of tuberculosis to human health emphasizes the need to develop novel approaches to a global epidemiological surveillance. The current standard for Mycobacterium tuberculosis typing based on IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) suffers from the difficulty of comparing data between independent laboratories. Here, we propose a high-resolution typing method based on variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 human minisatellite-like regions of the M. tuberculosis genome. MIRU-VNTR profiles of 72 different M. tuberculosis isolates were established by PCR analysis of all 12 loci. From 2 to 8 MIRU-VNTR alleles were identified in the 12 regions in these strains, which corresponds to a potential of over 16 million different combinations, yielding a resolution power close to that of IS6110-RFLP. All epidemiologically related isolates tested were perfectly clustered by MIRU-VNTR typing, indicating that the stability of these MIRU-VNTRs is adequate to track outbreak episodes. The correlation between genetic relationships inferred from MIRU-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP typing was highly significant. Compared with IS6110-RFLP, high-resolution MIRU-VNTR typing has the considerable advantages of being fast, appropriate for all M. tuberculosis isolates, including strains that have a few IS6110 copies, and permitting easy and rapid comparison of results from independent laboratories. This typing method opens the way to the construction of digital global databases for molecular epidemiology studies of M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Standard 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing allows to get an improved resolution power for tracing TB transmission and predicting different strain (sub) lineages in a community.During 2010-2012, a total of 168 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) isolates were collected by cluster sampling from 10 different Moroccan cities, and centralized by the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis over the study period. All isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping, and a subset of 75 was genotyped using 24-locus based MIRU-VNTR typing, followed by first line drug susceptibility testing. Corresponding strain lineages were predicted using MIRU-VNTRplus database.Spoligotyping resulted in 137 isolates in 18 clusters (2-50 isolates per cluster: clustering rate of 81.54%) corresponding to a SIT number in the SITVIT database, while 31(18.45%) patterns were unique of which 10 were labelled as "unknown" according to the same database. The most prevalent spoligotype family was LAM; (n = 81 or 48.24% of isolates, dominated by SIT42, n = 49), followed by Haarlem (23.80%), T superfamily (15.47%), >Beijing (2.97%), > U clade (2.38%) and S clade (1.19%). Subsequent 24-Locus MIRU-VNTR typing identified 64 unique types and 11 isolates in 5 clusters (2 to 3isolates per cluster), substantially reducing clusters defined by spoligotyping only. The single cluster of three isolates corresponded to two previously treated MDR-TB cases and one new MDR-TB case known to be contact a same index case and belonging to a same family, albeit residing in 3 different administrative regions. MIRU-VNTR loci 4052, 802, 2996, 2163b, 3690, 1955, 424, 2531, 2401 and 960 were highly discriminative in our setting (HGDI >0.6).24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing can substantially improve the resolution of large clusters initially defined by spoligotyping alone and predominating in Morocco, and could therefore be used to better study tuberculosis transmission in a population-based, multi-year sample context.