Detection and characterization of group C rotaviruses in asymptomatic piglets in Ireland.
ABSTRACT: Group C rotaviruses are important human enteric pathogens that have also been detected in a variety of mammalian species, including pigs. Group C rotaviruses have been identified in piglets with diarrhea, but their ecology remains to be elucidated. By screening of 292 fecal samples collected from 4- to 5-week-old asymptomatic pigs from four herds in Ireland between 2005 and 2007, 13 (4.4%) samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR for group C rotavirus. Group A rotaviruses were also detected in 19 samples but not in conjunction with group C viruses. The gene encoding the major group C neutralization antigen, the outer capsid protein VP7, was sequenced. The majority of the strains were very closely related to each other (>99% amino acid [aa] identity) and were characterized as genogroup G1 since they were genetically related to the prototype porcine strain Cowden (92.6% aa identity). Conversely, two strains (1GA/05/Cork/Ire and 281/07/Dublin/Ire) were characterized as genogroup G6 since they displayed the highest identity (89.2 to 94.0% aa) to porcine G6 strains (43/06-22-like). Unexpectedly, one such G6 strain, 1GA/05/Cork/Ire, lacked the 4-aa insertion in the VP7 variable region VR8 found in all the other G6 group C rotaviruses. This study provides evidence that porcine group C rotavirus may be detected not infrequently in asymptomatic piglets. In addition, it provides evidence that, unlike the human viruses, porcine group C rotaviruses display broad genetic heterogeneity, which may pose a challenge for the development of prophylactic tools.
Project description:A porcine group A rotavirus (GARV) strain, 61/07/Ire, was isolated from a 4-5 week asymptomatic piglet, during an epidemiological survey of porcine herds in Southern Ireland, in 2007. The nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence of the full-length VP4 protein of the PoRV strain 61/07/Ire was determined. Based on the entire VP4 open reading frame (nt), strain 61/07/Ire displayed ≤76.5% identity to representatives of the established 31 P-types, a value far lower than the percentage identity cutoff value (80%) established by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG) to define a novel P genotype. Strain 61/07/Ire revealed low aa identity, ranging from 57.1% to 83.6%, to the cognate sequences of representatives of the various P genotypes. The aa identity was lower in the VP8* trypsin-cleavage fragment of the VP4, which encompasses the VP4 hypervariable region, ranging from 36.9% to 75.3%. Sequence analyses of the VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes revealed that the GARV strain 61/07/Ire possessed a G2-like VP7, an E9 NSP4 genotype and an I5 VP6 genotype. Altogether, these results indicate that the GARV strain 61/07/Ire should be considered as a prototype of a new VP4 genotype, P, and provide further evidence for the vast heterogeneity of group A rotaviruses.
Project description:In this study, by partial sequence analysis of the genome segments encoding VP5* and VP7, we characterized a novel bovine group A rotavirus, namely, Tak2, that was detected from adult cattle diarrhea in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. The nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the genome segments encoding VP5* and half of the amino terminal portion of VP7 of Tak2 revealed a low identity with those of group A rotaviruses carrying previously published P and G type specificities (VP5*: nt identity, 61.6%-67.6% and aa identity, 58.0%-71.4%; half of the amino terminal portion of VP7: nt identity, 57.8%-73.5% and aa identity, 61.2%-70.9%). Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the nt sequences of the genome segments encoding VP5* and half of the amino terminal portion of VP7 revealed that Tak2 formed a branch separate from the established P and G types. These results suggested that Tak2 could possess novel P and G types yet not reported among group A rotaviruses.
Project description:We report the detection and molecular characterization of a rotavirus strain, 10733, isolated from the feces of a buffalo calf affected with diarrhea in Italy. Strain 10733 was classified as a P rotavirus, as the VP8* trypsin cleavage product of the VP4 protein revealed a high amino acid identity (96.2%) with that of rhesus rotavirus strain RRV (P5B), used as the recipient virus in the human-simian reassortant vaccine. Analysis of the VP7 gene product revealed that strain 10733 possessed G6 serotype specificity, a type common in ruminants, with an amino acid identity to G6 rotavirus strains ranging from 88 to 98%, to Venezuelan bovine strain BRV033, and Hungarian human strain Hun4. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP7 gene of G6 rotaviruses identified at least four lineages and an apparent linkage between each lineage and the VP4 specificity, suggesting the occurrence of repeated interspecies transmissions and genetic reassortment events between ruminant and human rotaviruses. Moreover, strain 10733 displayed a bovine-like NSP4 and NSP5/6 and a subgroup I VP6 specificity, as well as a long electropherotype pattern. The detection of the rare P genotype in ruminants provides additional evidence for the wide genetic and antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses.
Project description:To gain more insight into interspecies transmission of rotavirus group A, human and animal fecal samples were collected between 1997 and 2001 in The Netherlands. A total of 110 human stool samples were successfully P and G genotyped by reverse transcriptase PCR. All strains belonged to the main human rotavirus genotypes G1 to G4, G9, [P4], [P6], [P8], and [P9]. [P8]G1 was predominant, and 5.5% belonged to the G9 genotype. Eleven percent of all P genotypes could be genotyped only by a recently published modified primer. Rotavirus-positive fecal samples from 28 calf herds were genotyped by DNA sequencing. Genotypes G6 and G10 predominated; G6 and G10 were detected in 22 (78.6%) and 16 (57.1%) of the rotavirus-positive calf herds, respectively. In 12 (42.9%) calf herds, we found mixed infections. Genotype G8 was not found. Genotype G6 bovine rotaviruses were divided into three clusters: UK-like, VMRI-29-like, and Hun4-like. DNA sequencing of a part of the VP7 gene was shown to be useful as a quick determination of uncommon or novel strains of which the genotyping cannot be done by genotyping PCR. Of equine strains, both VP4 and VP7 genes could be used for genotyping: two [P12]G3 and four [P12]G14 equine rotaviruses were determined. We did not find indications for rotavirus interspecies transmissions, although the recently published human G6-Hun4 is genetically related to our G6 bovine isolates. All bovine, porcine, and equine rotaviruses were within genotypes previously reported for these animal species.
Project description:Fecal specimens from 78 calves involved in outbreaks of calf diarrhea which occurred in three farms in Victoria, Australia, in 1988 were analyzed for rotaviruses. Thirty-eight samples were positive for group A virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 20 of these contained viral double-stranded RNAs that could be detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two major electropherotypes could be observed, and a representative isolate of each electropherotype (isolates B-11 and B-60) was successfully adapted to grow in MA104 cells. Sequencing of the VP7 genes directly from RNA transcripts of fecal and cell culture-adapted viruses demonstrated that no base changes occurred in this gene upon adaptation to growth in MA104 cells. Sequencing also revealed that the VP7 protein of B-60 was closely related to G serotype 6 (G6) strains, whereas the B-11 sequence was significantly different from all previously published sequences except the recently reported VP7 sequences of bovine isolates 61A and B223, particularly across the antigenic regions A, B, and C. The other strains most closely related to B-11 by VP7 amino acid sequence analysis were G4 porcine strains BMI-1 and BEN-144 and G8 human strain 69M. Serotyping of B-11 and B-60 gave results that were in good agreement with the sequencing data. Hyperimmune typing sera clearly identified B-60 as a member of G6, whereas the B-11 strain reacted to moderate titers only with antisera to some G10 strains. Antiserum raised against B-11 neutralized some strains of G10 cross-reacted with porcine G4 type isolates BMI-1 and BEN-144 but not with other G4 strains or with rotaviruses of other mammalian G serotypes. Northern blot hybridization showed that B-11 was closely related to the recently reported bovine G10 strain B223, and they both possessed a similar segment 4 that was different from that of either UK bovine or NCDV rotavirus.
Project description:A binary classification system has been established for group A rotaviruses, with the viral capsid protein VP7 defining G types and VP4 defining P types. At least 15 G types and 21 P types have been isolated globally with various G and P combinations. Most of the currently circulating human rotaviruses belong to G1P, G2P, G3P, and G4P. We report a human rotavirus strain (B1711) with a novel genotypic VP7/VP4 combination of G6P. This unique rotavirus was isolated from a 13-month-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- negative child of an HIV-seropositive Malian mother that was hospitalized with severe diarrhea in Belgium after returning from a trip to Mali. The VP7 and VP4 genes of the rotavirus strain were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with 15 known G genotypes indicated that the VP7 sequence of strain B1711 was most closely related to an American (Se584) and an Italian (PA151) human G6 strain (95 to 96% nucleotide and 98% amino acid identity). Comparison of the VP4 sequence with 21 P types showed the closest similarity to P genotypes, with greatest similarity to a G8P Malawi strain (mw131) (97% nucleotide and 98% amino acid identity). The B1711 strain is the first reported rotavirus isolate with a G6P genotypic combination. The discovery and surveillance of novel human and nonhuman rotavirus G or P types or of novel G/P combinations is essential for the design of future rotavirus vaccines and for our understanding of rotavirus diversity and evolution.
Project description:Swine fecal samples collected from seven farms were screened for group C rotaviruses (RVCs) using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A total of 380 samples were tested and 19.5% were positive. Of the 128 samples collected in 2012, 23.5% from nursing piglets and 8.5% from weaned piglets were RVC positive, with a higher RVC frequency in diarrheic (28.4%) than in non-diarrheic (6.6%) piglets. Two strains (RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX and RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px) from two different farms were characterized genetically to gain information on virus diversity based on full length sequences of the inner capsid VP6, enterotoxin NSP4 and the outer capsid VP7 and VP4 (partial for RV0104) genes. The VP6 gene of the two strains showed high (99%) nucleotide identity to one another, 84-91% identity to other porcine RVCstrains and 81-82% identity to human and bovine RVC strains. The NSP4 gene analysis revealed that RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX and RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px strains were not closely related to each other (87% identity), but shared higher identity with prototype RVC/Pig-wt/USA/Cowden/1980/G1Px strain (93% and 89%, respectively) and were more distantly related to human strains (72-76% identity). The VP7 gene analysis indicated that the two strains were distantly related to one another (72% identity). RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px was most closely related to porcine RVC G6 strains (82-86% identity), whereas RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0104/2011/G3PX was most closely related to porcine HF (G3) strain (94% identity). Analysis of the full length nucleotide sequence of the VP4 gene revealed that RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px was distantly related to porcine (75%), bovine (74%) and human (70%) strains. The deduced amino acid identities (69.5-75.6%) of VP4 between RVC/Pig-wt/USA/RV0143/2012/G6Px and other RVCs were low; hence, we propose that this strain comprises a new VP4 genotype. Our results indicate high genetic heterogeneity in RVCs genes and the concurrent co-circulation of different genotypes at the same time. Our findings are useful for the development of more accurate diagnostic tools, for basic research to understand gene function and to provide information for RVC diversity germane to vaccine development.
Project description:Although the molecular surveillance network RotaNet-Italy provides useful nationwide data on rotaviruses causing severe acute gastroenteritis in children in Italy, scarce information is available on rotavirus circulation in the general Italian population, including adults with mild or asymptomatic infection. We investigated the genotypes of rotaviruses present in urban wastewaters and compared them with those of viral strains from clinical pediatric cases. During 2010 and 2011, 285 sewage samples from 4 Italian cities were tested by reverse transcription-PCRs (RT-PCRs) specific for rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes. Rotavirus was detected in 172 (60.4%) samples, 26 of which contained multiple rotavirus G (VP7 gene) genotypes, for a total of 198 G types. Thirty-two samples also contained multiple P (VP4 gene) genotypes, yielding 204 P types in 172 samples. Genotype G1 accounted for 65.6% of rotaviruses typed, followed by genotypes G2 (20.2%), G9 (7.6%), G4 (4.6%), G6 (1.0%), G3 (0.5%), and G26 (0.5%). VP4 genotype P accounted for 75.0% of strains, genotype P accounted for 23.0% of strains, and the uncommon genotypes P, P, P, and P accounted for 2.0% of strains altogether. These rotavirus genotypes were also found in pediatric patients hospitalized in the same areas and years but in different proportions. Specifically, genotypes G2, G9, and P were more prevalent in sewage samples than among samples from patients, which suggests either a larger circulation of the latter strains through the general population not requiring medical care or their greater survival in wastewaters. A high level of nucleotide identity in the G1, G2, and G6 VP7 sequences was observed between strains from the environment and those from patients.
Project description:Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans and young animals, with rotavirus B (RVB) often detected in suckling and weaned pigs. Group A rotavirus classification is currently based on the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, and the middle layer protein, VP6. Using RVB strains generated in this study and reference sequences from GenBank, pairwise identity frequency graphs and phylogenetic trees were constructed for the eleven gene segments of RVB to estimate the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes and determine the genotype diversity per gene segment. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1–VP3, and NSP1–NSP5 identified 26G, 5P, 13I, 5R, 5C, 5M, 8A, 10N, 6T, 4E, and 7H genotypes, respectively. The analysis supports the previously proposed cutoff values for the VP7, VP6, NSP1, and NSP3 gene segments (80%, 81%, 76% and 78%, respectively) and suggests new cutoff values for the VP4, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 (80%, 78%, 79%, 77% 83%, 76%, and 79%, respectively). Reassortment events were detected between the porcine RVB strains from our study. This research describes the genome constellations for the complete genome of Group B rotaviruses in different host species.
Project description:Group A rotaviruses are important causative agents of severe, acute dehydrating diarrhea in foals. A total of 86 rotavirus-positive fecal samples, collected from diarrheic foals from 11 counties in three of the four provinces of Ireland, were obtained from the Irish Equine Centre in Kildare during a 7-year (1999 to 2005) passive surveillance study and were characterized molecularly to establish the VP7 (G type) and VP4 (P type) antigenic specificities. Fifty-eight samples (67.5%) were found to contain G3 viruses, while in 26 samples (30.2%) the rotaviruses were typed as G14 and in 2 samples (2.3%) there was a mixed infection, G3 plus G14. All samples except for two, which were untypeable, were characterized as P. Fifty-eight percent of the samples were obtained from County Kildare, the center of the Irish horse industry, where an apparent shift from G3P to G14P was observed in 2003. By sequence analysis of the VP7 protein, the G3 Irish strains were shown to resemble viruses of the G3A subtype (H2-like) (97.1 to 100% amino acid [aa] identity), while the G14 Irish strains displayed 93.9 to 97.1% aa identity to other G14 viruses. In the VP8* fragment of the VP4 protein, the P Irish viruses displayed high conservation (92.3 to 100% aa) with other equine P viruses. Worldwide, G3P and G14P are the most prevalent equine rotavirus strains, and G3P vaccines have been developed for prevention of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in foals. Investigations of the VP7/VP4 diversity of the circulating equine viruses and the dynamics of strain replacement are important for better assessing the efficacies of the vaccines.