Nse1 RING-like domain supports functions of the Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex in genome stability.
ABSTRACT: The Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex plays essential but largely enigmatic roles in chromosome segregation, and facilitates DNA repair. The Smc5-Smc6 complex contains six conserved non-SMC subunits. One of these, Nse1, contains a RING-like motif that often confers ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. We have functionally characterized the Nse1 RING-like motif, to determine its contribution to the chromosome segregation and DNA repair roles of Smc5-Smc6. Strikingly, whereas a full deletion of nse1 is lethal, the Nse1 RING-like motif is not essential for cellular viability. However, Nse1 RING mutant cells are hypersensitive to a broad spectrum of genotoxic stresses, indicating that the Nse1 RING motif promotes DNA repair functions of Smc5-Smc6. We tested the ability of both human and yeast Nse1 to mediate ubiquitin E3 ligase activity in vitro and found no detectable activity associated with full-length Nse1 or the isolated RING domains. Interestingly, however, the Nse1 RING-like domain is required for normal Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 trimer formation in vitro and for damage-induced recruitment of Nse4 and Smc5 to subnuclear foci in vivo. Thus, we propose that the Nse1 RING-like motif is a protein-protein interaction domain required for Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex integrity and recruitment to, or retention at, DNA lesions.
Project description:Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes are important for many aspects of the chromosomal organization. Unlike cohesin and condensin, the SMC5/6 complex contains a variant RING domain carried by its Nse1 subunit. RING domains are characteristic for ubiquitin ligases, and human NSE1 has been shown to possess ubiquitin-ligase activity in vitro. However, other studies were unable to show such activity. Here, we confirm Nse1 ubiquitin-ligase activity using purified <i>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</i> proteins. We demonstrate that the Nse1 ligase activity is stimulated by Nse3 and Nse4. We show that Nse1 specifically utilizes Ubc13/Mms2 E2 enzyme and interacts directly with ubiquitin. We identify the Nse1 mutation (R188E) that specifically disrupts its E3 activity and demonstrate that the Nse1-dependent ubiquitination is particularly important under replication stress. Moreover, we determine Nse4 (lysine K181) as the first known SMC5/6-associated Nse1 substrate. Interestingly, abolition of Nse4 modification at K181 leads to suppression of DNA-damage sensitivity of other SMC5/6 mutants. Altogether, this study brings new evidence for Nse1 ubiquitin ligase activity, significantly advancing our understanding of this enigmatic SMC5/6 function.
Project description:The Schizosaccharomyces pombe SMC proteins Rad18 (Smc6) and Spr18 (Smc5) exist in a high-M(r) complex which also contains the non-SMC proteins Nse1, Nse2, Nse3, and Rad62. The Smc5-6 complex, which is essential for viability, is required for several aspects of DNA metabolism, including recombinational repair and maintenance of the DNA damage checkpoint. We have characterized Nse2 and show here that it is a SUMO ligase. Smc6 (Rad18) and Nse3, but not Smc5 (Spr18) or Nse1, are sumoylated in vitro in an Nse2-dependent manner, and Nse2 is itself autosumoylated, predominantly on the C-terminal part of the protein. Mutations of C195 and H197 in the Nse2 RING-finger-like motif abolish Nse2-dependent sumoylation. nse2.SA mutant cells, in which nse2.C195S-H197A is integrated as the sole copy of nse2, are viable, whereas the deletion of nse2 is lethal. Smc6 (Rad18) is sumoylated in vivo: the sumoylation level is increased upon exposure to DNA damage and is drastically reduced in the nse2.SA strain. Since nse2.SA cells are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and to exposure to hydroxyurea, this implicates the Nse2-dependent sumoylation activity in DNA damage responses but not in the essential function of the Smc5-6 complex.
Project description:The MAGE (Melanoma-associated antigen) protein family members are structurally related to each other by a MAGE-homology domain comprised of 2 winged helix motifs WH/A and WH/B. This family specifically evolved in placental mammals although single homologs designated NSE3 (non-SMC element) exist in most eukaryotes. NSE3, together with its partner proteins NSE1 and NSE4 form a tight subcomplex of the structural maintenance of chromosomes SMC5-6 complex. Previously, we showed that interactions of the WH/B motif of the MAGE proteins with their NSE4/EID partners are evolutionarily conserved (including the MAGEA1-NSE4 interaction). In contrast, the interaction of the WH/A motif of NSE3 with NSE1 diverged in the MAGE paralogs. We hypothesized that the MAGE paralogs acquired new RING-finger-containing partners through their evolution and form MAGE complexes reminiscent of NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 trimers. In this work, we employed the yeast 2-hybrid system to screen a human RING-finger protein library against several MAGE baits. We identified a number of potential MAGE-RING interactions and confirmed several of them (MDM4, PCGF6, RNF166, TRAF6, TRIM8, TRIM31, TRIM41) in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Among these MAGE-RING pairs, we chose to examine MAGEA1-TRIM31 in detail and showed that both WH/A and WH/B motifs of MAGEA1 bind to the coiled-coil domain of TRIM31 and that MAGEA1 interaction stimulates TRIM31 ubiquitin-ligase activity. In addition, TRIM31 directly binds to NSE4, suggesting the existence of a TRIM31-MAGEA1-NSE4 complex reminiscent of the NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 trimer. These results suggest that MAGEA1 functions as a co-factor of TRIM31 ubiquitin-ligase and that the TRIM31-MAGEA1-NSE4 complex may have evolved from an ancestral NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 complex.
Project description:The SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) complexes are composed of SMC dimers, kleisin and kleisin-interacting (HAWK or KITE) subunits. Mutual interactions of these subunits constitute the basal architecture of the SMC complexes. In addition, binding of ATP molecules to the SMC subunits and their hydrolysis drive dynamics of these complexes. Here, we developed new systems to follow the interactions between SMC5/6 subunits and the relative stability of the complex. First, we show that the N-terminal domain of the Nse4 kleisin molecule binds to the SMC6 neck and bridges it to the SMC5 head. Second, binding of the Nse1 and Nse3 KITE proteins to the Nse4 linker increased stability of the ATP-free SMC5/6 complex. In contrast, binding of ATP to SMC5/6 containing KITE subunits significantly decreased its stability. Elongation of the Nse4 linker partially suppressed instability of the ATP-bound complex, suggesting that the binding of the KITE proteins to the Nse4 linker constrains its limited size. Our data suggest that the KITE proteins may shape the Nse4 linker to fit the ATP-free complex optimally and to facilitate opening of the complex upon ATP binding. This mechanism suggests an important role of the KITE subunits in the dynamics of the SMC5/6 complexes.
Project description:SMC5/6 is a highly conserved protein complex related to cohesin and condensin, which are the key components of higher-order chromatin structures. The SMC5/6 complex is essential for proliferation in yeast and is involved in replication fork stability and processing. However, the precise mechanism of action of SMC5/6 is not known. Here we present evidence that the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 sub-complex of SMC5/6 binds to double-stranded DNA without any preference for DNA-replication/recombination intermediates. Mutations of key basic residues within the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 DNA-binding surface reduce binding to DNA in vitro. Their introduction into the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome results in cell death or hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the hypomorphic nse3 DNA-binding mutant shows a reduced association of fission yeast SMC5/6 with chromatin. Based on our results, we propose a model for loading of the SMC5/6 complex onto the chromatin.
Project description:The detection of DNA damage activates DNA repair pathways and checkpoints to allow time for repair. Ultimately, these responses must be coordinated to ensure that cell cycle progression is halted until repair is completed. Several multiprotein complexes containing members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes family of proteins have been described, including the condensin and cohesin complexes, that are critical for chromosomal organization. Here we show that the Smc5/Smc6 (Smc5/6) complex is required for a coordinated response to DNA damage and normal chromosome integrity. Fission yeast cells lacking functional Smc6 initiate a normal checkpoint response to DNA damage, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of the Chk1 protein kinase. Despite this, cells enter a lethal mitosis, presumably without completion of DNA repair. Another subunit of the complex, Nse1, is a conserved member of this complex and is also required for this response. We propose that the failure to maintain a checkpoint response stems from the lack of ongoing DNA repair or from defective chromosomal organization, which is the signal to maintain a checkpoint arrest. The Smc5/6 complex is fundamental to genome integrity and may function with the condensin and cohesin complexes in a coordinated manner.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins forms the core structures of three multisubunit complexes as follows: cohesin, condensin, and the Smc5/6 complex. These complexes play crucial roles in different aspects of chromosomal organization, duplication, and segregation. Although the architectures of cohesin and condensin are better understood, that of the more recently identified Smc5/6 complex remains to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Smc5/6 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains Smc5, Smc6, and six non-SMC elements (Nse1-6). In this study, we investigated the architecture of the budding yeast Smc5/6 complex employing the yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in vitro biochemical approaches using purified recombinant proteins. These analyses revealed that Smc5 and Smc6 associate with each other at their hinge regions and constitute the backbone of the complex, whereas the Nse1-6 subunits form three distinct subcomplexes/entities that interact with different regions of Smc5 and Smc6. The Nse1, -3, and -4 subunits form a stable subcomplex that binds to the head and the adjacent coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse2 binds to the middle of the coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse5 and Nse6 interact with each other and, as a heterodimer, bind to the hinge regions of Smc5 and Smc6. These findings provide new insights into the structures of the Smc5/6 complex and lay the foundation for further investigations into the mechanism of its functions.
Project description:Smc5 and Smc6 proteins form a heterodimeric SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex like SMC1-SMC3 cohesin and SMC2-SMC4 condensin, and they associate with non-SMC proteins Nse1 and Nse2 stably and Rad60 transiently. This multiprotein complex plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). This study characterizes a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant rad62-1, which is hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and synthetically lethal with rad2 (a feature of recombination mutants). rad62-1 is hypersensitive to UV and gamma rays, epistatic with rhp51, and defective in repair of DSBs. rad62 is essential for viability and genetically interacts with rad60, smc6, and brc1. Rad62 protein physically associates with the Smc5-6 complex. rad62-1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in the genes promoting recovery from stalled replication, such as rqh1, srs2, and mus81, and those involved in nucleotide excision repair like rad13 and rad16. These results suggest that Rad62, like Rad60, in conjunction with the Smc5-6 complex, plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and recovery from stalled replication by recombination.
Project description:Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes - cohesin, condensin and SMC5/6 - are important for many aspects of the chromosomal organization. These complexes are composed of Smc and non-Smc element (Nse) subunits. The Nse1 subunit of SMC5/6 contains a variant RING domain, characteristic of ubiquitin ligases. Human NSE1 has been shown to possess ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro; however, other studies were unable to show such activity. Here, we confirm Nse1 ubiquitin-ligase activity in vitro using purified Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins. We demonstrate that the Nse1 ligase activity is stimulated by Nse3 and Nse4, it specifically utilizes Ubc13/Mms2 E2 enzyme and Nse1 interacts directly with ubiquitin. We identify Nse1 mutation (R188E) that specifically disrupts its E3 activity, and show that the Nse1-dependent ubiquitination is particularly important under replication stress. Moreover, we identify Nse4 (lysine K181) as the first known SMC5/6-associated Nse1 substrate. Interestingly, abolition of Nse4 modification at K181 leads to suppression of DNA-damage sensitivity of other SMC5/6 mutants. Altogether, this study brings new evidence for Nse1 ubiquitin ligase activity, significantly advancing our under-standing of this enigmatic SMC5/6 function.
Project description:The SMC5-6 protein complex is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. It is composed of 6-8 polypeptides, of which Nse1, Nse3 and Nse4 form a tight sub-complex. MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, is the founding member of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen) protein family and Nse4 is related to the EID (E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation) family of transcriptional repressors.Using site-directed mutagenesis, protein-protein interaction analyses and molecular modelling, we have identified a conserved hydrophobic surface on the C-terminal domain of Nse3 that interacts with Nse4 and identified residues in its N-terminal domain that are essential for interaction with Nse1. We show that these interactions are conserved in the human orthologs. Furthermore, interaction of MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, with NSE4b, one of the mammalian orthologs of Nse4, results in transcriptional co-activation of the nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). In an examination of the evolutionary conservation of the Nse3-Nse4 interactions, we find that several MAGE proteins can interact with at least one of the NSE4/EID proteins.We have found that, despite the evolutionary diversification of the MAGE family, the characteristic hydrophobic surface shared by all MAGE proteins from yeast to humans mediates its binding to NSE4/EID proteins. Our work provides new insights into the interactions, evolution and functions of the enigmatic MAGE proteins.